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There are two slide sets in Spanish with titles that indicate that the material .. Item 8 Title Be Safe with Pesticides, Use Pesticidas con Cuidado ' Address .. and evidence of cancer, reproductive damage or mutagenic effects in animal toxicfty publicidad a la existencia de los materiales educativos en salud y proteccion.

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Einstellung der Gewerkschaften zur Gruppenarbeit (German Edition) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Einstellung der Gewerkschaften zur Gruppenarbeit (German Edition) book. Happy reading Einstellung der Gewerkschaften zur Gruppenarbeit (German Edition) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Einstellung der Gewerkschaften zur Gruppenarbeit (German Edition) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Einstellung der Gewerkschaften zur Gruppenarbeit (German Edition) Pocket Guide.

Employees and special customers are involved on a regular basis. This way the business will never run out of promising ideas. The process is described in the following. Any idea submitted will be controlled to identify similar or redundant concepts and checked for completeness, clarity and concision. If an idea is found not qualified for testing, the author will be informed by e-mail and asked to revise and re-submit his or her idea.

Eligible ideas are approved and submitted to review. All employees are requested to rate approved ideas in a web-based structure following defined criteria. A special team selects the best-rated ideas in defined intervals. These selected ideas are exported, set up as concepts, translated into all relevant languages, and submitted to consumer concept screening. Selected consumers are shown one concept each in an web-based questionnaire and are asked to answer a list of questions concerning the concept.

Additionally, consumer input on new ideas is generated. Imagine that your are an inventor and you have been asked to come up with ideas. Think about what your new product would be like. Please consider products like the one you have seen in this test only.

Chancen und Risiken einer solchen Online Community zwischen externer Steuerung und Selbstorganisation aufzuzeigen ist das Ziel dieses Beitrags. The web thus develops into a platform for personal publishing and social services, that foster human interaction and cooperation.

This development also influences the strategies that publishing houses follow when creating new online editions of their magazines and newspapers. The respective platform, NEON Online, is based on the principle of permanent content creation by the users and interaction among them, all supervised by an editorial staff. When the platform was launched in , it was positioned as a knowledge network, where users would create step by step an outgrown encyclopedia similar to Wikipedia.

However, the given system was adopted and changed by the users according to their individual interests of use. The original idea of a knowledge network thus became less and less important. Instead, the platform was used for as diverse purposes as a discussion forum, a chat, a dating pool, an online journal or a blog. The paper discusses the challenge of creating a social software spinoff of a print product and presents a typology of users. A focus lies on the element of the social self-organization of the online community, that the creators of such a platform will have to live with. Ebooks and Manuals

It is the aim of this paper to identify the opportunities and threads of such an online community between external control and self-organization. Public Internet Access Points in Developing Countries: The users and uses of shared access facilities Abstract English: "The submission will discuss the phenomenon of Internet usage from shared and public facilities in developing countries.

Whereas in western countries home access is the prevalent access model, the situation in developing countries is significantly different. As income levels are much lower compared to western countries, individual ownership of ICT tools is not a common pattern. Therefore for significant number of Internetusers has to rely on public and shared facilities. In order to learn more about this interesting pattern of Internet usage, an empirical study using different quantitative and qualitative methods has been conducted in India.

Beside observation and Interviews two standardized street-sureys have been conducted in urban areas and three different rural Internet projects have been visited. The findingsd showed, that significant differences existed between urban and rural areas, however, in both environments public use of the Internet was an important pattern. There were several applications that seemed to be interesting even for people from the lowest classes, as for example e-mail, passport-scanning and printing or VoIP. The usage from iliterate people showed an interesting pattern, as they did not use the computers themselves, but with the help of the operator.

Compared to other news types, health news usually contains information about potential risks for the personal life or well-being. Most risks are connected to genetical or biological conditions or certain aspects of the personal life style that might be difficult or even impossible to influence. Hence, although health news consumption can certainly foster learning about possible health threats, it may also instigate fear or helplessness. Anticipation of such unpleasant emotions may, in turn, prevent people from turning to such information. The theoretical approach is derived from the Informational Utility Model Knobloch et al.

