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Now moving on to the second topic, Types and Kinds of Translation, I believe you would like to make a com- ment Simon. Simon Chau There are three paragraphs in this section. I find it slightly amusing. Some years ago, I pointed out to the Institute of Linguists — I suppose most of us know that they are the authoritative body in the U. But still even today, six years after my suggestion, nothing has been done. Gunilla Anderman Good. Simon, I think you also had a point related to the next topic, Valid and Deficient Texts.

Would you like to continue please? Simon Chau Thank you very much. Well, I think that, as far as sacred texts are concerned, the same texts can be sacred on one occasion, and they can be non-sacred on other occasions. And, you know, these days we recite a complete work of Shakespeare4 in 97 minutes. So, Shakespeare is no longer sacred, in that sense.

Gunilla Anderman Well, that was brief and to the point. Perhaps, we could then move on to the subject of English as the Lingua Franca of Translation. Could I now ask Reiner Arntz to come in here. By means of some extreme, but undoubtedly realistic examples, Peter Newmark shows us how truly deplorable translations can be, even today.

In the face of such disasters, which, depending on your mood, may move you to laughter or plunge you into despair, it is hard to say who deserves more blame — is it the unfortunate producer of the text, apparently blissfully unaware of the true state of his or her English? Or is it the person who commissioned it, who, probably out of ignorance, but perhaps also eager to save money, set an incompetent to create something that may be a source of amazement to countless readers for years to come?

And, should the unhappy producer of the text actually turn out to be a trained translator, well, a considerable portion of blame must then also be attached to those who trained that person, who taught him or her so little. In defence of our profession, I would hasten to add that in recent years a great deal has changed for the better. In most countries the way that translators are trained has become far more professional, and a lot of the credit for this must be given to translation theory, its occasional excesses notwithstanding.

We are in the middle of a process of globalisation that is encouraged and supported by the constant improvements in tech- nical means of communication. Numerous translation agencies have linked up to form international networks, and it is now perfectly normal for translators to work in the country of their foreign language.

Today it is really no problem at all to find an expert with native-speaker ability to look through the text that we have just translated into their language, or even to undertake the translation itself. These possibilities already exist, but they can only be exploited to the full if those who commission transla- tions appreciate that quality is a decisive factor in the translation too, and that quality is not given away for free.

And it has to be said that university departments of Translation Studies have not, so far, done much to spread this particular message. Nobody today will deny that a good training in translation requires a solid foundation in translation theory, but at the same time it is vital not to lose sight of translation in the real world. And in particular the customers, who for the most part will have no acquaintance with translation theory whatsoever, and who will often have a grotesque lack of understanding of what trans- lation involves. Clearly, neither the person commissioning the translation, who almost certainly learned English at school, nor the producer of the text seemed to realise that they are both making themselves look ridiculous with such translations.

There is nothing unusual about this; that abuse of lingua franca English in its various forms is a universal phenomenon — a fate that the language of such historical and cultural significance hardly deserves. Admittedly this disadvantage is compensated for by the enormous benefit that inter- national communication and of course the English language community itself both derive from the lingua franca function of English. It is a step forward when French and German people today feel that they can communicate with each other in English.

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Real understanding, how- ever, above and beyond the mere exchange of superficial pleasantries, requires, as it has always done, that one of the parties involved is com- petent in the language of the other. The speakers of the so-called lesser-used languages are well aware of this, of course, as developments in Eastern Europe in the last 10 years have clearly shown. The consequences of such developments have already made themselves felt in the translation market. The number of languages requiring translation is rising all the time. The volume of translations in languages that are actually without a significant translating tradition is also on the increase.

Growing international competition for business has contributed to this quite considerably. Customers notice that they are being listened to, and so, for example, they demand operating instructions in their language, and not in some lingua franca. Yet the lin- guistic resources may not be completely adequate to meet these demands. Sometimes the necessary terminology may not be available, but more often what is lacking is experience in this kind of translating, and a sensitive awareness of the problems. And so the quality of the resulting translations often leaves much to be desired.

Even so, the trend towards language diversity can be expected to continue, despite globalisation and despite English as the lingua franca. Translating in general, and the train- ing of translators in particular, are therefore faced with an enormous challenge. As we move into a new century, we must create the right conditions for being able to produce high quality translations from as many languages as possible into as many languages as possible.

You can walk for miles in China without finding a native speaker of English. It is something that is read by thousands of people. I do think it might be possible to find someone. Albrecht Neubert It would seem that the whole development of English as a lingua franca has reached a certain stage. English no longer belongs to the English. But it is a far cry from what you legitimately demand as antithetic or logical or linguistically sound.

