Personally, I know none. The child I do know who is medicated is my son. This was not an easy decision and I think daily about ways we will withdraw him when the time is right. As it happens the only side effect we have seen is an increase in weight. Now, our once skeletal son looks rounder. The boy who lived in a world that was turned up too loud now lives at a volume much closer to what the rest of us experience.
Little things that used to cause screaming fits are now brushed off. He is still himself, but he can converse with an ease we had never seen before. He is happy. Last year I wrote an essay for this magazine about getting him to school every day. His escape attempts and screaming fits were daily occurrences. Things were better in the summer, when there were no demands and I could keep the house as quiet as possible.
Better, but not good. He could not watch a video with someone in the same room, almost in the same house. Any extra noise would send him into fits. Someone breathing in the next room caused him to scream in fury. Outings were restricted to places without crowds because being touched might make him hit or bite. It seemed as though the volume knob on the world was turned up too high for him. As I write this, he is in the same room watching a video with his younger siblings. I walk back and forth in front of the screen to help the baby with something.
He chats with his brother. There is no screaming. No throwing of toys. Nobody gets hurt. Third grade started. He immediately had problems with boys who roughhoused on the playground. He had to face punishment. Luckily, the special education teachers know and love my son. They believed him, but had no proof. Then he fell in love with another classmate. She is a sweet, playful girl, pretty and full of fun. She is a friend to everyone. My son began to bite all the other children she.
I usually keep our therapies and family habits close to the chest. I broke one of my personal rules and happened to mention the medicine to an old friend who then casually sent me a pamphlet and diatribe on the horrors of this medication. She suggested diets and enzymatic therapies, most of which I have tried and found useless. Though she has never met my son, she is certain we are medicating away his childhood.
No, I am medicating to ensure he has a childhood. She can be contacted at mcneth gmail. Not in the physical sense you understand. But in the literary sense of writing romantic stories. Unfortunately, with my own love life having gone the way of the dinosaurs, hot and heavy meditation was needed to spice up the limp prose. A romp down memory lane, as it were, to shake loose my dormant libido for translation onto the page and into my purse.
And for this I needed some time alone. A chance would be a fine thing. Negotiating a Middle East peace agreement would be easier than persuading my five year old daughter to sleep in her own bed. Worse than her is my teenage son. Last weekend he arrived home from a late night party and shook me awake to say it was him making all the noise and not a burglar.
Not even the bathroom is safe. School should guarantee me some private time but with children, as with life, nothing is ever easy. Take this morning, for example. The plan was simple — tackle chores, get children to school, do some work. Right on schedule, I hopped into the shower. Two minutes later my daughter joined me in the bathroom. Ten minutes later we were calm enough to risk flushing the backed-up toilet. In slow, technicolor motion it inhaled its contents, gurgled gently before exhaling a rising tide, His fingers will feather lightly down your spine.
The only consolation in the whole sorry affair is the threatened flood receded within a whisper of reaching the lid. Meanwhile, my son carried on snoring, oblivious to the drama and forgotten by me. It was only when I was hustling my daughter into school that I remembered him. I buried my face in a cushion.
The Bolero drum-rolling in the background will get louder and louder, reaching crescendo in line with. The mailbox clattering open propelled me to standing. Peace at last. I counted to 20, poured a coffee and sat down at my desk to write a sizzling sex scene by first focusing on previous relationships.
But no sooner was I back inside the tangled sheets of one lost lover than I was wondering what the heck I ever saw in him. Our eyes met, sparks flew, and the argument we never got round to finishing kicked-off again. At least this time I got the last word in. In my twenties I was enamored with a mechanic. The no-holds-barred-upagainst-the-bumpers-type enamored. Then I remembered the bucks he still owed me. Angels wept, I thought sprinting to the bathroom. I doused my hair under the tap in manner of shower interrupted and shrugged on a robe before returning to the front door.
Fortunately teenage tunnel vision blinded my son to anything amiss, including mascara trickling down flushed cheeks resembling a beard rash. Instead of feeling frisky, I felt like a Tylenol. A change of tack was needed. Or, as Victor Hugo once said, I needed to exercise my imagination with an erection. Teacher needs glasses. He stalled a lecture on cutting school by handing over a bag and a card. I went into the bedroom and stripped off back to the time when I was not a mother and getting ready to go anywhere meant dressing up. With utmost care, I pulled on stockings and attached them to a garter belt.
Next, I wiggled into panties and a camisole. I looked in the mirror. Something was missing. I tied my hair back into a loose chignon, applied red lip-gloss, overloaded my eyes with mascara and climbed into a pair of high heels. All this effort and nothing. Honestly, what is the point of running round like a scalded cat if lover-boy is just going to swan in here whenever he feels like it? Closing my eyes, I cupped my breasts, relaxing under the feel of silk caressing bare skin. She is a single parent twice over and co-author of Fake Alibis, an almost true novel which will be published in September His best fri out of my way to try er to celebrate her So now that I have gone just invited us out to dinn so and them.
At ate your last-minute plans ild od ch r mm ou co d ac an to us t jus y If he takes n so my ce er co to ing have successfully then spend 45 minutes try s! Succ made it through into taking a nap. Eventu an evening at even We can go to dinner! There are a lot to e th to on s sse cloth-napkined restauran I tell my husband, so he pa one. Su u go enjoy your ce with the open Alright, well, the two of yo and willful child to the pla going to boiling pot, and day dinner ALONE. Margulies Aboth De Rabbi Nathan, ed. Salomon Schechter. Wien: Knopflmacher, Saul Lieberman.
Jerusalem: Wahrmann Books, Theodor and Ch. Jerusalem: Wahrmann Books, r 9 Lamentations Rabbah, ed. Shlomo Buber. Vilna: Rom, Mordecai Margulies, 5 volumes. Horovitz-Rabin Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael, ed. Lauterbach Mekhilta de-Rashbi ed. Epstein-Melamed Midrash Psalms, ed. Buber Midrash Tannaim, ed.
Hoffman Psiqta de-Rav Kahana, ed. Mandelbaum Psiqta Rabbati, ed. Friedman Sifra, ed. Haym S. Horovitz and Israel A. Jacob Z. Lauterbach, 3 volumes. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, Jochai: Fragmenta in Geniza Cairensi reperta digessit apparatu critico, notis, praefatione instruxit, 2nd ed. Jacob N. Epstein and Ezra Z. Midrasch Tannaim zum Deuteronomium, ed. David Z. Hoffman, Berlin: Yitzlcovski, Bernard Mandelbaum, 2 volumes. Meir Friedman. Wien: Selbstverlag, Louis Finkelstein. Sifre Deuteronomy, Siphre ad Deuteronimum H.
Horovitzii ed. Finkelstein schedis usus cum variis lectionibus et adnotationibus, ed. Berlin: Sifre Numbers, ed. FFaym S. Horovitz ad Numeros adjecto Siphre zutta Cum variis lectionibus et adnotationibus, 2nd ed. Songs Rabbah, ed. Shimshon Donslci. Tel Aviv: Dvir, Tanhuma, ed. Vilna: Romm, Tosefta, ed. Saul Lieberman, 6 volumes. Moshe S.
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Michael Higger. New York: Moinester Publishing, New York: Bloch Publishing Company, A Note on the Translation of Rabbinic Texts The presentation of classical rabbinic texts in general, and midrashic texts in particular, in a language different than their original is a difficult task. For this reason, I decided to translate all citations of classical rabbinic texts in this book by myself. Although I did consult existing translations of these texts, wherever possible, I frequently deviated from them, either because of an alternative understanding of the texts under discussion or because of my reliance on different textual testimony, such as medieval manuscripts, which was unavailable, unnoticed, or simply not used by those translations.
