Many people facing a diagnosis of heart disease or cancer adopt a vegetarian diet. Despite the fact that the diet may have been used as treatment, it was misidentified as a potential cause. This was a one-day study, not a multiple-year prospective study like other articles I will share later in this section. We should at least know that these vegetarians are in fact eating vegetables, right? Again, no such luck.
The researchers labeled people but never assessed their exact meal plan. There is no mention of how many fruits and veggies they were eating. In fact, the study found that vegetarians were less likely to pursue preventive health measures, which in itself could explain their poor health.
Many ethical vegans who avoid meat for moral reasons consume unhealthy diets devoid of fruits and veggies. Had a student turned this in, I would have had to give it an F, regardless of the findings, based just on the poor experimental design. Their conclusion is not worth the paper this would have been printed on, had it actually been printed. Instead, this utter waste of time wound up in an online journal. The methods and findings were not subject to debate at a large scientific conference, where it certainly would have been laughed off the plenary floor. In the end, this study would have been never looked at again, except that media loves a good controversial study that supports our prejudices.
On the surface, the study looks legit. The average layperson would not be able to understand it; therefore, the responsibility for analyzing and critiquing the study falls upon science journalists. Unfortunately, most journalists and bloggers simply reported the conclusions and paid no attention to the ridiculous study design. The women lost an average of 10 pounds and lost some fat from their livers. They also improved on some other measures, including blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides.
This suggests, according to the authors, that a Paleo diet can be protective against diabetes, as fatty liver appears to be a precursor to that disease. Sounds reasonable, right? First, there was no control group. Why is this important? Because the Paleo diet used in the study had an interesting characteristic: the women consumed 25 percent fewer calories on the Paleo diet than on their previous diet. A group of women ate 25 percent less and lost weight?
Big Deal. Lose weight and your cholesterol, blood pressure, and triglycerides will improve. Remember Professor Haub and his 1,calorie junk food diet?
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A control group that also dropped caloric intake by 25 percent would have achieved the same results, at least. Even had they been eating Twinkies and drinking Coke, they would have seen improvements in those measures just through caloric restriction. The results had nothing to do with the Paleo part of the diet. Remember the title of the article? It turns out that the calorically restricted diet led to fat loss in the liver, but not in the calf muscles the other place the researchers measured. The article interprets this fact to mean that the Paleo diet has some sort of specific magical effect on fat in the liver; hence its effectiveness in preventing diabetes.
The truth is, any weight loss will bring about fat loss in the liver. This makes perfect sense, given that there was no decrease in intramyocellular muscle fat. Here, the subjects lost weight and yet they were not able to lose fat from their muscles. This is the problem with PubMed. They rely on misleading abstracts that hide the design flaws and real findings of the study, and they generally lack the time, training, or incentive to uncover and report the truth.
There are hundreds, if not thousands, of scientific articles showing that saturated fat from animal sources is hazardous to your health. In fact, Finland has greatly reduced its huge rates of cardiovascular disease by specifically decreasing butter, as well as increasing fruits and veggies Laatikainen, Critchley, et al. A meta-analysis combines the data from many smaller studies and looks for trends.
Ideally, meta-analyses correct for small sample size and chance findings by zooming out and evaluating the preponderance of evidence. Instead, they concluded that the relationship between saturated fat and heart disease may not be as strongly correlated as previously thought. Many scientists have shown that these articles ignore a large body of evidence to the contrary Pedersen, James, et al.
In fact, they made significant scientific errors Kromhout, Geleijnse, et al. None of the studies, nor either meta-analysis, claim that fat is good for us, or that we should be eating more of it. When clinicians apply the results of a systematic review or meta-analysis to patient care, they should start by evaluating the credibility of the methods. While you may not be able to access all the original articles, and you may not have the scientific background to evaluate and interpret every study, at the very least you can begin to ask the questions that can separate fact from fiction, and distinguish real science from profit-driven BS.
Here are my rules for being an educated consumer of health information. They typically suffer from conflicts of interest. Rather, use those secondary sources as pointers to the original research. If you follow me at Facebook. You have to become aware of the breadth of research in the rest of this section, I share that context with you. One paper cannot prove or disprove anything. No matter the study, I use it as a single data point within a complex algorithm for making medical recommendations to my patients.
Some researchers are more trustworthy than others. When you encounter a research article, look at the authors.