Gunilla Anderman Thank you very much, Albrecht. Maybe at some point we should have a conference on that subject. It certainly is a very interesting one, and more and more a topic of heated discussion. I think we want to pay our compli- ments to Christina for providing us with a model. On one occasion we had a very lively and interesting discussion at Aston following a paper given by Mary Snell-Hornby.

I also think that he underestimates, as Simon pointed out, the difficulty of finding a translator in Trier, when it is so much a town for tourists and there is so much translation to be done. I use the word Shakespeare, but you know what I mean by that. Round-table Discussion 29 Gunilla Anderman Eyvor? Eyvor Fogarty Yes. This assumes that the translator can see or find the truth in the original. I wondered if you could say a few words about the appropriateness of this when translating documents in a contemporary and historical setting. If it is some- thing like Hans Christian Andersen, and there is something there that would offend the moral principles of today, I think you gently amend it, or you should at least tone it down, because false values are the last thing, I hope, that you would want to transmit to a child.

In that case, I would certainly modify it. Have I answered your question? Eyvor Fogarty Yes, thank you. Gunilla Anderman Thank you both. Perhaps we can now move on to our next subject, Translating out of the Language of Habitual Use which follows logically from our discussions on English as the Lingua Franca of Translation. I think that John would like to say something here.

Perhaps you could start, John. But, I think this is relative, because in the country where I work, Italy, we have actually got universities who make agreements with clients — customers — to use first-year students with absolutely no translating or interpreting experience whatsoever to go into the booths, to do simul- taneous conference interpreting work professionally. So, I just wanted to start off with that. I think it depends a great deal, as always, on the university or the institution — unfortunately.

With respect to what previous speakers have said as regards native versus non-native speakers, I agree — certainly, in the Italian situation — we do have quite a job finding native speakers. So, the whole concept is changing — for financial reasons, for market reasons. The use of computers, obviously, is very important for some of the developments Peter touches on in his paper. I was lucky if I managed to get two or three different dictionaries and thesauruses into the examination with me.

There was no way one would think of having access to Encyclopaedia Britannica or whatever encyclopaedia, which you can have at a touch today, and this is important. So, I would also ask for a comment from Peter on this — computers taking over from the non- native speaker, giving us the distinction between human and non-human translation — rather than, almost 25 years ago, between native and non- native speakers. Gunilla Anderman Thank you, John. Mike Shields Yes, thank you very much. The temptation, of course, for the native speaker, is to make it sound as perfect as possible, and this is not always necessary.

There seems to be the feeling that only something that is very close to perfection is accept- able. Gunilla Anderman Interesting point. Kurt Kohn Just a brief point on the question of native versus non-native speakers and having a native speaker at hand and a translation not having to be perfect: I think it has to do with the question of translation being an art or a science.

Not every native speaker has got it, not all are sensitive with respect to comprehension, and are creative, flexible, and versatile with respect to production. If they have it, then it only takes a crash course to tell them a few things that they need in order to avoid certain traps. And this brings us back to revision and asking a native speaker if they will look at the text; but looking at a text, and revising it, is a different process.

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Gunilla Anderman Now, Graham? You cannot teach that. It is something which is inborn. God knows how or why, but it is. But I think, also, that this is the justification for the existence of the human translator, because, at the end of the day, the human translator is more cost effective, because the skilled and well- trained human translator can get the right — whatever that is — translation straight off, first time, much more cheaply — no reprocessing, no extra passes.

Gunilla Anderman Thank you, Graham. Gunilla Anderman Albrecht, I think, and then John. Round-table Discussion 33 Albrecht Neubert Just one point. I remem- ber a number of cases — it was about 20 years ago — when our school in Leipzig was approached to do some translation work for the Ministry of Higher Education. I thought the best thing would be to ask some of our native speakers, who were actually teachers of translation, and they came up with, in my opinion, wonderful translations. But I was told off in no uncertain terms. But this was not what the Ministry wanted. What I personally thought was good was not suitable for a particular purpose, in this case, higher government administration.

I have a colleague, for example, who has a program which will translate very satisfactorily for many commercial purposes from Dutch to English and from English to Dutch, and will do 20, words overnight — no problem. No human is ever going to compete with that. What I was saying was that there is always going to be quite a large chunk of the market there for the human translator.

Very briefly, Kurt, did you have a concluding comment? Using a machine, of course, helps enormously with regard to consistency. Gunilla Anderman Peter, would you like to respond to Kurt? Gunilla Anderman Right. Thank you very much indeed. I know that both Sylfest and Albrecht would like to say something about this subject. Sylfest, would you like to start? Sylfest Lomheim Thank you. First I would like to join those who have already paid compliments to Peter. I agree. As far as I can see, translation is dictated by the type of text: we have literary texts, we have non-literary texts. Do we have social texts?