Cases in which I did rely on these translations are indicated in the notes. Judaism is generally thought to have begun in the more distant past, at the time of Abraham, Moses, or even Ezra. Possible similarities and mutual connections between these two late ancient religions are now more willingly acknowledged. The works of the Israeli historian Israel J. Yuval are perhaps the most representative of this approach.
Indeed, according to Yuval, the entire rabbinic project should be seen as a response to Christianity. The rabbis, according to this view, were responding to Christian ideas and shaped Judaism in such a manner as to reject them. These scholars emphasize the folkloristic quality of much of the material at our disposal—both Jewish and Christian—and suggest that many of the common ideas found in these writings reflect a common heritage.
For, if rabbinic Judaism is not a social-religious novum of the post era but, rather, in important ways goes back to, say, the time of Hillel and Shammai, that is, the late first century b. To be sure, the change may have been significant; however, as David Goodblatt has emphasized, the measure of continuity must not be disregarded and underestimated. Yet, both approaches appear to embrace even if unconsciously precisely such a view. Furthermore, the phenomenon both approaches seek to explain and the question they pose to the sources under discussion are similar: how to account for the existence of comparable materials in both Jewish mostly rabbinic, but not exclusively and Christian sources of approximately the same time—the first few centuries of the Christian era.
Both stories offered a liturgical alternative to the old sacrificial rite, addressing simultaneously the difficult question of how to celebrate a festival of redemption in an age of foreign domination and oppression The parallel development of two different narratives of a similar nature, meant for the same festival and introduced by two rival groups who lived alongside one another, ought to be discussed in a comparative manner.
Conjointly, these assumptions function as a scaffolding that enables Yuval to read many rabbinic sayings and homilies as responses of this-or-that kind to Christianity and to Christian teachings. Nor does their explicit rhetoric bear any sign of responsiveness, let alone of religious polemic.
Yet, Yuval argues that the mere fact of similarity—be it in function, in structure, or in some of the details—is, in itself, the indication for the existence of such polemic. For otherwise—so he assumes—there is no way to explain that similarity. For this reason, a reading of rabbinic sources on the backdrop of Christian materials is called for.
It is so necessary, in fact, that even where there is no explicit allusion to Christianity in the rabbinic source under discussion, we, however, must posit such a background. Even if we were to ignore the circularity of the argument, the question of why we should accept these assumptions remains. This is indeed one of the disturbing aspects of the subject under discussion: the notion that it is difficult to establish clear criteria to evaluate any suggestion to view a specific Talmudic dictum as a reaction to Christianity.
Usually we lack any knowledge regarding the concrete historical circumstances in which rabbinic sayings were formulated. As a result, our ability to appreciate the sociopolitical functions of any specific dictum is very limited. When God forsakes a place it becomes a dwelling place for demons. Indeed, Jer. Rabbinic homiletical and exegetical material, on the contrary, does not contain such contextual information. It is this very same fact, however, that makes it so difficult to prove such conjectures.
Various considerations should be borne in mind in thinking about these matters. First, not every text that can be related to external influence should be interpreted that way. A text expressing an unsurprising idea in light of well- known ancient Jewish sources need not be related to Christianity. Indeed, in many cases themes that scholars tend to relate to Christian influence are to be found already in Jewish sources that predate Christianity. The possibility of interpreting a given rabbinic text on the backdrop of one of these non-Christian groups, rather than in the context of Christianity, should therefore always be considered.
Hence, the text may equally be interpreted as an anti priestly polemic, which strives to place those who study Torah on a higher religious level than the priests, not as an anti-Christian one. Finally, there is the obvious question of dating. Hence, while a reading of a late-fourth-century rabbinic source as an anti- Christian polemic may be acceptable, the same suggestion with respect to a second-century text is, by its nature, much less likely.
This, then, is one of the main arguments of the present study. Instead of assuming that Christianity had a central role in the formation of rabbinic Judaism, I wish to address this very fundamental question: What was the role that Christianity occupied in the formation of early rabbinic Judaism? This question is rarely even raised, however, because most scholars apparently take it for granted that Christianity was indeed a significant factor against which the rabbis struggled.
I shall follow, therefore, a different path. To be sure, both models allow for intimate relationships between the members of these two entities on a daily basis. Nonetheless, both approaches presuppose and thus reaffirm the most fundamental and taken-for-granted view of Judaism and Christianity as two discrete religious and social entities. That eventually things developed in this direction one cannot deny.
Because, however, virtually all scholars agree that Christianity was, at its infancy, a Jewish phenomenon, 48 one is surely allowed to ask how and when it became something of which people think as not-Jewish. Nor should we assume that the claims that Jesus was a miracle worker or magician Even the belief in the divinity or Messiahship of Jesus The separate existence of Judaism and Christianity as two distinct religions is simply taken here for granted. This, moreover, is not done of its own accord; someone needs to have the interest and the capability to introduce some members of society under such a title.
Accordingly, he asks, when and why did such a discourse arise in Judaism? From this unstated theoretical premise springs the historical suggestion to view a discursive development within rabbinic Judaism as a product of an encounter with the competing religious claims of Christianity. And it is precisely this theoretical model that I wish to challenge in the present volume. Reconstructing Minut One will surely not deny that any attempt to understand the rabbinic discourse of minut needs first to reconstruct it carefully. Most recent contributions to the topic, however, do not take this upon themselves.
It is precisely because of this reason, so this line of thought runs, that the rabbis felt a need to wage war against these views. This approach portrays the rabbis as if they were engaged in theological debate, and their polemic against the minim is assumed to be motivated by a concern for doctrinal truth.
In other words, in contrast to current scholarship, I will not assume that I know the nature of the rabbinic discourse of minut; rather, I shall try, first of all, to reconstruct it. This suggests that, for Palestinian rabbis of the second and early third century, minut was no less a social-communal issue than a doctrinal one. Admittedly, various sources have contributed to the perception of the minim in classical rabbinic literature from a doctrinal perspective—which seems to so many to be self-evident and of no need for any justification— which indeed gives the impression that the apostasy of the minim lies in the fact that they held wrong and unaccepted views, and that these heretical doctrines were the issue that troubled the sages.
A thorough examination of all references to minim and minut in earliest rabbinic Tannaitic literature, however, reveals that the picture is much more complex. Minut is frequently spoken of as social segregation, and minim are depicted by various sources not only as expressing dissenting views but also as having different customs and ways of practicing their Judaism.
Accordingly, I shall suggest that the core of the polemic was not purely theological, one that has to do with various speculations about the nature of God. Rather, it was a polemic over the unity and social existence of the Jewish community. Creating Boundaries Functionally, the early rabbinic discourse of minut is a discourse of social boundaries. The question that needs to be asked, however, is under what circumstances such is a discourse born. The sociologist Kai T. This is frequently done by creating boundaries—social, religious, cultural, or ideological—to clearly demarcate the lines of belonging.
As will be shown, various sources indeed testify to the existence of an identity crisis in precisely that era. Accordingly, I suggest interpreting the rabbinic discourse of minut as a response to inner existential crisis, which was brought about by Roman victory and Jewish defeat.
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That there are instances of this kind cannot be denied. It may offer an explanation for why some of these texts present minut as a threat to a central tenet of Judaism, whereas other early rabbinic texts relating to minim or minut refer to what may appear as a minor issues of custom that, of itself, cannot be considered as representing a recognizably non-Jewish way of life. This, I suggest, provides a framework for a better understanding of the social-historical process of the emergence of Christianity as a distinct, non- Jewish religious entity in late ancient rabbinic discourse.
Furthermore, as we shall see, the rabbis established actual rules that govern social relations with minim in a manner that, if followed, indeed excluded them from the community. This may be said of historians of ancient Judaism as well. This expectation is quite surprising, given the prevalent recognition of the literary nature of rabbinic narratives, which these historians do not deny. The documentary here is as much literary as the literary itself. The assumption on which my reading and use of midrash rests is that the rabbinic homiletical enterprise is responsive in its nature. That is, it is a response to existential and cultural challenges current in that society with which the rabbis were concerned.
