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Thus, before returning to the question of Op.

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On 15 March , he composed his first string quartet, K. In its original shape, this work had three movements, ending with the Minuetto. A fourth movement, Rondeau , was added more than three years later. There is no evidence that Mozart received a commission for one or more string quartets. In the context of his Lucio Silla , which premiered in Milan on 26 December , he may have felt the need to present himself to his public with a series of string quartets.

This does not exclude the possibility that his father tried to commercialize the quartets afterwards. In any case, the almost exclusive concentration upon a single genre within a fairly short time is surprising and suggests a certain demand for string quartets in Italy. In any case, the Italian character of these quartets has scarcely been substantiated through detailed analysis. The overall three-movement form is obviously Italianate, as are—in the context of the genre—in particular the Minuetto or Tempo-di-Minuetto finales of K.

These authors admit, however, that in addition to Sammartini who was by then over 70 years old , other—nowadays mostly unknown—Italian composers may also have influenced Mozart. More recently and without further explication, Finscher has even denied any influence by Boccherini on other composers. However, due to his nationalistic bias and exaggerated conclusions, his writings have received little attention. The following observations are based on closer examination of a mostly unknown even to Torrefranca contemporary repertory of eighteenth-century Italian instrumental music, especially a corpus of more than string quartets, preserved in libraries and archives in Italy and abroad.

A list of the works mentioned in this article is given in Appendix II. Our intention is not to reignite old-fashioned discussions about musical nations. The only question is where do I have a better hope of achieving prominence? In Italy —where in Naples alone there must be at least maestri and where, throughout Italy, the maestri often have a scrittura 2 years in advance from those theatres that pay well? Or in Paris, where there are 2 or 3 writing for the theatre and other composers can be counted on the fingers of one hand?

The keyboard must bring you your first contacts and make you popular with the great, then you can have something engraved by subscription, which brings in a little more than writing 6 quartets for an Italian gentleman, for which you may get a few ducats or even a snuffbox worth 3 ducats. In addition to opera, Leopold refers here explicitly to string quartets.

This is confirmed by the mixed repertories preserved in different Italian centres, apparently not limited to local traditions. Sacchini used to say, that he remembered him at Naples, where he regarded him as a young man of genius, who wrote as much in the style of that school as any of the natives of Italy; but when he heard his comic operas at Paris, many years after, he did not find that he was much improved, by composing to French words, and for French singers. However, from the small number of good composers in France, compared with those in every great city of Italy, he has enjoyed an unrivalled fame in his present station, which no composer is sure of at Venice, Rome, or Naples.

He has, at least, improved the French taste as much as they have corrupted his … A palpable indication of the impact of Italian instrumental music on the young Mozart, and particularly on his string quartets, is the omission of the repeat marks in the first movement, Allegro , of the quartet in D major K. The autograph of this quartet, the first of the Milanese quartets, reveals that Mozart had written the repeat marks initially, but then erased them. Composers like Baldassare Galuppi and Antonio Sacchini had almost no repeat signs in their string quartets.

Sonata-form movements without repeats appear in string quartets of several contemporary Italian composers. Even if by the end of the s, the characteristic features of a slow first movement and unvaried key in all three movements occasionally also appeared in works by German-Austrian composers, 62 the chronological and geographical circumstances suggest that Mozart became acquainted with this form during his stay in Italy and from Italian string quartets.

Criteria for the sonata-rondo have been defined in different ways, according to whether Haydn or Mozart should be declared the first classical composer to have used the form. Thus the similarity between this episode and the development section of the sonata form had already emerged in the early s. The last movement of K.

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Fisher conjectures an Italian tradition where the rondo—independently from any definitive mould—was combined with features of sonata form. Gaetano Brunetti, Symphony No. Surely these are quite different from the first Italianate attempts? For do they not reflect the Austrian and even the specifically Viennese ambience in which they were produced?

Mozart composed the six quartets K. The first movement of K. The finales of K. He noted several features, among them the fugue finales of K. This parallel has lost much of its potency since the Haydn fugal finales have been shown to be not an isolated phenomenon, but part of a broad Viennese tradition. Yet this hypothesis, too, may be questioned, for two reasons.

Tonal Theory Supplemental Examples

First, it is difficult to document a continuous Viennese tradition of string-quartet fugues from the s on. Secondly, the hypothesis of a genuine Viennese tradition of fugues for string quartet ignores the existence of the same phenomenon in Italian compositions of the s and early s. Italian composers may not have been the first to write fugues for string quartet; Viennese composers, however, were certainly not the only ones.

Pietro Alessandro Guglielmi, Quartetto 4 del Sig. Ballabene, String Quartet in D major, 3rd mvt. According to Kirkendale, in Italy two other—less frequent—groupings were also possible: either quartets with and without fugue alternated, or only the first or the second half of the set had fugue finales in both cases there are three quartets with fugue. If the order of the quartets K.

Other compositions by Mozart from the same year show Italian features, for instance his symphonies K. Before continuing with compositional aspects that K. At the centre of the movement is a short sonata allegro bb. This Allegro assai is framed by a slow introduction Adagio , bb. Some scholars have pointed out a similarity to the French Overture. Some do not distinguish between a slow and a fast tempo, nor are the introduction and final section comparable in length.