I would say all texts perhaps are social. I meant social in the sense of social responsibility. Peter Newmark Well that may be so, but … Sylfest Lomheim And another terminological question is the basic word itself. First, we use translation as the word for transfer — linguistic transfer — of meaning. Then, and of course Peter used that word earlier on — trans- lation, the nature of translation. We also, all of us, use the word translation as written-text-transfer to written-text-transfer, which means that our basic word of use is systematically ambiguous.

My simple question is: are we happy with that situation, or shall we do something about it? Those were my two points.

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Margaret Rogers Well, Terminology itself is full of examples of that kind. Kurt Kohn But the problem differs from language to language. I was talking about English. Gunilla Anderman I saw Simon nodding over there. Were you nodding in agreement, or would you like to say something — was it the term Social Translation that you would like to comment on? Simon Chau The term Social Translation as used here can be misleading.

Maybe with our collective wisdom we can invent a better one. I invoke my old theme: words are not alone in the source text — a fact I have to cope with in my lexicographical work. But, as far as translation is concerned, I must say that this is not a problem. Now, you mention Reagan here — that is, his sneer, that here the Russians are lacking on the lexical level. Now, let me give you a couple of examples from computer corpora — they are not invented. The untranslatability of words, which you have to a very large extent in poetry, I have all the time — in fact every morning, when I do my dictionary work.

If we are talking on this level — fine. But normally we are not. However, if we are, I do think that there are untranslatable words. But, fundamentally, most texts are translatable. Of course, there are degrees of context, but in this case the context is much thinner than in the examples that Albrecht gives. Albrecht Neubert Because actually, then it means that the Declaration of Human Rights cannot be translated adequately. Graham Cross Can I comment here?

I think this is a fundamental problem in transla- tion. If one regards words as occupying a certain amount or representing a certain amount of semantic space, for example if one takes a two- dimensional model or a three-dimensional model, or a multi-dimen- sional model, you can say that a word maps out a particular area, volume, or hyper-volume in that system of coordinates. Those two spaces are not going to be directly comparable in any two languages — which is very obvious. But the less obvious fact — which is very important for translation — is that the semantic space occupied by any one word in any particular language is governed by the occupation of space in that language by other words.

And they did it inadequately. In British industry they tell you how empty it is. Can I please ask John to conclude. In Italy today, la privacy is standard.

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Now, for the next topic Later Modes of Trans- lation, there are three speakers who have asked to make a contribution. Round-table Discussion 39 I have the good news that one of the speakers promised us some light entertainment. So perhaps we should start with Hans. Would you like to begin? Hans Lindquist Well, I hope I can live up to that!

In Later Modes of Translation, you mention in your paper that we need translations of the lyrics to be able to fully appreciate music, like Lieder and opera, and you talk about surtitles. So, any comments on this, Peter? Peter Newmark Well, any comment I have would be obvious. Then you need a caption, giving the literal translation of those titles in three languages, notably, I would say, Flemish, English and, perhaps, German. Hans Lindquist What about the text in the picture?

All you can do is this kind of gloss on the picture. Hans Lindquist But they dub movies. Peter Newmark Certainly not, I would say. I mean, in a way, a subtitle would be the gloss. Hans Lindquist Thank you. Gunilla Anderman Would anyone else like to comment? Kurt Kohn I love these pictures. The other thing is, of course, do we want to translate it? So the message is kept intact. The way in which you do this, the way you make it possible for somebody to understand may be different.

Gideon Toury I have a follow-up question. Is there a point where this kind of think- ing, or the decision making which has to do with it, must stop? For instance, in the case of the Magritte picture, most Hebrew speakers would not understand the French; but if you decide to have it in Hebrew, then the writing would go from right to left, but the picture would be still looked at from left to right.


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Should you then also reverse the picture, or not? This is already a real problem when translating cartoons. Gunilla Anderman Thank you Gideon. I think we have to move on and I also have Mike Shields down for this section. But one area where I differ from you is that in a paper entitled Translation in the New Millennium, you dismiss, in a single paragraph, the one factor which will certainly have more effect on translation in the new millennium than anything else — which is of course the computer.

Mike Shields I was going to say that. Peter Newmark I love my computer! If we look at the last 20 years, and how things have changed, and where computers are now, compared to where they were 20 years ago, just about everything you do is affected by computers. It seems to me that in this area, translation work — for many, many translators — is going to be seriously affected, because, just as an example, most of us are paid per words or per page, or per line, and this is fine, so long as it represents an average of the hard bits and the easy bits.