Nor am I trying to belittle its theological content and messages. I am not a reductionist. Acknowledging the interpretive dimension in the midrashic move, however, should not lead us to assume that dimension to be also its motivating force and consequently to characterize it as an interpretive enterprise in its essence. Because of the significance of this issue for the interpretation of rabbinic texts exercised in this study, a concrete argument in its favor would not be superfluous.
In a article, Moshe Halbertal discusses various midrashic passages in which the midrash presents its interpretation of Scripture as if it were compulsory on the homilist by the biblical text itself, and the homilist claims that if it were not so he would not have dared to offer his interpretation.
Rather, it was a presupposed concept with which the homilist approached the biblical text, and which he wanted to endow with privilege, by presenting it as if it were rooted in the holy words of Scripture. By so doing, the present project attempts to historicize midrash and, in turn, to rehabilitate it for historical purposes. The book is divided, accordingly, into two parts.
The first addresses minut in general, and the second proceeds to show how this category is related to Christianity. This raises the question of the identity of the minim. This question is addressed in the second part of chapter 3, and the possibility of identifying them specifically as Christians is discussed and rejected. Based on this conclusion, I approach in chapter 4 the only Tannaitic source in which minim are unambiguously identified as Christians.
Following a literary analysis of that source, I suggest viewing it as the locus where the labeling of the followers of Jesus as minim is first introduced. By its very nature this was a very slow process, which required much time to be completed. I suggest an alternative reading according to which the rabbis were virtually not troubled by Christianity but, rather, by the theological implication of the Roman imperial power.
This leads to chapter 6, which discusses the Christianization of the Roman Empire. Thus, the Christianization of the Roman Empire gave the process of the estrangement of the Jesus movement from the Jewish People its ultimate closing. For a historical project such as the present one it is necessary, therefore, to distinguish between early and later developments, hence between early and late materials.
Talmudic scholarship has shown that classical rabbinic works of later periods—such as the Babylonian Talmud, The Fathers According to Rabbi Nathan, or the post- Amoraic midrashic compilations—reworked their sources in quite aggressive ways. In light of the fact that none of the rabbinic documents predates the third century c. Can these traditions teach us anything about the views current in rabbinic circles of that period?
But to conclude that we must assume the falsity of attributions, that therefore? When the Jews are oppressed by their enemies, a doubt concerning the competence of their God is raised, and this is the cause of heresy. This will enable me to suggest, in chapter 2, that in the view of Palestinian rabbis the effects of this trauma are the causes of minut.
As Ed P. Surprisingly, these questions are seldom discussed. As Shaye J. Therefore, the weight of the trauma is obscured. Such reactions are found in the earliest strata of rabbinic tradition and should be dated to the second century c. Let them rise up and help you! Rabbi Nehemiah says: This refers to the wicked Titus, the son of the wife of Vespasian, who entered the Holy of Holies and tore the two veils with a sword and said: If He is really a god, let Him come and protest! When they reached the Temple, they said to one another: Who will be first to enter the Temple?
What is more, he dragged a prostitute into the Holy of Hollies, and he began to blaspheme, curse, vilify and spit toward Him on high, saying; So this is the one who you say slaughtered Sisera and Sennacherib?! Here I am in his house and in his domain, if he has any power let him come out and face me! The story gives voice, in the most explicit manner, to the thought that Titus actually killed God. To the spirit of what period does this story give evidence?
The text quoted above is the one found in Avot de-Rabbi Nathan, which in its present form is admittedly a late work that should be dated somewhere between the sixth and the eighth centuries c. Let your God come and save you from my hand! They said to him: Hannaniah, Mishael and Azzariah were worthy men, and Nebuchadnezzar was suitable that a miracle would be done on his account. But you are a wicked king, and you are not suitable that a miracle would be done on your account. However, at the end the Omnipresent will claim our blood from you.
The Roman ruler is answered by the two brothers, who offer him a different way of looking at the political reality, which leads to a different possible conclusion. That challenge was borne out by the political condition of Palestinian Jews in the second century. There must have been many Jews after 68 c. One Tannaitic tradition, in which this problem is raised, is found in the Tannaitic midrash on Exodus, the Mekhilta de-Rabbi Ishmael.
Among its various interpretations to Ex. Alternatively, one could hold that God may still be living, but His power has diminished, and it is for this reason that He was unable to defend Himself. Still there is another possibility, that God may exist, but he was defeated because there are other divine powers, other gods, who might, at times, be stronger than Him. These possibilities are presented together by various rabbinic sources, all of which are relatively early.
Perhaps [there is Power in Heaven, and only one, but] He has no ability to revive or to kill, to do evil or to make good? It is He who was in the past and He who will be in the future. It is He who is in this world, and He who will be in the world to come. There may be a hero in a country who is fully equipped with all the implements of warfare, but possesses neither strength nor courage, nor the knowledge of the tactics and the order of warfare.
There may be a hero in the country, but the strength which he has at the age of forty is not like that which he has at sixty; nor is the strength which he has at sixty the same as at seventy, but as he goes on his strength becomes diminished. The midrash claims that not only does God himself not change but also that His potency had not diminished. The rabbis, according to such an approach, were concerned with various theological propositions, with which they disagreed, such as the possible existence of divine powers other than God.
What was it? They are not mere expressions of pure theological thinking; 52 rather, they are expressions of a deep doubt regarding the aptitude of the God of Israel, indeed regarding His divinity, perhaps even His very existence. This was a dreadful possibility, for it could have threatened the very existence of Palestinian Jewish society as a living community. Expressions of such qualms are to be found throughout rabbinic literature. In order to answer this question, we must decipher the midrash in this passage, that is, the manner by which the biblical prooftexts are used here.
Then, however, the Mishnah goes on to quote another three verses: Judges , Proverbs , and finally Psalms In order to understand these references, we must read them in their original biblical context. And Gideon said to him: Oh, my Lord! Is indeed the Lord with us?! Why then has all this befallen us?!
And where are all His miracles which our fathers told us of saying, Did not the Lord bring us up from Egypt? But now the Lord has forsaken us, and delivered us into the hand of Midian! And this very claim is understood as a negation, perhaps even a refutation, of the thought expressed by Gideon, that is, that God is not with His people. After the destruction of the Second Temple and the failure of the Bar Kokhba revolt, Palestinian Jews were in a very similar position.
Does He still exist? For if He is with us, why does he tolerate our suffering by the hands of the Romans? If He does exist, how is it possible that He allowed all this to happen? The Mishnah quotes Prov. This is an amazing religious institution indeed, unparalleled in any other religious tradition. This crisis was accompanied by a profound theological one, for the defeat of the Jews was understood as a defeat of God, too. Sanhedrin , in which one who holds a view of God as divorced from this world, the Epicurean, is denied a share in the world to come.
It is therefore no surprise that this is indeed a frequent theme in Tannaitic literature. The hazard that people might express—either by their proclaimed assertions or by means of their deeds and actions—doubts regarding this belief was well known to the rabbis, and it affected their thought in many ways. We see this most clearly in the way this challenge motivated their interpretation of various commandments.
He said to them: The robber equated the servant to his owner, and the thief paid honor to the servant more than to his owner. It is as if the thief regarded the Supreme Eye as though it does not see, and the [Supreme] Ear as though it does not hear. And who knows us? Three biblical verses are adduced in support of this explanation. The first, Isa. What is the function of the other two verses, Ps. Reading these verses in their biblical context, however, may deepen our understanding of their use by the midrash.
The previous verses in Ezek. Are you going to destroy all that remains of Israel in the outpouring of Your wrath upon Jerusalem? In Ps. Thus, by means of its biblical allusions the undeniable theological thrust of the text is related by its author to historical reality, which was part of the collective experience of Palestinian Jews in the generations following the destruction of the Second Temple.