What institution are they affiliated with? Where did they get their funding for this study? Many journals require authors to state any potential conflicts of interest; others are not so stringent. Believe it or not, money may influence their results less than pride. There are academics who have devoted their entire careers to proving that low-carb diets are the healthiest choice. When you examine their history of published works, you find that pretty much everything is on the same topic. Before I argue with this view, let me explain what it means, working backward:.
Trial : an experiment, rather than an observational study. In other words, a trial takes a bunch of people and does something to them, then reports on the result. Clinical : in a clinical setting, with medical professionals monitoring the progress of the trial and the patient outcomes. Controlled : including an additional group or groups that gets no treatment, or a variation of the main treatment, to make sure the reported outcome was a result of the specific treatment.
This would have clarified whether the results were due to the Paleo diet, or simply due to caloric restriction and subsequent weight loss. Randomized : where participants have an equal and random chance of being assigned to any of the experimental or control groups. Randomization ensures against creating groups that are so different at the start of the trial that any differences in outcome could be due to those initial differences.
If we are studying the effects of a new drug or surgical procedure or screening protocol, then the RCCT makes a great deal of sense. It works best when we want to introduce a single variable and keep everything else constant, to see if that variable makes a difference. But when we use the RCCT to decide the effects of various diets on chronic diseases, the model breaks down. There are too many variables that are important, and too many conditions to look at.
RCCTs typically try to overcome this problem by shortening the length of the trial. So researchers instead look at isolated lab values of biomarkers that are correlated with disease, may be predictive of disease, but do not necessarily equate to disease. The Atkins dieters were instructed to consume fewer than 20 grams of carbs per day for the first couple of months, and then fewer than 50 grams per day for the remainder of the trail.
LEARN dieters included moderate exercise, 50 to 60 percent of calories from carbs, and less than 10 percent from saturated mostly animal fat. The Ornish dieters were told to keep their fat intake to 10 percent or less of total calories. After one year, the Atkins dieters had lost some weight, while the other three groups had not.
There were many problems with this study, and most of them derived from the RCCT design; specifically, the randomization. The Ornish group got an average of just 20 grams. Oh, and remember that 10 percent fat guideline for the Ornish dieters?
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They sort of exceeded it. Before the trial began, the Ornish dieters were getting about 35 percent of their calories from fat. At two months, they had managed to drop that to 21 percent. And that was as compliant as they were ever going to get. At six months, they were up to 28 percent, and by the end of the study they were close to their original diet, obtaining a whopping Of course, there was no Ornish diet under study. Instead, it was a group of people who steadfastly ignored the Ornish guidelines and ate pretty much whatever they wanted. In fact, the way the data are analyzed and adjusted can introduce higher levels of clarity—and can also turn real findings on their heads.
Ideally, statistical analysis tells us the likelihood that a given result represents a true outcome, rather than random chance. How about ten times, all tails? Three thousand? Statistical adjustment also allows researchers to find nuggets of truth that may otherwise be buried or obscured by other data. The problem is, saturated fat causes heart disease in part by raising cholesterol. By removing people with high cholesterol from the trial, the researchers removed those people most susceptible to the heart-disease-causing effects of saturated fat.
Good scientists are humble and cautious. No study is perfect; all involve trade-offs between significance and speed, and accuracy and applicability to the real world. Even the best-designed and most comprehensive study must be replicated by others to ensure its findings are more than a chance blip. Scientists who do good work share their work transparently within the research community, so that others can try to disprove their findings. It is critical to read and understand this to better understand the significance of the results.
Before I accept a result and use it to inform patient care, I have to analyze it based on my knowledge of the total body of research, the fundamentals of anatomy and physiology, and my own professional experience. I am in a unique position because I get to see how diet works in real life with real patients over months and years.
Many studies are authored by nonphysicians, which is problematic when they come up with hypotheses without appropriate context and reach conclusions without real-life application. When scientists lack clinical acumen about the subject of their research, they are in danger of completely missing the application of their findings. Recently I attended an Obesity Week scientific meeting where many of the experts in obesity research come to present their latest findings.
One Ph. She hypothesized that insulin resistance is due to pancreatic beta cell dysfunction caused by high iron in diet. It turns out that when we eat iron it becomes oxidized, and oxidized iron is harmful to the beta cells of the pancreas, which can no longer secrete insulin optimally. Her experimental design was excellent and her animal studies and human studies were convincing. At the end of the presentation an audience member asked the presenter about her own diet. A high-protein diet usually means high meat consumption, and high meat consumption means high iron consumption.