But I think, if you look at the rate at which computers have advanced, it can affect other areas as well. I can see novels being banged out in machine translation systems and handed over to ghost writers to turn them into as good English as is necessary, and completely wipe out translators — and even interpreters. Someone did a survey of forecasts made respectively by laymen, scientists, and science fiction writers, and compared them with what really happened. Gunilla Anderman Thank you very much, Mike. Can we have some more brief comments, Eyvor?

Eyvor Fogarty I think that in all this I am heartened by the memory that Julius Caesar sacked his interpreter and employed his cousin. What he was looking for was not the mechanised, perfect translation that the interpreter was giving him, but the person he could trust, who understood both sides, and made the role of the translator — as it has always been — some kind of mediator in all this.

Gunilla Anderman Peter, would you like to comment very briefly? Gunilla Anderman OK, thank you very much. Kurt, very briefly, a concluding remark? I find my computer very useful, but interestingly enough so is my wife. Round-table Discussion 45 You mentioned the practical problems involved. Gunilla Anderman Thank you very much, Kurt. So, could I ask Mac to start please. Gerard McAlester This sounds like a horrible responsibility!

Now, what I found was exactly the same situation as at my own university — that everybody did it a bit differently.

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I mean what we need is more of the kind of thing that Juliane House has produced. We do need a set of guidelines for this. I mean, there are other activities where this has been done, perhaps none as complicated as translation. Simon Chau Three points, very briefly. I think those guidelines are the best in the world. Second point: I have a colleague teaching translation and the two of us never agree upon anything related to Translation Theory.

Graham Cross May I come in there? I am working in the market — very much so, and, in connection with what Peter says about the market, I would just remind people that a market — any market — is a collection of separate stalls which all sell different merchandise in different ways. As a practising translator, I am producing a commodity, a product — a product which, in fact, is governed by the Supply of Goods Implied Terms Act in this country. And one of the requirements of the Supply of Goods Implied Terms Act is that goods must be fit for their purpose.

Now, this is particularly pertinent to translation, because translation is not anything in isolation. That communication was generated originally for a specific purpose, for a specific target audience. The translation itself is then generated for another specific purpose, which may or may not be the same as the original purpose, for yet a different audience. As Kurt and Albrecht mentioned earlier on, translation — or rather the message, the communication — is a multidimensional thing. It is not just concept, it is not just technical content, it is not just form of language, it is not just emotional affect, it is not just cadence and rhythm and that sort of thing — all these things are components.

The original message, the communi- cation, has a multitude of dimensions attached to it. Rather like in the Polynesian cultures: if you look at the Pacific islands, you appear to have a mass of very different cultures in different island groups in the Pacific; when you look at it more closely, you find, in fact, that they all have a common culture, which has a number of different elements, in which each group seems to have, by some means, concentrated on a particular aspect of the culture, taking it to a high level — like, for example, the statues on Christ- mas Island — that sort of thing.

If we just take one dimension, say, fidelity to the actual words in the text, you can go from one extreme — of total fidelity which you have to have, for example, in the case of patents — legal documents anyway, but patents even more so, where the text is actually defining the scope of the claim, the protection wanted, so you have to be very, very close there, as far as the target language idiom will allow, to the way in which it is actually phrased … completely to the other end of the spectrum, where translation is hardly any longer translation, but merging into adaptation, where, at the very end of the scale, say, for example, where you have an advertisement which is prepared for a different culture, there may be nothing of the original word message there, it may be just the image, and an equivalent in terms of emotional affect which will have the same result in the recipient of the advertising text as the intended recipient of the advertising text in the source country.

The same end will be achieved by totally different means. I feel that this is an essential element which must be taught in translation courses, in so far as this can be taught at all. And I think also it might be the answer to the assessment problem. If you ask the student not just to translate the text, but first of all to state what his intention is in doing a particular translation, and then assess his trans- lation against his ability to satisfy the criteria he has himself set.

Now, can we move on to the last topic, The University and the Market. Peter Newmark Yes, but most of what Graham said would seem to relate to the topic coming up anyway. Graham Cross It was intended to, thank you. Peter Newmark I just want to say that I agree with most of what you said. And to bear in mind that with certain texts — notably the kind of texts I was considering when I was talking about social translation — it is not enough to satisfy the consumer, the client and all the rest of it, and actually this is a criticism of society.

Now over to Mac, please. Gerard McAlester A couple of points. First of all, yes I agree about asking for comments on the translations. One then can assess the translation according to dif- ferent kinds of criteria: one — as to how well the translator has managed to do what he set out to do, as expressed in his commentary; but another would be, was his strategy — his tactics — were they wise in this, was he setting out to do the right thing?