In a web-based study, respondents browsed through an online health magazine featuring eight news articles. Selective exposure was unobtrusively server-based recorded and served as the key dependent variable. Moreover, in a subsequent online questionnaire, respondents were asked to indicate their health media use and their liking of the magazine and the article topics. The results will be discussed in terms of application in journalism. An evolutionary model of ICTs in knowledge production Abstract English: At the core of recent transformations in knowledge production is the rapid expansion of information and communication technologies ICTs.

This paper discusses the results of a number of empirical studies and aims at providing a framework for understanding the various aspects of changes in knowledge production with regards to the use of ICTs. This framework is based on the distinction of the knowledge production system in three levels: researching, scientizing and politicking. The emergence of ICTs provides increasing variation into the knowledge producing system by enabling new models, maps and tools to be generated that result in the communication of a wider variety of ideas and concepts.

Furthermore, the relationship of researchers with data changes, because of the availability of online data repositories and the increasing data processing capacities of computers. Our results indicate that the science system and the communication functions of the print medium are inseparable up till now. The formal communications in scientific journals result in the emergence of a system with a stable, accumulative and consistent development of knowledge production.

Additional reflexivity on this level is provided by online availability and accessibility of relevant informational resources in the field. This layer of local and temporal communications represents the interaction between science and society in a context of application involving heterogeneous actors like users, policymakers and professional organizations.

Mr Honey's Work Study Dictionary (English-German)

Research quality and intellectual significance are judged by a variety of standards such as field specific societal relevance. At this layer, an evolutionary selection —based on socio-economical criteria- occurs that involves non-cognitive standards to asses the usefulness and desirability of ideas. This evolutionary model enables us to further specify the role of ICT in knowledge production. The three layered communication system that we introduced is not a stable configuration.

Each of the communication layers may relate to the other two, which will result in the development of an emerging overlay of communications, networks, and organizations. The webbased memory clinic www. After taking part in an interactive memory check, the visitors of Gedaechtnisonline receive a feedback on different aspects of their own memory performance.

Furthermore, Gedaechtnisonline provides comprehensibly edited scientific findings about memory and memory deficiencies. More than This illustrates the attractivity of combining prevention-oriented health-information with an interactive psychological research tool. The experimental data gathered yields a considerable scientific return - — collecting this amount of data in a psychological laboratory would have taken approximately 7 man-years!

The collected data on age related changes in memory performance is consistent with results the relevant theories of memory research would predict. This documents the validity of psychological online-research in this field.

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Quizzing — Usability Simulation in Product Development Abstract English: Quizzing — usability simulation in product development In the process of product development early indications are essential to find out if the acceptance, usage and goals of the development can be realized in later practice. The expansion of on-line tests also on off-line products offers here - thanks to innovative simulation methods - new possibilities not only for the upper segment.

Due to the exclusiveness of the target group, high requirements have been set to the technical and methodical realisation of this usability test. The most important requirements are: A Appealing and close-to-reality representation of the technical features with as much playing character as possible B Avoidance of functional failures due to integrated animations C Minimization of losses due to older browser versions D Integration of the simulation into a CAWI environment which offers highest flexibility and professionalism E Replacement of questions in favour of measurement and tracking mouse clicks By a demonstration of the procedure and presentation of the core results it will be shown how the spectrum of efficient and effective on-line research tools becomes wider also for off-line products.

This extension of the component system of on-line research will be discussed within the framework of pro and contra analysis - from expert and from client point of view. By pointing out further operational areas for this simulation technique the discussion will be opened. The latter just as any empirical method implies specific effects that influence applicability and range of use e.