If the text is to be believed, this midrash originated in a discussion between Rabban Johannan ben Zalckai, who flourished in the first century and who is said to have been the founder of the rabbinic academy at Yavne in the wake of the destruction of the Second Temple, and his students, that is, most probably sometime during the last third of the first century c. Why continue being a separate nation? All of you are beautiful, all of you are heroes, come and mingle with us!
Whither has your beloved turned, that we may seek him with you? What do Israel say to them? The midrash, accordingly, struggles with an existential question that second-century Palestinian Jews continually asked themselves: What is the justification for our separate identity, which is the ultimate cause for our political inferiority and suffering?
Were Jews to give up their identity and join the nations of the world, they would not suffer death anymore. If we were to accept this attribution, it would seem reasonable to date the midrash to the first third of the second century c. There is, however, an important detail in the text that may assist us in answering the question. The text mentions Jews suffering death because of their adherence to their God. The most plausible historical setting for such a description is obviously the time of the Roman anti-Jewish decrees of the post-Bar Kokhba revolt, and this may indicate that the text should be dated to the mid-second century c.
Indeed, as Moshe D. These political and military failures were the major cause for an existential, identity crisis, the echoes of which are heard, as we have seen, in many corners of Tannaitic literature. However, Herr is pushing the limits, in my opinion, when he bases himself on various late midrashic traditions in order to corroborate his suggestion.
Rabbi Johannan ben Zakkai said to him: Do not pride yourself. Had it not been the will of Heaven, you would not have conquered.
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The fact that they refer to Hadrian as the one who destroyed the Temple casts serious doubts on their historical value. In fact, in some of them, the reference to Hadrian is clearly nothing but a lapsus calami, as in the case of latter text, in which a chronologically impossible scene of Hadrian having a discussion with Rabban Johannan ben Zakkai is narrated. For, it is certainly conceivable that a post-Bar Kokhba crisis would be formulated and expressed in terms of the destruction of the Temple, as Herr suggests.
It is worth considering some of these traditions. Since anyone who loans, or takes a loan, or negotiates [in business], does not loan, neither takes a loan, nor negotiates, without witnesses and a document, therefore in case he denies [the transaction] he denies the witnesses and the document. But one who deposits [his money, or goods] with his fellow, does not wish anybody to know, except for the third party, who is between them. Therefore, if he denies, he denies the Third One who is between them. In all other matter how would I know? Along similar lines Tannaitic sources tend to explain the sin of a suspected adulterous woman.
Although the plain meaning of Scripture is that her crime is primarily against her husband, rabbinic sources view it as a sin against God. According to the rabbis, the nature of the sin is not to be sought in the act of illicit sexual intercourse itself but, first and foremost, in the fact that the act is done in concealment. As has been shown by Ishay Rosen-Zvi, the rabbis viewed this aspect as the major religious issue involved. In my opinion, however, such a view reduces the richness of rabbinic midrash, as it ignores the possible social-political functions of rabbinic lore and its complex relations with the actual realities of those Jews to whom it was addressed.
Such an approach does not seek to discredit the hermeneutical aspect of rabbinic midrash; rather, it suggests that viewing midrash as responsive to existential challenges, current in Jewish society of its days, makes its reading a richer enterprise. Now the Nations of the world will say that his strength has become as weak as that of a female and he is unable to save!
They still can say: Against a single king he can stand, but against thirty-one kings he cannot stand! Happy is the disciple whose master concurs with him. However, for the author of our midrash that past event did not suffice anymore. For, might and ability do not exist apart from he who exists. And He, who exists for eternity, whose years will not terminate, it is impossible that He will not be capable. And this thing, although it is well established by common sense, it is also corroborated by Scripture He thereby indicated to His prophet that indeed had He abolished the people, the Nations would have said that He has no ability, and they would not recognize His strength.
And since it would not have become clear to them that He is able, it would therefore not become as clear to them that He exists. Questioning the former was understood as a denial of the latter. For this reason, early rabbinic literature ascribes similar stances to the Nations of the world, and it views the Roman Empire as their emblem. For second-century Palestinian rabbis, faithfulness to God was inseparable from social-national loyalty, and separatism was therefore treated by rabbinic discourse as heresy. It is frequently assumed that, just like early Christian discourse of heresy, the early rabbinic discourse of minut is motivated by a concern for doctrinal truth.
However, the interpretation of that discourse should not reduce it to its tacit social concerns. Rather, it needs to uncover the possible connection between these two dimensions. To this end, let us begin exploring the web of early rabbinic texts pertaining to minim and minut. Ephraim Elimelech Urbach emphasized that in classical rabbinic sources to deny God does not necessarily imply a denial of His very existence; rather, it may mean a denial of His providence.
Thus, for example, we read in b. Where are you? This notion emerges also from the fact that although Deut. For this reason, Rabbi Jonathan could identify them as minim. The root of this doubt, as early rabbinic literature understood it, was the sociopolitical reality of late-first- and early-second-century-c.
The direct cause was, obviously, the triumphant Roman Empire. It is not a coincidence, therefore, that various midrashic sources attribute to Rome some of the stances that are ascribed to the minim and to minut, thus constructing Rome as the emblem of these theological assertions. During the second century, such a claim was expressed in the imperial cult of emperor worship, which maintained that the Roman emperor was a god.
For with the very thing with which the Nations of the world pride themselves before Him, He punishes them. For thus it is said concerning the generation of the flood And so too you find with the people of the Tower And so too you find with the people of Sodom What is it written after that? This understanding is articulated in a very similar, although slightly later, midrashic text, which is attributed to the third-century Palestinian sage Rabbi Levi: Said Rabbi Levi: It is a law and a rule, that anyone who prides himself before the Omnipresent is punished by fire.
The [people of the] generation of the flood The list consists of the same biblical figures who are presented in the same sequence, and it culminates with Rome. This similarity indicates that the Amoraic midrash is based on a Tannaitic tradition and emanates from the Tannaitic period. And there is nothing that I desire on earth besides thee. Admittedly, some of them are post-Tannaitic and fall, therefore, beyond the scope of present study. However, not only do they enrich our discussion, but the views they express can be traced back to the Tannaitic period.
And with You I desire on earth not! Palestinian Jews in relation to Rome. The mid-third-century Palestinian sage Resh Laqish, to whom this midrash is attributed, did not read the Hebrew phrase in that manner, however. Rather, he identified the Hebrew word nt as a reference to God probably on the basis of Ex. This is said explicitly in Midrash Ha-Gadol on Gen. For this reason, the Tosefta rules, they may be merged into one benediction.
As brilliant as this suggestion is, I find it difficult to accept. In that Tannaitic text, we find a list of sinners who are considered to have conducted the most severe crimes: The minim, the apostates, the traitors, the Epicureans, those who deny the Torah, those who separate from the ways of the community, those who deny the resurrection of the dead, and whoever both sinned and caused the public to sin—such as Jeroboam and Ahab—and those who cast terror in the land of living, and stretched their hands against the zvul, Gehenna is locked behind them, and they are judged therein for all generations What made this happen to them?
Sanhedrin Its current mislocation can be easily explained as a result of a scribal error that introduced into the text a marginal gloss, meant originally to be inserted at the end of the list and as its conclusion. Whether or not one accepts such a hypothesis, the fact remains that both sources present us with a list of sinners, which associates religious sinners with social-national offenders. Minim are associated with collaborators with the enemy in yet another Tannaitic text, that is, in t. Bava Metzia The gentiles and shepherds of small cattle and those who raise them are neither brought up nor thrown in [a hole].