This is a totally different matter. The other point is something that Simon suggested. I have to be accountable to my students, to say: Why is this not good enough? How many mistakes can I make and it would still be good enough? And what kind of mistakes can they be? Albrecht Neubert Very briefly, I think we are in the situation of having the cake and eating it.

I think a lot of what Peter says is irrefutable, if taken in a university context. If we teach translation, we can decide upon the para- meters of the assessment, and we are the ones to speak — because we are responsible for the academic developments of our students — in fact, we all fundamentally speak as teachers. If there is this consumerist society, deciding upon how the translator will earn his money, we can try to prepare our students to react to this in a sensible way.

But most of what we say about Translation Theory is really based on our experience as teachers, and rightly so. We certainly incorporate aspects of the real world, but the university is not the real world, it will never be, and should never be. In most of our discussions we are talking about what translation is, but actually what we mean is what translation is in the classroom, what we attempt to prepare the students for.

And I know this, because whenever, at international conferences on some aspect of Translation Studies, the subject is brought up everyone looks the other way. Peter Newmark Many teachers are translators. Gunilla Anderman I think that John would like to say something.

This is the point which Mike Shields made. Peter, would you like to add something? Peter Newmark Well I said it! Gunilla Anderman Thank you Peter. And I think that may be a good note on which to conclude the discussion on the subject of Translation in the New Millennium. Notes 1.

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Fairclough, N. Harlow: Longman. Brown, G. Cambridge: Cambridge Uni- versity Press. These were students of translation at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Yeats, W. H Auden The Nature of Translation First then, the process of translation, originally perhaps engraved in stone or parchment, perhaps around the third millennium BC as Eugene Nida says, usually so poorly defined in the dictionaries: to convert … but what?

As I have said, there is no such thing as one basic or classical text that defines translation, but instinctively, I know there are basically two kinds of translation. The rest can be expressed in a ways: be, arrive, see, come, join, meet, find, go, etc. How the message is translated is not important, but it should be clear and succinct.

Secondly, I see a poem or a legal document. In all three text types — the message, the hypothetical legal document, the poem — I want to know exactly what it says and means, and in the case of the poem, a magical combination of all the resources of language, how it sounds. Further, the form of a translation may change depending on its func- tion. Thirdly, if the TL readership is in a third or fourth world country, the translation may have to combine explanation with the transfer of the original meaning. Lastly, a dense and closely reasoned original may have to be interpreted as well as translated, outside if not inside the text, if the readership is going to be enlightened.

These four types of translation, the first keeping the func- tion of the original, three with changed functions, have always been possible and practised. The first describes the sphere of the mind and of language, the second that of reality and the world. Although most modern dictionaries Collins, New Oxford, Encarta — all described as encyclopaedic dictionaries are crossing the divide, it is I think useful for the translator to retain the distinction between the dic- tionary, the word in small letters, the general object or concept, and the encyclopaedia, the capitalised name or title, the singular, the particular, the individual.

All texts are no longer sacred in principle, nor is absolute fidelity due to them, in the sense that they were sacred to the one time doyen of interpreters at the League of Nations; Jean Herbert would have committed himself to the death to any kind of text provided he had signed the contract. Further, nor do I think, like the Skopos theorists, that texts have lost their inviolability because they are just a means to an end, which is determined by the initi- ator.

When a text is deficient, it cannot be sacred, but a valid text is in principle to be respected. I would define it as a text that is prima facie logical, factually accurate, ethically sound, and elegantly written. Where a text is deficient in one or more of these factors, and is liable to provoke or mislead its putative readership, the translator would be advised to correct it if it is an information text, or, if it is a historical or authoritative text, to gloss it, outside the text in a preface or, if within the text, briefly in square brackets with a [sic], to show she disowns it.

My definition of a valid text is in principle objective, though subjective factors do lie on the edges of moral and aesthetic principles. Fourthly, the aesthetic level. It goes without saying that a valid text must first be rid of misprints, gaps, grammatical and lexical errors, inadvertent repetitions, redundancies, uncoordinated and ponderous paragraphs, the absence of which deficiencies some translation critics hail as evidence of a deep knowledge of a language.

But this is not the point at all. These are all snippets or scrap examples from the literature, assembled by Kenneth Hudson. At present all captions are in French and Dutch only, and visitors are few. When I suggested to the proprietors that the captions should also be translated into English, two English old-style BBC visitors who were addressing each other loudly and self-consciously in French, protested at the arrogance of the English me wanting everyone to learn their language.