Yet, online research is not only increasingly applied in corporate market research, amongst others to substitute face to face approaches. Beyond, corporate market research tends to gradually employ hybrid methods e. Heterogeneous but complementary approaches are for that purpose combined so as to form a suitable solution for sometimes contrary requirements. High expectations in hybrid approaches are contradictory to knowledge about their professional employment.

For this reason, a clearly defined b2b target group was addressed offline by phone and passing the screening procedure was recruited for the online survey e-mail invitation. All in all, there is much more need to encourage participants complete the survey. At the same time, the hybrid method has its advantage with the substitution of face to face interviews.

Conclusion: Taking all limitations into account, the experience with the proposed approach can be considered valuable and positive. Especially, in the context of identifying a target group through screening procedures, hybrid methods are apparently a controllable and a high quality research tool. Die Online-Forschung weist wie jede empirische Methode spezifische Effekte auf, die Einfluss auf die Anwendbarkeit und den Einsatzbereich haben z.

Insgesamt ist deutlich mehr Aufwand erforderlich, um Zielpersonen zur Beendigung der Befragung zu motivieren. Fazit: Bei Beachtung der genannten Restriktionen sind die Erfahrungen mit diesem Ansatz durchaus positiv zu bewerten. The impact of visualization of question types and screen pages on the answering behaviour in online surveys Abstract English: The impact of visualization of question types and screen pages on the answering behaviour in online surveys In online surveys there is no clear relation between question and question type.

Answer options can be realized in several ways: as single response list vertical , as single response list horizontal , drop down or drop-up menu with a determined number of answer options or without given answer options. In the case of answer scales the questioner can decide whether he wants to present all scale characteristics in full or if he wants to show only the end points; whether he wants to use numbers from e. He can also decide whether he wants to use illustrative scale characteristics such as smilies.

Often images are used as eye-catcher: A question about car usage presented with a picture of a traffic jam or presented with a picture of a free highway may lead to different results. The authors of this study believe that the choice of the question types and the design of the screen pages have a measurable effect on the answer behaviour.

For this purpose identical questions about behaviour with identical characteristics in different form were presented to participants who were drawn by random from an online panel in different stages. Weekly, within a period of 3 months, 1, people were invited to take part in a survey and different survey designs were shown to them at random. Thus data from more than 20, participants, which vary in terms of Internet experience, interview experience, gender, age and time of membership, is available.

The result of the study confirmed the thesis of the authors: the visualisation of question types and screen pages influences the answer behaviour in online surveys. On the basis of the results the authors set up a list of recommendations for the visualisation of question types and screen pages. Die Autoren dieser Untersuchung gehen davon aus, dass die Wahl der Fragetypen und die Gestaltung der Bildschirmseiten einen messbaren Effekt auf das Antwortverhalten haben.

Somit liegen Daten von ca. This presentation focuses on the description of the methodical procedure of the study. Initially the multi-tier software-architecture of the OPAC is briefly shown. The original web server log was expanded to provide additional fields for data acquisition.

Relevant data sets were identified by the referrer field. Even dropped data sets were used to gather additional information about OPAC usage e. Dispensable data fields were purged from the resulting data sets, others were transformed e. Using this data base upcoming questions e. Another approach based on session analysis dealt with the question how users coped with huge result sets. Suche in web-basierten Bibliothekskatalogen — eine quantitative Untersuchung mittels Logfile-Analyse Abstract Deutsch: Im Vortrag wird eine Studie zum Suchverhalten von Studierenden und Wissenschaftlern in Bibliothekskatalogen vorgestellt.

Diese quantitative Untersuchung basiert auf den Suchanfragen an die Online-Kataloge der Freiburger Hochschulbibliotheken. Deeplinks, Aufrufe durch Suchmaschinen-Robots. Mithilfe dieser Datenbank werden u. Eine weitere session-basierte Auswertung lieferte Informationen zum Umgang der Benutzer mit hohen Trefferzahlen.

