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The model for these poets was Giuseppe Ungaretti. Born, like the Futurist Marinetti, of Italian parents in the cosmopolitan Egyptian seaport of Alexandria, Ungaretti studied in Paris , where among his friends were the avant-garde poet Guillaume Apollinaire and the painters Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque.

In these poems each word is pronounced in isolation, as if a petrified, shell-shocked language had to be invented from scratch. This allusive and hieratic poetry recovers many elements of the tradition and couches them in a splendid but opaque diction.

The 20th century

Thus, what in the s had appeared revolutionary proved later to be only another facet of the formalistic Petrarchan tradition. Against this background of refinement, obscurity, and unreality, only the simple and moving poems of the Triestine poet Umberto Saba preserved an immediate appeal. This development had been foreshadowed by some writers under fascism. In Alberto Moravia had written a scathing indictment of middle-class moral indifference, Gli indifferenti ; Time of Indifference.

The Harvesters ; and Elio Vittorini wrote Conversazione in Sicilia ; Conversation in Sicily ; all definitely promised a new literary development. Certain English authors, the homegrown veristi , and the ideas of Marxism were also an influence on postwar authors, to whom in varying degrees the rather imprecise label of Neorealism applied also to postwar Italian cinema was attached. It was a stimulating time in which to write, with a wealth of unused material at hand.

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The Estate in Abruzzi ]. The Naked Streets ] and Metello [; Eng.

The Priest Among the Pigeons. Literary tastes gradually became less homogeneous. On the one hand, there was the rediscovery of the experimentalism of Carlo Emilio Gadda , whose best works had been written between and For this reason, it is easier to see Italian writing in terms of individual territory rather than general trends. Italo Calvino concentrated on fantastic tales Il visconte dimezzato [; The Cloven Viscount ], Il barone rampante [; The Baron in the Trees ], and Il cavaliere inesistente [; The Nonexistent Knight ] and, later, on moralizing science fiction Le cosmicomiche [; Cosmicomics ] and Ti con zero [; t zero ].

Antonio in Love ]. Meanwhile, Alberto Moravia and Mario Soldati defended their corners as never less than conspicuously competent writers. Moravia generally plowed a lone furrow. Of his mature writings, Agostino ; Eng. Empty Canvas stand out as particular achievements. Set in Rome during the years —47, the combination of fact and allegory is a tour de force and one of the most remarkable narrative works that came out of Italy after World War II. Palomar , continue to explore the possibilities and limitations of literature and its attempt to represent our world. Paradoxically, of all the forms of writing, poetry seems to be the form that was most vibrant during the second half of the 20th century, although one late 20th-century critic remarked that there might have been more poets in Italy than readers of poetry.

Cucchi and Giovanardi recognized that, in talking about the new poetry, they had to take into account the older, established poets who continued to write and publish verse in their mature years and who inevitably influenced the emerging poets. Poets of the so-called Fourth Generation—from the title of a anthology of postwar verse edited by Pietro Chiara and Luciano Erba—include Erba himself and the poet and filmmaker Nelo Risi, both of them Milanese, as well as the Italian Swiss Giorgio Orelli.

Other Fourth Generation poets of note are epigrammatist Bartolo Cattafi; Rocco Scotellaro, poet of the southern peasant and the most convincing practitioner of Neorealism in verse; the eloquent soliloquist and elegant metricist Maria Luisa Spaziani; Umberto Bellintani, who, though he continued to write, quit publishing in ; and the hypersensitive Alda Merini, for whose work critics find the oxymoron Christian paganism, joyful grief, religious eroticism, mortal liveliness a useful figure.

During the s several younger poets began publishing. Trained as a psychoanalyst, Cesare Viviani made a Dadaist debut, but he went on to express in his later work an almost mystical impulse toward the transcendent. Maurizio Cucchi was another Milanese poet and critic assimilable to the linea lombarda ; when faced with the collapse of the greater constructs, he found solace in little things.

Also notable are Mario Santagostini, whose early work described the drab outskirts of his native Milan but who moved on to more metaphysical monologues, and Biancamaria Frabotta, who combined militant feminism with an elevated lyric diction tending toward the sublime. As with previous avant-garde movements, starting with Futurism, the members of the enlarged Gruppo 63 , who insisted on the inseparability of literature and politics, proposed to subvert the inertia of a repressive tradition through a revolution in language.

The traditional literary language, they claimed, was the medium of bourgeois hegemony , and a radical change in the language of literature would somehow shake off the oppression of the military-industrial complex and lead to a general social and political liberation. This does not seem to have happened, and with the passage of time the members of the group dispersed, going off in different individual directions as their concerns became less public and more personal.