So I asked them if they expected the Japanese or the Russians to learn French if they were keen on Magritte. Later the proprietor told me she would have the English translations done. Further, translating has become increasingly and intensively globalised and is an integral part of the expansion of travel, tourism, and the service industries, and translators often have to be found in situ.

These are more examples: Tidy and cheerful places of recreation refresh the visitor after all his efforts; The rococo wing materialises verwirklicht? Admittedly such slightly deficient texts are unlikely to deter visitors and may amuse them, but a self-respecting municipal authority should not produce shoddy and deficient texts, and I suggest that it should hire one near-bilingual reviser to every five service translators, which would at least at last legitimise the status of service translation within informa- tion translation.

Bear in mind, however, that intelligence and common sense in translation are always likely to be a greater value than natural- ness of language. The texts to be translated are government regulations, statutes, official reports, interviews with asylum seekers, statements by social service and health officials, CVs, applications for accommodation and services.

Social translation contrasts with literary and non-literary translation, which are as different as chalk and cheese, even if, like chalk and cheese, they sometimes look the same. Social translation, like imaginative litera- ture, is essentially concerned with individuals and groups and often brings home the moral of a literary allegory , but, like non-literature, its purpose is to describe them factually and accurately. The peculiar linguistic features of a social text for translation are I think its institutional terms, including its acronyms, and its words adjec- tives, adverbs, adjectival nouns, descriptive verbs of human qualities.

No Global Communication Without Translation 63 There are three special factors that affect words denoting human qualities such as nice, nasty, and values, for example, right and wrong. First, as Tytler pointed out in , words of quality like nice and nasty have no precise equivalents in most foreign languages, particularly when they are, like these examples, somewhat colloquial. Secondly, though many may originate from a common medieval Latin, and designate universals, they are affected in the course of time by cul- tural and regional factors, and sometimes change substantially in meaning.

So here is where most of the famous false friends and deceptive cognates come from. Thirdly, words of human quality veer between positive, sometimes neutral, and negative attitudes which define the whole tone of a text, and the translator has to sense the appropriate one. Looking at the epoch-making Universal Declaration of Human Rights, more than 50 years after its publication, one notes that French and Italian still stick to the historical Rights of Man, which Canadian French has changed to Rights of the Person.

The English version has the three classical untranslatable keywords privacy, home and fair from fair play. I propose now to review the official translations of these words, which have such powerful meanings outside their contexts. For home, there is French domicile, Spanish casa, Italian domicilio, Russian shilishcha, dom; only German keeps the full denotative and pragmatic meanings in Heim watered down in nach Hause ; the others alternate between general words and legal terms. Again, the other languages shift to a more formal register, and the educated Billigkeit comes closest to the English.

For the rest, note that standard, that is, a recognised level, is a unique and indispensable English word other languages flounder with variants of ideal and even task and target. We should be so lucky. Later Modes of Translation I am not qualified to discuss the various modes of machine or com- puter aided translation but it is evident that, unless a text consists mainly of standardised language, pre-editing in the SL and post-editing in the TL will always be required if the job is to become worth the money, which is a main consideration in a general text.

Terminology being standardised is closely related to MT machine translation , and this field too is developing as fast as the computer generations. The relative importance of words and music in opera, oratorio, cantata and song is always an issue. Normally, the words are the essential key to the meaning which lies entirely in the music. Thus the sound of the words and the quality of the writing are not as important as the straight meaning of the text or of the translation.

Recently a BBC producer defended this omission on the ground that artists do not like seeing listeners with heads buried in programmes. Personally I do not think one can appreciate or understand vocal music of any kind without knowing the words and texts well. A few years ago such appreciation was enhanced by the introduction of surtitles, the translations of opera texts projected above or alongside the stage; this has been extended to foreign plays, and I hope Lieder texts and their translations will soon appear on personal videos.

They will need sensitive translators like Richard Stokes, who has already compiled admirable translations of German selected by Fischer-Dieskau and French songs. Unlike other avant-garde composers, Philip Glass cf. Gorecki is the reverse of tedious, but it is not serious music. Nevertheless the audience would be lost without the surtitled trans- lations. The Assessment of Translations Given the increase in types and quantities of translations throughout the world, and, lagging behind, the increased number of Schools of Trans- lation with their degrees, postgraduate degrees, and diplomas, it is not helpful to continuously leave the subject of translation assessment to isolated individuals like Juliane House, with a few chapters in Hatim and Mason , Dollerup and Lindegaard , me, and one or two others.

Even the examination marking scheme of the Institute of Lin- guists International Diploma in Translation is not generally known or it is ignored, and examination boards and examiners are not aware of the literature. In any event, what is required in this or that national educa- tional system are separate conferences of literary and non-literary trans- lators and teachers, with the participation respectively of publishers and employers, for the purpose of establishing some minimum areas of agreement on the assessment of exams.