Even being a physician is no guarantee against this pitfall, as I know only too well. In my last book I recommended a high-protein diet, while in practice I saw people struggling with this diet, looking ill, and gaining weight. One example where I paid attention to context was my experience with the laparoscopic lap band. The lap band, a device that essentially constricts the opening where the esophagus joins the stomach, came out in the mids.
My knowledge of physiology made me suspicious about its efficacy, as prior attempts at placing foreign bodies on the stomach had failed. Also, I knew that the gastric bypass worked by altering gut hormones that controlled hunger, while the band did not alter hormone production. So I avoided using the band initially. In Truly Madly Guilty , Liane Moriarty takes on the foundations of our lives: marriage, sex, parenthood, and friendship.
She might have a chance at finding real love and learning to love herself, if only she can figure out how to let go. It was love at first sight when Tembi met professional chef, Saro, on a street in Florence. However, the couple, heartbroken but undeterred, forges on. They build a happy life in Los Angeles, with fulfilling careers, deep friendships and the love of their lives: a baby girl they adopt at birth. From Scratch chronicles three summers Tembi spends in Sicily with her daughter, Zoela, as she begins to piece together a life without her husband in his tiny hometown hamlet of farmers.
In the Sicilian countryside, she discovers the healing gifts of simple fresh food, the embrace of a close knit community, and timeless traditions and wisdom that light a path forward. From Scratch is for anyone who has dared to reach for big love, fought for what mattered most, and needed a powerful reminder that life is…delicious. A gripping novel about the whirlwind rise of a world-famous s rock group and their beautiful lead singer--and the secret reasons behind their dramatic break up.
Daisy Jones is a beautiful, broken girl growing up in L. But when she sings in a crowded, smoky club, you can hear a pin drop. All she wants is to write her own songs, but the record studio has its own ideas. It's the early s and free love and drugs are everywhere, and Daisy wants to experience it all. Billy Dunne and his brother have a band called The Six that won't be playing weddings for long.
They are ambitious, hard-rocking, hard-partying. When they land a record deal, Billy's girlfriend follows them to the west coast and life begins. But she finds out she's pregnant on the eve of their first tour, and the pressure of fatherhood and incipient fame make Billy go a little crazy on the road. Daisy and Billy's paths cross when a manager realizes that the key to skyrocketing success is to put them together.
But oil and water don't even begin to describe how they mix. And what happens next will become the stuff of legend. Loved this one, and you will too. When someone asks you to spend your life with him, it shouldn't come as a surprise—or happen in front of 45, people. When freelance writer Nikole Paterson goes to a Dodgers game with her actor boyfriend, his man bun, and his bros, the last thing she expects is a scoreboard proposal.
The hard part is having to face a stadium full of disappointed fans Nik knows that in the wilds of LA, a handsome doctor like Carlos can't be looking for anything serious, so she embarks on an epic rebound with him, filled with food, fun, and fantastic sex. But when their glorified hookups start breaking the rules, one of them has to be smart enough to put on the brakes As the moments passed, the patrons and staff who had been cleared out of the building realized this was not the usual fire alarm.
By the time it was extinguished, it had consumed four hundred thousand books and damaged seven hundred thousand more. Investigators descended on the scene, but more than thirty years later, the mystery remains: Did someone purposefully set fire to the library—and if so, who? Weaving her lifelong love of books and reading into an investigation of the fire, award-winning New Yorker reporter and New York Times bestselling author Susan Orlean delivers a mesmerizing and uniquely compelling book that manages to tell the broader story of libraries and librarians in a way that has never been done before.
In The Library Book , Orlean chronicles the LAPL fire and its aftermath to showcase the larger, crucial role that libraries play in our lives; delves into the evolution of libraries across the country and around the world, from their humble beginnings as a metropolitan charitable initiative to their current status as a cornerstone of national identity; brings each department of the library to vivid life through on-the-ground reporting; studies arson and attempts to burn a copy of a book herself; reflects on her own experiences in libraries; and reexamines the case of Harry Peak, the blond-haired actor long suspected of setting fire to the LAPL more than thirty years ago.
Along the way, Orlean introduces us to an unforgettable cast of characters from libraries past and present—from Mary Foy, who in at eighteen years old was named the head of the Los Angeles Public Library at a time when men still dominated the role, to Dr. It absolutely charmed me. Ten chances. One unforgettable love story.