Brown does not mention one outstanding example of a similar frame form by Haydn: the first movement of his Symphony No. Italian string quartets and symphonies with framed movements this feature appeared in both genres include, for example: Gregorio Ballabene, Quartetti a due Violini, Viola e Basso : quartet in G major, first movement.

Giuseppe Michl : quartet in D major, first movement. The slow introduction bb. It is more plausible instead that both partook of a common practice, used in symphonies as well as in string quartets. The most striking is a phenomenon identified by two scholars simultaneously. Seiffert described a characteristic method of structural period building by Mozart with the term Absatzformel : harmonic organization between sections in sonata form movements is achieved by semi cadences, clearly separated from the next section usually by a rest and highlighted by the use of formula-like signs.

Later, for instance in the recapitulation, the same caesura is followed by the tonic instead of the dominant. With regard to the harmonic progression in the exposition and recapitulation of sonata-form movements, Seiffert lists three types of Absatzformeln : Mozart, String Quartet in F major, K.

Carl Friedrich Abel, Quartett [ i ] del Sig. Pietro Alessandro Guglielmi, Sei Quartetti per Clavicembalo, due Violini e Violoncello … London, : quartet in C major, first movement; in B flat major, first movement; in D major, first movement all Absatzformel type 2. Anton Kammel, Quartett [ o ] del Sig. Hammell [ sic ] copies of Six Quartettos for two Violins, a Tenor, and Violoncello obligato, opera IV London, : quartet in D major, first movement; in A major, first movement; in C major, first movement; in B flat major, first and second movements all Absatzformel type 1.

Giuseppe Michl : quartet in B flat major, first movement Absatzformel type 2. Giovanni Mosel, Quartetti : quartet in D major, second movement; in B flat major, first movement both Absatzformel type 1. Cirri, String Quartet in E flat major, 1st mvt. As mentioned above, with their four movements and further details coda-forms, for instance they are also related to a German-Austrian tradition. Above and beyond the undisputed qualities of his Op. By way of illustration, it may be helpful to take a closer look at a few specific examples:.

Haydn, String Quartet in B minor, Op. Mozart, String Quartet in G major, K. Mozart, String Quartet in B flat major, K. Mozart, String Quartet in E flat major, K. Mozart seems not to have made use of such procedures before. This cannot be taken for granted, since linguistic and musical accentuation must coincide. This is also a typical feature of the Milanese first-movement Allegros K. By contrast, in his Viennese series we find quinario declamation more often in the slow movements, for instance at the beginning of the third movement of K.

Giovanni Carli Ballola Milan, Pugnani, String Quartet in E flat major, 4th mvt. Menuetto Grazioso , first part of the minuet, bb. Mozart proceeded similarly in the finale minuets the last of three movements of his Milanese quartets in G major K. Although with fifty-two bars it is shorter than his Milanese finale minuets, it shows a short contrasting motif in the dominant key area bb. This motif is varied in the development section bb. Similarly built is the Menuetto of the string quartet in C major K.

So when Mozart, in the third movement of his G major quartet K. Both the declamation style and the sonata form minuet are witnesses to the continued existence of Italian practice in these works. The last part of this article will consider the formal implications of these experiences. In his Elementi teorico-pratici di musica 2 vols.

Secondo motivo Uscita di tono Passo caratteristico, o Passo di mezzo Periodo di cadenza Coda Galeazzi, Elementi teorico-pratici della musica , ii Rome, , table 7, example 1, first part exposition. As Galeazzi apparently did not know Mozart, we may assume that his description is based on Italian compositions and that Mozart was closer to this practice than Haydn was. A striking example is the first of the Milanese quartets, K. In the recapitulation this part is augmented to twelve bars bb. Harmonically, this new motif is integrated into the transitional process, comparable to K.

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In the transition, Haydn usually works with material from the first motif. Table 3 presents an overview of the expositions in the first movements of Op. T able 3 Expositions in first movements in Haydn's Op. Haydn Op. Details of these overviews may be open to discussion. This new theme leads directly into a series of cadential bars bb. The five chromatic crotchets in bars —4 serve as a very short codetta.

Obviously, the contrast of fugal and galant style within the same movement is integrated in a conventional sonata-form exposition as described by Galeazzi. This is continued in the development and recapitulation. The first part bb. After sixty-seven bars bb.

Muzio Clementi: Piano Sonatas, Op. 25 No. 6, Op. 33 No. 1, Op. 50 Nos. 1 & 3

His response, however, seems to have been much more pluralistic in inspiration than hitherto assumed. This should not be at all surprising. Traditional readings, especially of his motivic work in the widest sense, do not represent the whole picture. Next comes a lovely slow movement, Ruhig und mit freiem Vortrag Peaceful and free in tempo.

The finale, Feurig und schwungvoll fiery and swinging is energetic and uplifting. Hans Huber was born in the Swiss town of Eppenberg. After graduating he held a number of positions before being appointed a professor at the Basel Conservatory, where he served as director between He composed in virtually every genre and many of his works were for long years part of various repertoires and the only works by a Swiss composer that were regularly performed outside of Switzerland.

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  • mozart’s ‘lodi’ quartet k. 80 and the ‘milanese’ quartets k. 155–160!
  • More by Franz Schubert.
  • Lit Noir 3;
  • Piano Sonata No.1, Op.33 (Milhaud, Darius);
  • Free sheet music : Clementi, Muzio - Op - 3 Piano Sonatas (Piano solo).

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