The minim and the apostates and the informers are thrown in and not helped out. Regardless of that implication, however, the discursive association it makes is transparent: the minim are presented not only side by side with the apostates but also alongside the informers. This indicates that they are constructed as Jews who separated themselves from the community and collaborate with the enemy, that is, with the Romans. Finally, t. Following the parallel baraita in b. What emerges, then, from the Tosefta is that the minim separated themselves from the rest of the Jewish people, 72 whom they viewed as evil and deceitful.
And this doubt was understood by early rabbinic tradition in terms of unfaithfulness and disloyalty —first to God and then also to the Jewish people. What point is there, the author argues, in trying to observe an unobservable covenant when God rewards our efforts by destroying us?
His response But it cannot have satisfied everyone, and those whom it failed to satisfy will have reacted with panic, despair, and finally abandonment of Judaism. Lest you abandon me and stick with Esau, my brother. A slightly later midrash appears to be expressing such a notion explicitly. In a midrash on Num. Because of Miriam of the family of Bilgah, who apostasized and went and married an official of the Greek royal house. And when the gentiles entered the sanctuary she came and stamped on the top of the altar. She said to it: Wolf, wolf! How many oxen have been slaughtered upon you, how many birds have been put to death upon you, how many wines have been poured out over you, how much incense has been burned upon you!
You are he that lays waste the whole universe! So long as he intended to marry her she continued to sit and wait for him. Once, however, he distanced his mind from her, she went and married someone else. In this context. He maintains that because God had forsaken Israel, they abandoned Him, too. Would it be correct, therefore, to assume that at least from the point of view of the rabbis the minim indeed associated themselves with the Romans? I am not arguing that the minim, in that early rabbinic period, actually left the confines of the Jewish people to join the Roman side—even though, to be sure, there were certainly Jews who did so.
This construction, however, may tell us quite a bit about the rabbinic conception of minut and its function. The following comparison may assist us in answering this question. It appears that the rabbinic discourse of minut is, in a sense, an internalization of the hegemonic Roman discourse and its application in a reverse direction.
The Jews adopted the imperial discourse and turned it the other way around against their enemies. First, who has the social power to label others as deviants? Second, why —that is, for what reasons and for what ends—do certain groups label others as deviants? What function does that labeling serve for those who exercise it? Third, what are the criteria for placing some members of society in that category? This is an important prism through which a discourse of heresy, too, can be looked at.
Murdock and W. Robertson to serve one year. It was voted that the schools be taught nine months the coming year. Flexible Rubber Ruicr. John McKenr. Tbey immediately opened the oofDn, and on examining the body, foond' that it exhibited eigne of life. The heart tras yet elill, and the temples and the pulaa at the wristji still throbbtd with the Tltal spark. A physician was sent for, but when he reached the graveyard the man waa dead. W Smith. It appears that bDth parties resided at Paiia, and that for some months past a feeling of hoetUity existed between the two.
Da- ring this time it la stated D;. On the evening of the 19th ' Tuesday last as young Oreath was as- oesding the stairway to D. Thiown Open to rabllr lioi. March 18, House of Repreeenlailveft. J Re5. Foaler, SU Paul. Minnesota ; llgn. K Kelver. Slillwater, and Wm. Haq , MiflncapoMs. Naval Academy, at AnapoUs, Mt. It any have been nnable to master theoonrre, they will be pronounced dtfloient by the Academic Board, and their connection with tbe Aeadeny will cease.
Spetrli wf the Hon. Robert ihvop. The clergyman, greatly astonished, asked for I what oanse she sooght a divorce. She re- plied that her husband, when she married him, was quite wealthy, bat had lately be- come 80 redn::ed in circumstances as to be unable to supply her with the luxuries to which the had ben accustomed, and this WAS tbe whole ground for seeking a divorce.
Tbe clergyman dlemissed her with a sharp admonition. The former is the enccessful stump speaker and wit, the latter the favorite poet and wit The former is stout and full, tbe latter lean and thin. One day he was hoeing corn and he saw the sheriff coming up with a paper, and he asked what it was. Now If he had told It was a writ what would he have cared? A trader against whom the charge of liquor selling has been made. Invited one zealous friend to Inspect his premises tor himself. He was seen to ascend from tbe cellar In an exceedingly happy mood, smacking his lips, while tbe drops glisten- ed on his chin, exclaiming, ' How absurd that any ORe should charge you with keep- ing liquor.
How absurd! Packard, of Yale College, just now leakUng in Athens, Greece, writes under date of Ftbroary 7th, giving some insight Into the origin and pnrpcse of the insurrec- Uon in Crete. He nye it was not a meru passing outbreak ot discontent with the measures of an unpopular government, but tbe determiacd slruggle of the Greek popu- lation of the island to free themselves from the rale of Turkey. Nearly a year ago ihey petitioned the Sultan to lighten the excessive taxe.
These moderate and jnst demands of the Cretans, though pre- sented in a quiet and respectful way, were not favorably received by the Tuiklsh Government. Thoee who will not, or can- BoC profit by these generous provisions, ehoo'd not ooocupy the places of these who will and can. VII —In June the.
In Ita charao- I have j oat reotlved the within no- ' ter ol searching scrntiny, Is like the semi-. Oadets the War Department tna. VIII —It will thus be seen that a per- son must carry to the Academy a certain degree of preparation ; good natural parts ; ao sptltcds for study ; industrions habits ; persevoracca, a disposition to cooform to discli-llne, and correct moral deportment If deficient in any of these respects, it will be beat tor yonng men not to eater the Mlll- ta-y Acaflemy, as they will thus avoid the probabilities of disappointment and mor- tifieation.
More than one- third of thoee who receive appointments fail, through deficiency In the above particulars to graduate. But It must not be understood that those who ful to master the scientific course taught at the Militaiy Academy, neceeearily incur thereby discredit as re- gards mental ability, since It is by no DKans I are for intellects otherwise strong to be ave. Padl, Mart 'MSC?.
In aocordanee with the requv. MsircL 14, Tbe claims of all eandi- dates on the register wlU be considered and acted upon. No oertabi indication can be given of the probable success of a candidate before the arrival of the period for making the selections. Persons there- fore, making applications, must not ex- pect to receive information on this point.
Tbey must be able to read and write well, and perform with facility and atxsnracy tbe various operations ot the four ground rnles of arithmetic, of reduction, of simple and compound pro portion, and of vulgar and decimal ftrao- tiooa. Tbe arithmetic Is to be studied understandingly, and not merely com- mitted to memory. The present indications are that we are to have a much larger Immigration ot farmers to Minnesota this year than In any season since The hum of busy prei aration is heard In many localities throughout the middle and Webtern Stat' s The fame ot our rich, cheap lands, and proverbially healthful climate, has be come familiar houisehold words, all over tae bread Union ; men from the " fever and ague "region of Indiana and Illinois, the " Typhoid Fever " hot bed of Ken- tucky and Missouri, the " Ooosumptive " climate ot New Eogland, all turn their longing eyes to Minnesota as tbe place where health and personal bleaeings can be restored and enjoyed.
Aa a matter of oonree these Immigrants can have but a faint Idea of the extent and exact loca- tion of tbe proper point to which they thould direct their steps Feeling this to be tbe case we propose to give a word of advice. A glance at the map of Minnesota will show that a vast region lies West of the city ot Minneapolis, bounded on the north by the Mississippi river, on the south by the Mlnneeota.
Wlothrop, of Boston, arcse and said t Ms. V: I trust that I t-hsU be pardoned for clalm- iog your attention for a single moment. The hour Is at hand when this dbtlcgnlsh- ed company Is to separate, and when the brlUlsnt occasion which we have so much eojoied will exist only in thoee gratofttl remembranoee of the past which can oever be tHaced from our hearts. It is, I am aware, and was ictended to be a purely socl. J occasion, where anything of formal speeoh-maklng would be quite out of placs.