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But then, through a misted-up bus window one snowy December day, she sees a man who she knows instantly is the one. Their eyes meet, there's a moment of pure magic It would be. This is how children change. When he grows up, Claude says, he wants to be a girl. I didn't want this story to end! So in late , when handsome Chase Andrews is found dead, the locals immediately suspect Kya Clark, the so-called Marsh Girl. But Kya is not what they say. Sensitive and intelligent, she has survived for years alone in the marsh that she calls home, finding friends in the gulls and lessons in the sand.
Then the time comes when she yearns to be touched and loved. When two young men from town become intrigued by her wild beauty, Kya opens herself to a new life--until the unthinkable happens. Perfect for fans of Barbara Kingsolver and Karen Russell, Where the Crawdads Sing is at once an exquisite ode to the natural world, a heartbreaking coming-of-age story, and a surprising tale of possible murder. Owens reminds us that we are forever shaped by the children we once were, and that we are all subject to the beautiful and violent secrets that nature keeps.
It's a thrilling mystery that will leave you wondering which characters you can and can't trust There's a twist at the end that still keeps us up at night, it's THAT good. Her groundbreaking new exhibition Still Lives is comprised of self-portraits depicting herself as famous, murdered women - the Black Dahlia, Chandra Levy, Nicole Brown Simpson, among many others - and the works are as compelling as they are disturbing, implicating a culture that is too accustomed to violence against women.
As the city's richest art patrons pour into the Rocque Museum's opening night, all the staff, including editor Maggie Richter, hope the event will be enough to save the historic institution's flailing finances. Except Kim Lord never shows up to her own gala. Fear mounts as the hours and days drag on and Lord remains missing. Suspicion falls on the up-and-coming gallerist Greg Shaw Ferguson, who happens to be Maggie's ex. A rogue's gallery of eccentric art world figures could also have motive for the act, and as Maggie gets drawn into her own investigation of Lord's disappearance, she'll come to suspect all of those closest to her.
Set against a culture that often fetishizes violence, Still Lives is a page-turning exodus into the art world's hall of mirrors, and one woman's journey into the belly of an industry flooded with money and secrets. I also loved that it tackled the sticky subject of how women are portrayed in art, culture, and the media - and the consequences of those portrayals. This is a thrilling book, and a much-needed one. Read it and you'll see what I mean. Havana, The daughter of a sugar baron, nineteen-year-old Elisa Perez is part of Cuba's high society, where she is largely sheltered from the country's growing political unrest--until she embarks on a clandestine affair with a passionate revolutionary Miami, Freelance writer Marisol Ferrera grew up hearing romantic stories of Cuba from her late grandmother Elisa, who was forced to flee with her family during the revolution.
Elisa's last wish was for Marisol to scatter her ashes in the country of her birth. Arriving in Havana, Marisol comes face-to-face with the contrast of Cuba's tropical, timeless beauty and its perilous political climate. When more family history comes to light and Marisol finds herself attracted to a man with secrets of his own, she'll need the lessons of her grandmother's past to help her understand the true meaning of courage. What unfolds makes for a wild, page-turning ride! Erin is a documentary filmmaker on the brink of a professional breakthrough, Mark a handsome investment banker with big plans.
Passionately in love, they embark on a dream honeymoon to the tropical island of Bora Bora, where they enjoy the sun, the sand, and each other. Then, while scuba diving in the crystal blue sea, they find something in the water. Could the life of your dreams be the stuff of nightmares?
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Suddenly the newlyweds must make a dangerous choice: to speak out or to protect their secret. After all, if no one else knows, who would be hurt? Their decision will trigger a devastating chain of events. Have you ever wondered how long it takes to dig a grave? Wonder no longer. A high-powered lawyer honeymooning with her husband is caught off guard by the appearance of the girl who tormented her in high school. Curtis Sittenfeld has established a reputation as a sharp chronicler of the modern age who humanizes her subjects even as she skewers them. With moving insight and uncanny precision, Curtis Sittenfeld pinpoints the questionable decisions, missed connections, and sometimes extraordinary coincidences that make up a life.
Each deceptively simple and breezy story is masterfully paced and crafted. A witty, breezy, zeitgeist-y collection. Every woman has a secret life. The Death of Mrs. Westaway is rated 4. On a day that begins like any other, she receives a mysterious and unexpected letter bequeathing her a substantial inheritance. She realizes quickly that the letter was sent to the wrong person—but she also knows that she can use her cold-reading skills to potentially claim the money.