Questions to be discussed should include the definition and importance of linguistic and factual accuracy; the weight of text and word in various text-types; the relative impor- tance of trouvailles happy renderings and various categories of mistakes howlers, barbarisms, solecisms, faults, errors, slips all in relation to the commonness of the word and its referential importance in the text; the context-independence of a translation; the fluency or stiffness of a translation.

Further, normal deviations should be distin- guished from creative deviations, which are pluses to be regarded as trouvailles: 1 Replacing any poor writing in information texts, technical reports instructions, and publicity by fresh writing. Here I think the creative deviation is mandatory. It is time the imbalance is corrected.

New York: Random House. Austen, Jane Persuasion. London: Zodiac Press. Brooke, Rupert The Collected Poems. London: Cape. Brookner, Anita A Family Romance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Arendt ed. Illuminations pp. New York: Schocken Books. Die Darstellungsfunktion der Sprache. Campbell, Stuart Translation into the Second Language.

London: Longman. London: Routledge. London: Macmillan. Neubert ed. Newmark, Peter A Textbook of Translation. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall International. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Stokes, R. London: Gollancz. Tytler, Alexander Essay on the Principles of Translation. Amsterdam: Ben- jamins. Zeldin, Theodore Translation and civilization. Taylor, E. McMorran and G. Exeter: Elm Bank Publications. Of course, the fidelity or, if you like, the loyalty owed to the original does not necessarily force translators to produce nothing but a mere copy.

It is true the poetic quality of the original may, on the face of it, have disappeared. The author has certainly not disappeared. As much as possible of the truth of the original is kept, though in rough, unhewn shape to be subtly sublimated by the poet who transforms this raw material into new poetic grandeur. Yet translating poetry is never tantamount to producing something entirely new. Similarly, though with quite a different effect, translations for pri- marily informative purposes may reflect SL features to an often excessive degree, seemingly marring TL conventions. They have to get a glimpse of the linguistic and stylistic usages familiar to their new customers by reading through the lines of the often literal translations of typical advertisements produced in the target area.

It is perhaps a moot point whether the latter tech- nique is, strictly speaking, still translating, or what Brian Harris, referring to prevalent practice in bilingual Canada, has called co-writing Harris, However varied the tasks translators have to cope with in their profession, in the past as well as in the present, they are doing a service both to society and to individuals and groups with varying interests. And this service, bridging gulfs between speakers of different languages and members of contrasting cultures, puts translators in a double-bind.

They have to serve two masters, though they often enough know only too well that one of the two, the SL author or the TL audience, may not always get an even share. But a share it is, whatever translators may think is their own achievement in the process. They are mediators who would not be needed had there not been an activating or motivating impetus from a source that, for whatever reason, calls for a target text TT in the context of another language.

The consequence is a functional shift: a new need for an old text. Originals, however perfectly they may have served in their old environment, have to be redone, even at the cost of losing something. Reaching an entirely new audience that has cried out for them or that they are targeted to reach is made possible by the unique achievement of the translator.

And it is precisely as a result of performing this multifaceted service that translations tend to vary in kind, but never in nature. Its creativity is derived. Although he has pointed out more recently that he would no longer use these two categorical terms with the ori- ginal rigour, I think their conceptual core, i. Are there? Or have we not rather two ways of looking at basically one kind of translation demanding different methods to solve different translation problems within one particular translation?

But I have always been a bit wary of its methodological stance. I think semantic and communicative are perfectly legitimate and necessary pointers to certain aspects of the trans- lation process. But, and this is my point, they refer to quite different levels of analysis. In particular, semantic translation highlights the attempt of the translator to grasp the full meanings expressed in the source text ST and to render as much as possible into the TL version.

Of course, this will always remain an approximation. Linguistic meanings, as was convincingly shown by Firth ; cf. Though contextualised by use, they are intricately linked to the total meaning potential held in store by the SL. Carrying meanings across and trying to recover them in the trans- lation involves unavoidable losses because the new expressions are part and parcel of another semantic system.

Jacob Grimm, more than years ago, expressed this truth by a very telling nautical metaphor. Experienced trans- lators have often worked wonders by using a vast repertoire of procedures, meant to reduce irrevocable semantic losses to a minimum. Communicative translation, by contrast, is not about procedures. Its con- ceptual status is on a much higher level of abstraction.

Every text, whether it is a poem or a prosaic message, is a communicative event. Literary as well as non-literary translations have communicative intentions or func- tions. I would think, however, that depth or comprehensiveness are matters of degree, at least with regard to translation. Of course, the world of texts per se in any language without regard to translation represents an enormous range of types.