I hold in my hand a brief series of tea- olutlons which were unanimously adopted by the trustees of the Feabcdy EducaUon Fund at tbe dose of their proceedings a few hours ago. Wil- liam 0. Rlvee, of Virginia, every mem- ber ot tbe Board rose in bis place In at- testation of their adoption. And let me say in passing, that it is not among the least welcome olroum- stancee of this occasion that oor noble j host, by the magic of his munificence, j I more powerful tban that of any Midas of 1 j old, has brought together aroand a flom- I moo board, Virginia aad New York, I North Oarolina and Ohio, South Oaro- lina and Maaaacbuietts, Maryland and Pennsylvania, In the persons of so many of their distinguished sons, once more to consult together on subjects relating to tbe highest interes's of tbe whole Ameri- can people ; and once more to Interchange those assurances of mutual regard and re- spect which are the best and only pledgee or permanent and perpetual Union If Mr.
Peabody had aooompllsbed no other object but this, he would have enti- tled himself to the heartfelt homage of every lover of his country. These resolutions I have b? Sir, at the dose of the banquet this evening, and wbat opportunity could pre. Bat let me hasten to read tho following reso- lutions as they came from the band, and I may say from the heart, of my valued friend Governor Aiken : Reaolved, That we tender to our dis- tinguished and noble friend, Mr. Peabody, our thanks for his munificent hospitality to us, during our sittings, while organiz- ing our Board, both in Waehlngton and New York.
Reeolved, That we consider our ap- pointment as Trustees of this grand chari- ty as a very high honor, and one which we acknowledge moet cordially. Resolved, Ttiat our friend, being about to leave his native land for England, we hope that a kind Providence will take blm under His guidance and protection, and return him once mere to us. March Thonsaads of acres are yet lying In their primeval wildness, awaiting to pour forth harvests of cereal treasures. This Is no visionary sketch, suggested by the merciless speculator, but tbe " words ef truth and soberneea.
Hilliard of Boston Is the beet "after dinner" speech maker in the oountry. Davis ot Portland, Me. Abbot said would have sickened anybody elae. The fourth paragraph givee a list of physical disqualification s, which are gen- erally such as apply to recruits In the military service, and need not be repeat- ed here.
During the months of July and August the oadeta are engaged In ndlU ury duties and exercises, living In camp. The academic exercises oommenoe the begloniog of September.
Tbe semi- anneal examination takee plaoe la iann- ary. It Is seventy feet long and twelve feet wide, and tbe center part, where the parlor and bed rooms are, Is fifteen feet high. Over the wheels, on either end, Is a room twelve by twelve feet. Inlaid with oak, cherry, walnut and ash, most beautifully. From each of the bedrooms yon enter the parlor, through moet elegant walnut doon, with beautiibl cut glass.
The parlor is twenty-four by twelve, fif- teen feet high, most beautifully freecoed — three ground glass windows on eitiier side, five feet high and two and a half wide— and two panels between, en either side, are filled with beantifnl mirrors from celling to floor, elegant Bmseels carpet, ottomans, sofas and easy cbalra, equaJ to the finest parlor In New York, and the beds and beddlnr tbe fioeet ever slept on. A small car Is attached to it for a kitchen. Hopkina, to whom in entma- ted Prement iohnaoDls let. There has been no winter in his bounty.
Tbe storms and snows of New Eogland which have raged ar nnd blm with more than their wonted severity, have not been able to repress or ohill—have stimulated, rather— the genial currents of his soul. Hia pathway through our land has been a perfect Milky Way, leaving a radiance on the historic page as enduring as that ol the stars above us. And this last, best, largest, noblest, crowning gift for aiding the work of edu- cation In the desolated South, has, above all others, touched and thrilled every heart in tbe land ; and there is, at least, one of bis trustees— I think I can speak of them all —who regards bia association with that gift the highest honor of hb life.
It was once said, on eome occasion, by my illustrious friend, the late Daniel Webster, In tbatteise and Impressive lan- guage, ia which he excelled almoet all other men— that If an icqalry was made as to what America had ever con- tributed to tbe world. It was enough to say that she bad contributed tbe character of George Washington. And we, of tbe day and generation, may now answer to that Inquiry, that ehe has not only contiibnted tbe character of George Washington, but also tbe example of George Peabody And, let me add, that if soire Americjin Thackeray should here- after spring up to compose a series of Lectures or Essays 00 tbe American Georges, be will be able to trace In them elements of true nobl'lty, of real royalty, such as have rartly adorned the lives of thoee who have wielded the sceptre of earthly sovereignty In any latd or age But I beg pardon of Mr.
Peabody for such personalities. I must not say more, I could not say less. Let me only assure him In conclusion, that everyth ng has gone on most happily and most harmonl onsly In the proceedings of our Board, and that measures have been adopted which will soon be communicated to the public, and which, as we all believe, will secure the entire tnoceM of this noble design. God grant From the St Paul Pioneer.
Every one would expect, nnder a cap- tion of this kind, that wheat should lead And la order that Its value may have full justice done, there can be no objection to giving it priority of position. Oar bread is of so much importacce to our well be- ing, that we naturally cling closely to it That wheat Is really the leading grain crop of this State, at the preeent time, is proved beyond a doubt. The quantity produced, it quality and its money value are known to most of tbe reading bread- eaters of the Northern and Eastera States.
There is a peculiar adaptation of soi and climate here for the growth ot this and some other grain. It differs materi- ally from that cf the once great wheat growing district of New York, the Gen- eesee Valley, and from the best wheat lands of nil ols. No wheat will bear change of elimate and lengthened transportation better tban that grown in Minnesota.
It is in part attributable to an icfiated currency and owes something of its position, finan- cially, to circumetaaces connected with, and growing oat of the war. In tbe three firrt named States the crop was only about two-thirds as great as lormerly, and In the last States there was found a twnutlful supply. There Is scarcely enough wheat in Min- nesota to do the seeding this spring and aupply bread to Its Inhabitants until an- other harvest, Uodtr such circumstances It is not straoge tbat the price is tilgh.
It Is important for us to weigh this matter well before putting in our spring crop. Suppose tbe older States should produce a fiill crop the ooming season, what would be tLe effect on the newer States? Is not their remoteness from the seaboard likely to place them in a situation where tbey wih be compelled to take low prices for wueat another year? It certainly look- like it. Wnen land has lain Idle as long as most of that in the older wheat States has, It is very likely to produce a good crop as aoon as It can be brought nnder seed again la view of the porbabilities In this case, would It uot be wise to put In enough ot other grains to give us more than one chance for good prices?
This bilngs us to Indian corn, as tho next In value. That tbe price is nno- sually high must be admitted at once. Hence Its faijure. As a e ingle grain it Is really the meet valuable crop lor man and beast, that tbe Earth prodooes. All of our domebtic animals thrive on ' it. With the steady Increase of cattle and horses throughout the State, as well as sheep and swine, there Is no danger ot prodnolog so much in a single season as toglat ourh.
This too after the corn has been husked. There is much of our soil that is well adapted to producing corn. It is eariy, warm land in a climate like ours, with early planting of good seed, that will giva promiee of a good yield of this valuatJe grain. More experience la raising and feeding it will bring it more in favor with us. Suppose we had a supply of stalks and corn on band now. Woiild we not langh at tbe high prices of hay and oaur And well we mlgbt, from poasese- ing a snpply ot more nutritious food tban either.
Agoodsapply of com glreaVheaiT ooatof flash, ot fat, and a fat animid ean st;and the cold much better tban a lean one. There is eo moch interest attaching to these two leading grains; so moch to write that we all ought to heed, that there is danger of exceeding the limita ol a proper agricultural article for your col- nmns. Tbe next will treat barley, oats, and buckwheat to a flair conaideration in oom- parison wiUi wheat and 00m. And it may be shown, perhape, that the growth of all these and seme other crops by tr. Ttat Daixs, Mardi 26, Tbe large prints have I D any admirers, but tbe old fashioned del- I icate figured goods of the past will doubt- j less be preferred for summer wear A rich organdie with figures of summer bou- ees, shrubbery and green foliage.