Users posed their questions publicly to the candidates who could then answer the questions online. Thus, voters were able to get a valuable impression about their candidates. From its first day online August 3rd, kandidatenwatch. Various media stories originate from questions and answers on kandidatenwatch. During the last week of the project we ran a user survey — which more than users participated in.

We also conducted a survey among the candidates. After presenting kandidatenwatch. Finally, we will discuss further ways of research to capture the political effects that kandidatenwatch. Situational arrangements in mobile communication: a case study of the usage of mobile phones in a university library Abstract English: Situational arrangements in mobile communication: a case study of the usage of mobile phones in a university library Joachim R. Whereby this comes along with societal changes on various levels it in the first instance means that people have to find new agreements regarding the question in which types of social situations which types of communicative activities mediated or face-to-face are acceptable or not.

Do we violate the rules of adequate behaviour when our mobile phone rings in a restaurant? Is it impolite to send and receive electronic short messages SMS in the presence of others? In our presentation we will especially focus on a social setting which is increasingly confronted with such mobile phone related disturbances, namely public libraries, more precisely the library of the University of Erfurt. Based on a multi-methodological research design qualitative in-depth interviews, participant observations and standardised questionnaires we will explore how mobile phones and other mobile devices such as laptops, BlackBerries, etc.

Literature: Fortunati, Leopoldina : The Mobile phone and self-presentation. Goffman, Erving : Relations in Public. Microstudies of the Public Order. Harmondsworth: Pinguin Book. Essays on Society, Self and Politics. Vienna: Passagen Verlag, pp. Krotz, Friedrich : Die Mediatisierung kommunikativen Handelns. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Social and Interactional Aspects of the Mobile Age. London: Springer, pp. Chunchon, Korea, July , pp. Comparing government websites of developing and developed nations: a comparison of Thai and Australian Government websites Abstract English: "As people around the globe increasingly utilise the Internet for their transactions, Governments are responding in order to provide resources for users.

Previous research has suggested that comprehensiveness of the use of the internet as a tool to communicate with stakeholders, in terms of the nature the information provided and the methods used to access such information, is influenced by level of degree of internet pervasiveness e. Debreceny, et al. There is broad consensus that greater Internet pervasiveness; higher levels of governance transparency, and lower power distance all independently contribute to greater comprehensive in the use of the Internet. In this paper we have selected two countries, Australia and Thailand, that differ greatly in Internet pervasiveness, institutional transparency and the power distance dimension of culture, and then compared the nature of internet use by government departments by analysing and ranking the websites of the major federal departments, using criteria.

The sites were examined using Criteria which were adapted from criteria developed by the ProfNet Institute of Internet Marketing to suit the government specifics. The maximum score reachable was points. In order to compare Australian and Thai web sites, twenty-two Australian e-government sites were examined and compared with seventeen Thai e-government sites.

Despite the higher levels of internet pervasiveness, governance transparency, and lower power distance evident in Australia, Thai sites on balance outperformed the Australian sites in terms of handling, content, interactivity, and overall. It was evident that Australian sites have utilised the potential that the Internet offers less than Thailand and this maybe attributable to difference degree of power distance displayed in the two countries.

Titel Deutsch: Abstract Deutsch:. To unlock the value of a growing product and consumer registration database with almost 1 million registrants, Nintendo of Europe decided to establish an infrastructure for conducting research online. Key challenges were 1 the integration into an existing systems architecture, 2 sensitizing decision makers to the novel research possibilities and limitations, 3 corroborating the quality of online research results, and 4 establishing research programs to maximise the commercial value of the new survey technology.

This paper discusses the challenges faced with a special emphasis on a quantitative validation of the new research methodology. The validation reveals that the effects of an online investigation as conducted by Nintendo are, among others, contingent upon the nature of the variables deployed. It is argued that in absence of a theoretical foundation, generalisability of online methods can only be assumed on the basis of regular comparative, empirical investigations.