And one can make a case that literary texts are in a way apart from all other text tokens because they are mimetic. They create a world of their own. Though they may be linked in many ways to the actual world of their creators, they are fundamentally fictitious, creations of the mind, subtle sublimations of reality outside and within us. Yet once materialised into spoken or written symbols, they communicate some- thing, as a rule, to an audience or, if need be, only to their own creator, who had no other persons but just self-expression in mind.

And it is as objects of communication that texts, any text, can be subjected to trans- lation. All translations, in this sense, are communicative acts. Of course, Newmark, in coining the term, had something quite differ- ent in mind. And it should exhibit all the linguistic and stylistic features used by typical target communicators.

In short, communicative translation should read like normal communication in the TL. Thus for Newmark, as far as I can see, communicative, just as semantic, denotes attributes of trans- lations. These are actually semiotic relations, having to do with texts and either meanings or users. The two approaches may rather be seen to be complementary. Semantic choices are filtered by communicative qua pragmatic intentions. Just as in the ST the meanings are the underpinnings of its communicative function, their reconstruction in the TT should serve the same purpose, provided the translation is supposed to have the same intent as the original.

A communicatively satisfy- ing translation can just as well be semantically congruous. At least, there is always a scale applying to units of translation from single words to phrases up to the whole text. To render them into the TT translators negotiate semantic-cum-pragmatic choices. At the same time semantic deficiencies have to be consistently eliminated without jeopardising communicative effects, i. The practice of poetic translation as well as of non-literary or technical translation abounds in examples of how such responsible matching of semantic and communi- cative qua pragmatic concerns can be achieved.

He derives this translation type from social texts. Evidently, Newmark isolates a general translation category from a particular genre of texts. Making statements about, for instance, the translatability of words in these texts can result in somewhat tenuous distinctions. After all, is there really a particular use of lexical items, such as of adjectives and nouns denoting a quality which is idiosyncratic? It goes, of course, without saying that translating a UN document has to take into account the relevant textual requirements. A technical text, for instance, contains many tech- nical terms, which demand from translators the technical expertise to render them into available technical equivalents.

The need often arises that loans or technically acceptable paraphrases have to be used. Thus technical terms are an attribute of technical translation. Similarly, in the past poetic translation was characterised by poetic diction. But long since this has given way to practically every kind of word, everyday to highly abstract or even technical, being used in poetry and hence its translation.

Actually, it is a moot point to assert that there is a restriction as to which words should be used in a particular translation type. Instead, the institutionalised among them certainly abound in technical words, typically employed in the vari- ous institutional settings, often historical or culturally determined. Making absolute statements about the translatability of those words is, I think, quite problematic. Quite apart from the implication that an irrecon- cilable lexical gulf could impair the universal validity of, say, the UN Declaration of Universal Human Rights, claims about the untranslatability of keywords cannot possibly be maintained.

It is, actually, but a common dictionary equivalent, quite a poor rendering of the UN document. Translation can achieve this because the contextualisation occurs already in the original, with the translator making expert use of this pervasive feature of mono- lingual, in fact all, communication. This loan from semiotics would also put the term on the same footing as semantic, facilitating the use of the two attributes as either meaning centred or user centred.

But I am afraid communicative has acquired at least just as many meanings, which pair it rather inadequately with semantic, the latter being invariably involved in any communicative act. Incidentally, the four attested quotations all translate easily into German: e. This reading is corroborated by examples two and three, provided they occur in a social text.

Is there perhaps semantic overlapping between senses 1 and 2, which is not made explicit in the translation but is a consequence of the context supplied by the genre? London: Oxford University Press. The Warriors Common. Special Gift Collection Common. Warrior Collection A Rare. All Normal Monsters Common. All Normal Monsters Alternate artwork Common. All at Random Common. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Check translation. Hidden categories: Card pages with an unofficial Arabic name Card pages with an unofficial Croatian name Card pages with an unofficial Greek name Card pages with an unofficial Thai name.

Millenniumsschild Check translation. Scudo del Millennio Check translation. Escudo Milenario Check translation. A famous shield said to belong to an ancient Egyptian Pharaoh. Legends tell of its power to block any strong attack. Uno scudo famoso che si dice appartenesse a un antico Faraone Egiziano. Le leggende narrano del suo potere di bloccare qualsiasi forte attacco. Las leyendas hablan de su poder para bloquear cualquier ataque poderoso. The Eternal Duelist Soul.

A Millenium item, it's rumored to block any strong attack. The Sacred Cards. One of the infamous and eagerly sought Millennium items. It is said to withstand any attack , however hard.