Is novel, and there Is a possibility It may bsoome fashionable. Silks, pop- lins, grenadines, etc , are held at about the same prices as last year. These goods will make not only durable walking dresses, but neatly and bandEomely trim med, very pretty and not uniashlonable salts. Muslin, calico, and cotton goods generally, are held at a bwer price than last year.
Acknowledgments for ooartesies In the exhibition of new styles and novelties-— some of which are described ia this arti cle — are due to Madame Demoreet, Mrs. Figured silks of dead white or pearl white ground— the figure of bright colors with a gold loaf— will be fashionable for dinner o. Ia plain heavy alike, the olive — a rich color, the silk glossy and brilliant — is very fashionable, and make cp elegant- ly. The " Bismarck " ia a new and lasb- lonable color In plain silks, and may be had in every shade, from the darkest to a pale, delicate tint.
Then there is the changeable gray, of a soft, l eautifal tint, that win make an elegant dress fcr the carriage or for street wear. They make the richest ot travel- ling suits. For travellicg dresses there is a new fctjle of goods known aa Yacht clotb, oompoeed of silk and worsted, abd, when made in sulta, ia very handsomo. Wineey, a new style of cloth for etita, is held at a much less price than the yacht cloth.
It Is not as durable, but It will doubtless be much worn, during the sum- mer lor travelling. It Is in chene, and has a coarse, corded feel and look ; yet, if tastefully made, will be quite pretty. For summer wear there are new and beautiful styles of grenadine -one Is a black ground wltb gilt figure, and a blue ground with white flowers, and so on through every variety of color and thade. There are sleo several new designs in gauze de chambry, brllllanta and French p'qae. In orgacdies, new de-igos are large set flgurep, except In robes— utamp- ed en suiie.
Tbe imagination can readily picture the effect of floating structures, such as bce-hives and tho hke dei-lgne, and decide whether It be one of beauty or otherwise. As UiOst dresses are made goring, organdies, which require frequent watblng, will not be eo much worn as thin materials that do not need this Or- gandie morning robes will be worn. Bat there are no prettier roornisg robes than white. Tbey are at once cboerfnl, neat and elegant.
Onr fasblcna'Je establishments have en exhibition several new and attractive stylos for making dresses. Evening and dinner dresses are narrow at the waist doable skitt The under one, of tulle, U embroidered wltb rose- colored satin and black v. Tho upper eklrt is also of tulle, shorter, and not embroidered. Pearls ebould also bu worn in tbe hair.
Tae front is hose and fasten- ed at the neck, from which It slopes gra- dually to the Wfiit't, ard roundicg off tbe corners. As shawls are not to be worn with the short dreesee, what fchail be, is cvnt-idered a very important question. The peplum bafque, close fitticg, or half tight, will be wo-n. The trimmicg passes down the back in such a manner as to give it the appearance of being in three parU.
Tbey are embroidered with. Paras-Jd afe still email. Tbe great- efct novelty la the f-tyle in white filk, with a covering ot black lace. It Las a Fienoh htfcl that exlendi roder tho. Au Amerlrnu Anibansador al Rlada- cakcar. Tbe Qaeen sent Mr. Fiuklemler a splendid horse to ride Into the city, and an officer who spoke very good English ac- compacied the party. On entering ibe city thoDsaeds of people were cut to see Dim and to witness the dipplay. The Queen Is about fifty years of age, quire tall and well educated, and qalte gracetal.
Mr Finklemelr was astonished to see her skin what we in America call white, and looking young for her age. A great deal cf gold and embroidery was displayed in the court dresses of those present, and the display was really brilliafit. Ttie dinner and the wine could not be ex- celled in Europe. This gives tho efiyer setradorned the'tsbie.
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Over this Is worn a short eklrt with Pompadour body. This sleeve is a stj le of the middle ages. The collar and cuffr of guipure complete the tasteful toilet Peplom basqueo are made In rich silks, and are more or lees trimmed, according to the tabte of the wearer. A very good plan, when one wishes to practise econo- my, Ib to attach tbe skirt of tbe peplum to a belt — It can then be worn or laid aside at pleasure. Dresses are elaborate- ly trimmed— amber and jet beads and velvet are much ased. A pretty trimming for a rich black silk is crystal amber beads, on jet and laoe trimming.
Ttiis gives length to the fig- ure. Tbe dress has a long wide train. Tbe short dress for street wear, eo long talked of, Is now apparently a fixed insti- tution. Tbe looped up dreeeee were a great improvement npon the street sweep- log style, and the short dresses of to-day are far superior to the looped skirt. This fashion, which will permit women to go out in wet weather witbont injury to health by walking with wet or mnddy skirts, is commended by all sensible per- BOOS. It is possible some dresses may be made to short. A becoming dre.
Many ladies make the drese of tbe required length and put on tbe trim- ming to repreaent tbe sbortef skirt A stylish, showy walking dress is cut in large scollops— that at the eida is shorter tban those front or back, and are so trimmod as to represent a sash. The following remarks concerning the credit of oli Maasacbaselta, are enggest tive: " How Is It that United States ten-for- ties, yielding five per cent, principal aad interest payable in gold, and free from Government taxation, rate lower in the market than Maesacbusetts five per cent, bonds, principal and intereet payable in gold, but subject to G.
Why Massa- ohasetto State securities briag more tban those of New York State is intelligible; the bad faith of tbe Albany Legislature In Bubetitutlng greenbacks for gold in the payment of Intereet explains tbe differ- ence. But the superior value of Massa- chcsetts bo. OraBt'a Uktns for BiUlarda. Pfom the New York Times.
Grant's penchant lor fast horses is well known. Having looked about a little, the intending customer stepped up to tbe b! Tne General then said, " I aee yon have forgotten me, Mr. Pdelan," adding with his obaraoterietlo modesty, " I oaed to play byiiards in your rocnns in baa Franciico. Foaob, Attomej. Olair county. Aoconate from lie peach growicg die- triet are v-;ry unfavorabh The I'lto cold anaps have caased great diicage. The stock was ralaeJ at eovcnty-fivo thou-! The Jewelry store of Forbes ;k Co.
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The banking house oi B. Runyan i Vo. J T:a-ok Kai'. Bird, J. The gunboat fl. Madison, March 28 — The. Balkiqh, Miirch 28 — A Uuioo convec- tion of wbitej and bhck; , after a two day'a seesior, ailjju. BoiTorf, March Philadei-phia, March Loss heavy. New Oelkass, Maich Cause, an actress. Another tire broke out in the budding occupied by Mr. Gredge's Bakery ijid B. LocisviLLi, March Tbe night watchman was bound a:ad sa? No ar- rests were made. Nbvt Oastli, Delaware, March Gordon's From tUe Ueorgla Telejcroph. The Division was placed in reserve, some di!
Johnson at the sali mt. As the tori. But G. As the re. Never waa the ptirenzy ot enthuMaMU with which G rdon inspi-ed his men, and could hold tnem longer under fire than any man in the amy. He never knew a day's heath; and wliat volnroee does not that speak 7 But his own atUiction only seemed to in- spire him with charity for others. Do these occasions he used to dis- cover indivldu.
Kilty, mydarltog! Kitty, my darling! The wlDds are slDginfr a sou;; Of the. Kilty, my darling! The popalation of Jefifersoa Barracks were intensely excited yesterday by tbe following caase : A soldier named Mullen, private in tbe Third Regular Artillery, bad a fight with a comrade. The latter went to the Captain of his company, Hen- ry Meinell, and made a complaint. From N. Evening Qaaette, 28d. As Spring opens and the thick clothes of wmter give way for those that are thinner, the gentlemen are naturally anxious to know how to make np a fash- ionable toilette. The trade is opening briskly, and on fair days tbe larger fused to come, and had used eome oppro- i brioas epithet.