Hal attends the funeral of the deceased and meets the family Will they ever meet again? This book kept me up at night, turning the pages to find out, and the ending did not disappoint. Was he meant to be the last? Lucy is faced with a life-altering choice.
But before she can make her decision, she must start her story--their story--at the very beginning. Lucy and Gabe meet as seniors at Columbia University on a day that changes both of their lives forever. Together, they decide they want their lives to mean something, to matter. When they meet again a year later, it seems fated--perhaps they'll find life's meaning in each other. What follows is a thirteen-year journey of dreams, desires, jealousies, betrayals, and, ultimately, of love. Was it fate that brought them together? Is it choice that has kept them away?
Their journey takes Lucy and Gabe continents apart, but never out of each other's hearts. This devastatingly romantic debut novel about the enduring power of first love, with a shocking, unforgettable ending, is Love Story for a new generation. It requires us to be who we are.
In Braving the Wilderness, Brown redefines what it means to truly belong in an age of increased polarization. With her trademark mix of research, storytelling, and honesty, Brown will again change the cultural conversation while mapping a clear path to true belonging.
And that path cuts right through the wilderness. It is a place as dangerous as it is breathtaking, a place as sought after as it is feared. The Last Mrs. Parrish: A Novel is rated 3. From beloved author Alice Hoffman comes the spellbinding prequel to her bestseller, Practical Magic. Find your magic. For the Owens family, love is a curse that began in , when Maria Owens was charged with witchery for loving the wrong man. Hundreds of years later, in New York City at the cusp of the sixties, when the whole world is about to change, Susanna Owens knows that her three children are dangerously unique.
From the start Susanna sets down rules for her children: No walking in the moonlight, no red shoes, no wearing black, no cats, no crows, no candles, no books about magic. And most importantly, never, ever, fall in love. But when her children visit their Aunt Isabelle, in the small Massachusetts town where the Owens family has been blamed for everything that has ever gone wrong, they uncover family secrets and begin to understand the truth of who they are.
Back in New York City each begins a risky journey as they try to escape the family curse. The Owens children cannot escape love even if they try, just as they cannot escape the pains of the human heart. The two beautiful sisters will grow up to be the revered, and sometimes feared, aunts in Practical Magic , while Vincent, their beloved brother, will leave an unexpected legacy. Thrilling and exquisite, real and fantastical, The Rules of Magic is a story about the power of love reminding us that the only remedy for being human is to be true to yourself.
The 1 New York Times bestseller! It moved me to tears. In Shaker Heights, a placid, progressive suburb of Cleveland, everything is planned—from the layout of the winding roads, to the colors of the houses, to the successful lives its residents will go on to lead. And no one embodies this spirit more than Elena Richardson, whose guiding principle is playing by the rules.
Enter Mia Warren—an enigmatic artist and single mother—who arrives in this idyllic bubble with her teenaged daughter Pearl, and rents a house from the Richardsons. Soon Mia and Pearl become more than tenants: all four Richardson children are drawn to the mother-daughter pair. But Mia carries with her a mysterious past and a disregard for the status quo that threatens to upend this carefully ordered community.
But her obsession will come at unexpected and devastating costs. Little Fires Everywhere explores the weight of secrets, the nature of art and identity, and the ferocious pull of motherhood—and the danger of believing that following the rules can avert disaster. Perfect for book clubs! Visit celesteng. Isa Wilde knows something terrible has happened when she receives this text from an old friend. Why else would Kate summon her and their two friends Thea and Fatima to the seaside town where they briefly attended school together seventeen years ago?
The four friends first met at Salten House boarding school, where they quickly bonded over The Lying Game, a risky contest that involved tricking fellow boarders and faculty with their lies. Forever bound by their lies but needing to forget their past, they went their separate ways—Kate remaining in Salten while the other three left to start new lives in and around London.
Now reunited, Isa, Kate, Thea, and Fatima discover that their past lies had far-reaching effects and criminal implications that threaten them all. In order to protect their reputations, and their friendship, they must uncover the truth about what really happened all those years ago. Atmospheric, twisty, with just the right amount of chill, The Lying Game will have readers at the edge of their seats, not knowing who can be trusted in this tangled web of lies. Reese Witherspoon Book Club Pick!
The Alice Network is a totally engaging story inspired by the real life efforts of a network of spies who worked underground in France during World War I. It has enough history to fully engage lovers of historical fiction with richly drawn, compelling characters who propel the story forward. A Reese Witherspoon x Hello Sunshine Book Club Pick A Penguin Book Club Pick Smart, warm, uplifting, the story of an out-of-the-ordinary heroine whose deadpan weirdness and unconscious wit make for an irresistible journey as she realizes the only way to survive is to open her heart.