He first experimented in this direction when he was invited by Federico Fellini to collaborate on the screenplay of Casanova Another isolated experimental poet was polyglot Amelia Rosselli, who was born in Paris and was a resident of London and New York City before living in Rome. A musician who developed a complex metrical theory based on notions derived from musical theory, Rosselli published a volume of poetry in English Sleep [] in addition to her work in Italian. After her suicide in , the reputation of this troubled poet continued to grow. A remarkable aspect of 20th-century poetry composed in Italy was the proliferation of cultivated poets who rejected what they saw as the pollution, inauthenticity, and debased currency of the national language.

They chose to express an up-to-the-minute nonfolkloristic content, not in supraregional standard Italian but in a local dialect, seen as purer or closer to reality. Italy has always had a tradition of dialect poetry. During the 19th century two of the greatest writers of the period of romantic realism, Carlo Porta and Giuseppe Gioachino Belli, made the oppressed common people of Milan and of Rome, respectively, the protagonists of their works.

Actor-playwright Eduardo De Filippo was a prolific author who came into his own after World War II with a series of plays, which included Napoli milionaria! Napoli Milionaria and Filumena Marturano , film ; Eng.

Italian Cinema and the age of Nino Rota

Filumena , which, though written in his native Neapolitan dialect, paradoxically achieved international success. Among the last champions of the primacy of the written theatrical text were Pasolini and the Milanese expressionist Giovanni Testori, an uncompromising extremist who progressed from narrative fiction to the theatre and from subproletarian Neorealism to violent Roman Catholic mysticism.

Otherwise, late 20th-century Italian theatre was dominated more by innovative directors and performers than by noteworthy new plays. The feminine condition both contemporary and historical , autobiography, female psychology, and family history and relationships are among the insistent themes of the remarkable number of accomplished women writers active in Italy throughout the 20th century.

Among those whose writing in the late 19th and early 20th centuries laid the groundwork for subsequent women writers were Milanese popular novelist Neera pseudonym of Anna Zuccari ; Neapolitan journalist Matilde Serao , the best of whose 16 social novels is Il paese di cuccagna ; The Land of Cockayne ; humanitarian socialist poet and fiction writer Ada Negri; and anticonformist feminist activist Sibilla Aleramo pseudonym of Rina Faccio , best known for her autobiographical novel Una donna ; A Woman.

Antifascist Natalia Levi wrote under the last name of her husband, the critic Leone Ginzburg, who died in a fascist jail not long after they were married. Her fiction, best exemplified by Lessico famigliare ; Family Sayings , explores the memories of childhood and middle-class family relationships.

In such later novels as Voci ; Voices and Buio ; Darkness she turned to the popular genre of detective fiction to explore the problem of violence against women.

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In in Rome, Maraini founded the feminist theatre collective La Maddalena, for which she subsequently composed more than 60 plays. The case of Gesualdo Bufalino is not dissimilar to that of Satta. He went on to publish several other novels. A truly postmodern phenomenon is that of Umberto Eco , a University of Bologna professor, philosopher, and semiotician who progressed from analyzing genres and deconstructing texts composed by others to synthesizing and constructing his own.

Their novel Q ; Eng. Q narrates the clash between Roman Catholic and Protestant religious extremists and opportunists in 16th-century Reformation Europe. In novels such as Macno ; Eng. I must say that the medals you own were conferred for two concomitant reasons: - a certain period of time spent in the war zone; - an honorable conduct in front of the enemy.

Thanks, enorepap! Maybe my bisnonno made the best pasta e fagioli in the whole Italian army! Hallo Joe I do not think he was just a cook. It seems that he knew how to use a gun These are the requirements for the award of decorations of your great-grandfather and I assure you that the WW1 Italian Royal Army did not award easily his war medals: - Commemorative Medal for the Italo-Austrian War: at least one year of mobilized service in the war zone; - Commemorative Medal of the Italian Victory: to be decorated with the previous medal and at least four months of mobilized service in the war zone; - Cross of War Merit: a proper military conduct during military operations, at least one year in the trenches or in contact with the enemy, honorably participation in some fightings of considerable importance, acts of bravery but not worthy of a valour decoration ; - Knight of the Order of Vittorio Veneto with cross and medal : to be decorated with the Cross of War Merit and at least six months of service in war.

My Great Grandfather's Medals and Service Record - Page 2 - Militaria Forums

Should I begin my search for a Unification of Italy Medal? I think so, because the commemorative medal for the unification of Italy was granted to those who had been decorated with the commemorative medal of the war and, therefore, it required the same requirements.

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This in principle, because not always the groups of medals were complete, sometimes by mistake, sometimes by disregard of the War Veterans. Originally Posted by enorepap. Probably you are right: for some reason the ribbon of the medal of the war was lost and it was exchanged with that of the inter-allied medal.

Roberto Saviano

You may also notice that the ribbon of the Cross of War Merit is much more recent and that it was secured to the jacket using the long back pins. The Cross and the Medal of Vittorio Veneto have never been worn. Raffaello Carola. Raffaello Carola is offline. One of the many heroic Italian soldiers who won the First World War. Attached Images img Just added this medal to the grouping. Contact Us - Wehrmacht-Awards. User Name.