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Retrieved 16 May International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Archived from the original on 17 April Israeli Airplay Chart. Media Forest. Retrieved 30 March Top Digital Download. Polish Airplay Top Retrieved Polish Video Chart.
Retrieved 2 July Note: Romanian and international positions are rendered together by the number of plays before resulting an overall chart. Retrieved 3 July Note: Select 'Songs — TV'.
Romanian and international positions are rendered together by the number of plays before resulting an overall chart. Note: insert into search. Retrieved July 15, Swiss Singles Chart. Number 1 TV. Retrieved 23 July Archived from the original on Polish Society of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved January 21, TF1 in French.
Archived from the original on 8 April Retrieved 5 April Categories : singles songs French-language songs Number-one singles in Greece Number-one singles in Israel Number-one singles in Turkey. Namespaces Article Talk. Only deniers were initially minted, but debasement led to larger denominations being issued. Different mints in different regions used different weights for the denier, leading to several distinct livres of different values. For much of the Middle Ages, different duchies of France were semi-autonomous if not practically independent from the weak Capetian kings, and thus each minted their own currency.
Charters would need to specify which region or mint was being used: "money of Paris" or "money of Troyes". The first steps towards standardization came under the first strong Capetian monarch, Philip II Augustus — The currency minted at the city of Tours in Touraine was considered very stable, and Philip II decided to adopt the livre tournois as the standard currency of his lands, gradually replacing even the livre of Paris, and ultimately the currencies of all French-speaking areas he controlled.
This was a slow process lasting many decades and not completed within Philip II's lifetime. The result was that from onwards, following the beginning of King Philip II's campaigns against King John, the currency used within French speaking lands was in a state of flux, as the livre tournois was gradually introduced into other areas. Until the thirteenth century and onwards, only deniers were actually minted as coin money. Both livres and sous did not actually exist as coins but were used only for accounting purposes. Between and , coins worth 1 livre tournois were minted known as francs.
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This name persisted in common parlance for 1 livre tournois but was not used on coins or paper money. The official use of the livre tournois accounting unit in all contracts in France was legislated in In , the livre tournois accounting unit was brought back. The louis was initially worth ten livres, and fluctuated too, until its value was fixed at twenty-four livres in In , the livre parisis was officially abolished.
However, the sole remaining livre was still frequently referred to as the livre tournois until its demise. The first French paper money was issued in and was denominated in livres tournois.
However, the notes did not hold their value relative to silver due to massive over—production. The Banque Royale the last issuer of these early notes crashed in , rendering the banknotes worthless see John Law for more on this system. In , under Louis XV 's minister Cardinal Fleury , a system of monetary stability was put in place. Eight ounces a mark of gold was worth livres, 9 sols so, one ounce of gold was worth approximately 4 Louis or 93 livres ; 8 ounces of silver was worth 51 livres, 2 sols, 3 deniers.
This led to a strict conversion rate between gold and silver A coin of value 1 livre was not, however, minted. Yet in a special coin minted in pure silver was produced and assigned an over-value of 1 livre.
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These re-struck coins, however, eventually were assigned the value of 18 sols. A kind of paper money was reintroduced by the Caisse d'Escompte in as actions au porteur , denominated in livres. These were issued until , alongside assignats from Assignats were backed in theory by government-held land.