No one's ever told Eleanor that life should be better than fine. Eleanor Oliphant is, well, a bit of an oddball--albeit a loveable one. But for Eleanor, nothing really important is missing in her carefully timetabled life of avoiding perplexing social interactions, where weekends are punctuated by frozen pizza, Glen's Vodka, and phone chats with "Mummy. When she and Raymond together save Sammy, an elderly gentleman who has fallen on the sidewalk, the three become the kind of friends who rescue one another from the lives of isolation they have each been living.
And it is Raymond's big heart that will ultimately help Eleanor find the way to repairing her own damaged one. But if she does, she'll learn that she, too, is capable of finding friendship--and even love--after all, if only she can learn to open her heart. HarperCollins is proud to present its range of best-loved, essential classics. Passionate and spirited, young Marianne falls for the charming but unreliable Mr Willoughby. Elinor, by contrast rational and sensible, forms a close bond with Edward Ferrars, but must cope stoically with the news that he is promised to another.
Only through their shared experiences of love and loss do both sisters learn that the key to happiness comes from finding the perfect mixture of rationality and feeling. Sense and Sensibility was Jane Austen's first published work when it appeared in It has become one of her best-loved novels and has been the subject of several adaptations for film and television. Pricing and Purchase Info Hurry, only 3 left! It includes tales of living in her first apartment as a teenager and how laundry may have saved her life , getting stuck under a gas station overhang on a cross-country road trip, saying good-bye to her father in a way only he could have understood, and many more journeys and lessons that have led her to the successful, happy, and healthy place she is today.
Now available in paperback, this stunning debut novel about grief and wonder was an instant New York Times bestseller and captured widespread critical acclaim, including selection as a National Book Award finalist! Everyone says that it was an accident But Suzy won't believe it. After her best friend dies in a drowning accident, Suzy is convinced that the true cause of the tragedy was a rare jellyfish sting. Retreating into a silent world of imagination, she crafts a plan to prove her theory--even if it means traveling the globe, alone.
Suzy's achingly heartfelt journey explores life, death, the astonishing wonder of the universe Holm and Sharon Creech But it doesn't have to be this way. Just because you don't feel like an adult doesn't mean you can't act like one. And it all begins with this funny, wise, and useful book. Variety in a Meal Enhances Food Intake. Rolls, et al. Physiology and Behavior ; 25 2 : Wansink, et al. Obesity Research ; 13 1 Protein intake and energy balance. Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Regulatory Peptides l Protein, weight management, and satiety. Paddon-Jones D, Westman E, et al.
The effects of hedonically acceptable red pepper doses on thermogenesis and appetite. Physiology and Behavior ; Green tea catechin consumption enhances exercise-induced abdominal fat loss in overweight and obese adults. Journal of Nutrition ; 2 Effect of green tea extract on obese women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Clinical Nutrition Jun;27 3 Kondo T, Kishi M, et al. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry ; 57 13 Vinegar intake reduces body weight, body fat mass, and serum triglyceride levels in obese Japanese subjects. Vinegar improves insulin sensitivity to a high-carbohydrate meal in subjects with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Care Jan;27 1 Respiratory gas-exchange ratios during graded exercise in fed and fasted trained and untrained men. Journal of Applied Physiology. Recovery energy expenditure for steady state exercise in runners and non-exercisers. Brehm, B. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise ,. Metabolism and nutritional adaptation to altered intakes of energy substrates. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition ;51 2 Eating frequency and energy regulation in free-living adults consuming self-selected diets.
Journal of Nutrition ; 1 Deleterious effects of omitting breakfast on insulin sensitivity and fasting lipid profiles in healthy lean women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Feb;81 2 Schusdziarra V, Hausmann M, et al. Nutrition Journal ; Increased dietary protein consumed at breakfast leads to an initial and sustained feeling of fullness during energy restriction compared to other meal times. British Journal of Nutrition ; 6 National Weight Control Registry. Energy metabolism in humans at a lowered ambient temperature. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition ;56 4 Chronobiological aspects of weight loss in obesity: effects of different meal timing regimens.
Sensi S, Capani F. Chronobiology International ;4 2 Influence of meal time on salivary circadian cortisol rhythms and weight loss in obese women. Nutrition ;23 5