Mullen fell over bis bunk, aod j as be raised up Captain M. After the third blow the Captain ordered some eo! The Oreat Writ. Aod it was so. Msking a quick circuit, with a fores of pines in rear, ha drew up his line in the enemy's front. It was hero he met Gen.
I ee, and the scene, as painted by spectak. Lee upon the spot. And well he mi, ht.
And as ocean, swellirg with bidden wrath, hfts high fcer pcnderoui ws'. Gen Lee ; go to the rear. Lee, I will lead tbe charge. My men are Vir- ginians and GeorRians ; th y have never failed: they will not fa 1— will yon, boys? Gordon the soabri quet of "Young Stonewall. But even in tbe presence of the possl- birty, that the contemporaneous enttnsi- asm of tbe day may have hfc a shade of illusion on our Judgment, we venture the assertion, that the reader will Eearoh in vain the wide page of history for the ex- ample of a single cbarge more tmely, more opportune, than tbls of Gen.
U3 consequences. Soon, Mr. E'litor, waa thia great charge ot Gen G. There ia one man in Goodhue county wko knows the value of the writ of habeas corpus by experienca, and has reason for being thankful that be ia a resident of free Minnesota instead of one of tbe Mili- tary provinces of the Sooth. Upon this statemeut being properly verified, the Commissioner grant- ed tbe writ, armed wi;b which the young mau again faced ths captors of bis bricfe and demanded ber unoondiiional release At sight of the peremptory legal command they gave in, surrendering the lair one to the cu.
Correspondence N. Sundiy Times. London, March 18, 18C7. Maxwell, who was wealthy, lived at Broad Oiks, in Kent. Weetcar was acquaint- ed with Mrs. Maxwell before her ma. Maxwell, at his reqnest, paid a visit to Heme Park, where Westcar es- tranged Mra. Maxffoll's afTections from her hu! Broad Oaks. Alter Mtixwell left Heme Park, Mrs. Maxwell remained all night under Weetcar's roof ibe next day she came with him to Lon- don, and resided for several days as his wife at the Grosvenor Hotel, and within a week Mrs. Maxwell was installed as tbe mistress tbeie, living openly with Mr.
When Maxwell's counsel found Mr. Westcar he asked that gentleman if be ooald see Mrs. Maxwell when she came in. He served them with the citation in this action. Mr Westcar treated ihe matter very cff hand, saying be was ac- customed to that sort of thing Oa find- ing that the petitioner craved damages, he gaid — "We muatheve a fight about that. A very wealiby and popaiar peer, the Earl of Brownlow, died tbe other day. Dayaon 1. She had ; dene ii so loDg with impunity that she I grew careless and the other day, in re, p?
She thii. Qil'e a romance was enacted here a short tir. If believed, Woul. The honeymoon pa sed en "golden wings," when the "son of chivalry" told his bride he had found an excellent in- veetment for her money. She gave him of her litt! He went down street, but instead of making tho proposed in vestment, he invested a email portion of the money iu railroad stock — that is.
A paculiar divorce case is on the tapis ic this city. The parties have only been married about three moniha. They bad known each other for year.? The husband went E'M't a while ago, and was absent a cou- ple of week-i.
Shop now and earn 2 points per $1
On Lis attempt to remonstrates Hhe sh. Ia vain he p. To these who are interogled in these I matters, we may state that the student in ; anatomy is introduced into a long dissect- ing ball — well ventilated and lighted from j the roof. An array of tables. Lumbering, I psrhap? Snljects are provided by par- ties regularly employed tor that put pose — who, notwithstanding Ibe safety of their t. They are conveyed into the reception room, and each one irjectvd with an aLtiseptio, contaitjii.
Tne uorta is opened, atd the arteries filled in a similar msLuer by means of a large and powerful t-yrintie. After this preparation the body will resist tbe decompo'. With respect to the appearanee of tho subjiicts, it may be premitted that they art uot striking illustrations of human beauty. Oooasionally eome robust form still bears evidence of a life of c:ime, and the scowl of abject depravity yet linces upon the debased countduanoe.
On one occasion of this kind the students were aeon to clus- ter with locks ot deep compassion arouud one whose life, Jiit enteting on blasted womanhood, had been terminated by sudden death. Hor feet and bands were small and white, her hair fell in curls about ber neck, and in her features there lingered the traces of former beauty.
What was her history f What a volnm? A Lnndrci youtg men msy be seen, mostly dad in black cotton gowcs, sitting 00 high stools around the slanting tables and using forceps and scalpel as occasion may require, laying bare the muscle, tracing arteries, or in- vestigating nerves. A lew meercbaums relieve tbe heavy atmosphere by the fla- vor c f tobacco, and a noisy ham fills the ball, occasionally breaking out into laugh- ter as some joke enlivens tbe quiet pur- suit of scirnc.
One may bo whistling ia a low key, anoihtr bumming a snatch of familiar tong. There i. A dim gas burn- sr thiows a ray suffi. In such a plac- E Igar A. Poe might have caught a tresh inspiration, and Hawthorne found a now idea to wo:k np his weird and harrowing style. Several messages were sent to this city ' for the Coroner, one to the Major, and I one to the Police Commissioners, and Dr. Sprigibalter received a nota from General I Sherman, requesting him to pre ceed to tbe barracks and take full cognizance ot tho affair, according to law.
The Coroner immediately went to the place and sum- moned a jury, who returned a verdict that the deceased, John Mullen, came to his death by blows iuflloted by bis buperior offioer. Captain Henry MeineJl, and tho Coroner haviug thid morning made affi davit to tbe fact, a wsrrant lor the arrejt of Capta'u Mtioell was issued by the Court of Criminal Correction, and placed in the hands cf tba County Marsnal, who will duubtlees cause it to be executed to-day. Tbe extreme cold wentber and enow pre- vents the laying ot tbe track, but we were never doing mo e in accumulating mate- rial, acd conveying it to tbe end of the track.
We have now on hand the iron arid ties for miles. I will pledge my- self to complete two miles a day for tbe firbt working days after the froct is out of the ground. Wo are not asking any legielatioo. From the Superior Qaaette, '2Sd. The present con- tract provides only for the running out of tbe sixth and aevtOth msridians with the towubhip lines intervening.
Theee meri- dians and town lines are to be run west some thirty-bix miles, and the work it ill ba commenced immediately, a party start- ing a. An tSJh U now being made to obtain an order for the subdivision of tbe town- ships adjacent to the St. Louie river, which we hope may prove sacoeMfnl. Frequent complaints are made byladiee in relation to Masonry ; and tbeir principal arguments are, that their husbands have no buMness to do anything that they can- not tell tbeir wives— that which ia secret mugt be wrong — and ic is only a mean ex- cuse and so en.
She knew ber power, and used it unsparingly. In ad- dition to her other qualities, tbe was as inqalbitive as ever was a woman on this earth. One evening King Solomon attended tbo lodge en some grand occasion, and stayed out somewhat late When he re- turned home he found the fair Ammon- itess in tbe dumps, and pouting just like tbe dear wives of masons do eometimes now when tbeir lords stay oat too late at the lodge.
She upbraided him with neglecting her, insinuated that he hadn't been to the lodge as he pretended, and insisted that in future be should give proof that he went there by having her belt initiated, eo that she might go there and watch h'. Thoa art not to angry with roe as thoa pretendest to be ; for tho tree reason of this behavior is thy insatiable cariosity, in which tbon excellest Eve herself. Enow thfn that I here ordain that neither thoa, ncr any of thy icqnisitiv'e sex after thee, ever ea- ter ttie portals of a Masonic Lodge, but I shall erjoin the Tyler to pierce through with his sword any woman that shall at- tempt to enter a lodge ; aye, even thee, Qieen of lirael though tbou be.
Evtia of GoMtlp.