Key learnings which Nintendo has gained from the survey technology implementation and operation include the need to follow a structured yet flexible approach, to take active ownership, to retain a critical attitude and to create research programs that will generate resources of increasing value over time. In this way a company can not only reduce the costs for research but, perhaps more importantly, it may gain new sources of strategic advantage or, at minimum, maintain competitive parity in the face of increasing research sophistication within a growing industry.

Methodological aspects of analysing sequences of navigational processes during elearning using methods of optimal matching Abstract English: "While navigating in online-learning environments Learners do acquire knowledge. Issuing the effectivness and effidiency this approach dominates the current perspective on e-learning. This lecture provides a different perspective: a navigational analysis is proposed and discussed which allows the exploration of acquisition processes of learners in a hypertextual and metadata-based learning environment.

This sequence of accessed information is investigated by means of Optimal Matching Analysis Abbott , a method of analysing sequence data. Optimal Matching Analysis aims at analysing, comparing and classifying sequences of navigational processes. By combining optimal matching analysis with didactical metadata of accessed information the results can be interpretated on the base of didactical courses of navigation. Features related to the components of a typology of political engagement are examined: information provision, discussion about election issues and provision of opportunities for political action.

The research question guiding this cross-national comparative study is: In what ways and to what extent are the components of political engagement information provision, discussion, action evident on the Web sites of political actors engaged in the European Parliament election campaign? The paper expands previous analysis of the Web sites prepared for this election and suggests the contours of a more encompassing research design concerned with exploring online civic engagement in future European elections.

Reciprocity of Feedback in Internet Auctions Abstract English: The simple institution of a reputation system can play a crucial role in allowing the market to function in online auction sites. Rating transactions and making the results available to all interested actors is an important factor in promoting cooperation. In repeated one-shot dilemma games, reputation is a substitute for the iteration of games involving the same two parties. However, a necessary prerequisite for the effectiveness of the reputation mechanism is that a sufficiently large proportion of actors participate in the online reputation system.

Previous research demonstrates that the participation rates are, in fact, very high. We analyze this issue using a large-scale dataset of eBay DVD auctions for which we recorded the rating behavior of both the seller and the buyer N approx. In contrast to the results of an earlier study by Dellarocas et al. For non-cooperative actors, one would instead expect a decrease. We provide explanations for the discrepancies between our and Dellarocas et al. Flow in Azeroth. An analysis of gaming experiences in community-based online role playing games Abstract English: "With the technological opportunities of modern digital media new community forms emerge.

So called virtual communities develop on the basis of shared interests, usage preferences and other, non-media leisure activities. While traditional digital games with their emphasis on narration were solo activities, the s witness a growing interest in multiplayer games that came to life with the integration of LAN or Internet connections. These elements are embedded in a technologically challenging environment that generates a persistent world. This world does not develop through the actions of individual users but through the interactions of a virtually unlimited number of users that form a virtual community.

The gaming experience is therefore situated within the fields of social embeddedness, competition and entertainment. Thus, several questions arise: Why do people take such an effort for a game? What gratifications do they seek in the game? How do they experience the game and what makes them create persistent communities in a new, virtual world? Csikszentmihalyi, M. The Experience of Play in Work and Games. The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life.

New York: Basis Books. Demaria, R. The illustrated History of Electronic Games Vol. New York: McGraw Hill. James, D.

G.O.R. - General Online Research

International Game Developers Association. In: Communication Theory. Vol 15, Nr. Jansz, J. The Social Context of Playing Videogames. In: New Media and Society. Vol 7, Nr. Lucas, K. A Communication-Based Explanation. In: Communication Research. Papendick, S. Peuter, G. The Interaction of Technology, Culture and Marketing.

Poole, S. Video Games and the Entertainment Revolution. New York: Arcade Publisher. Sherry, J.

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  5. Yee, N. Virtual Communities entstehen auf Basis gemeinsamer Interessen, gemeinsamer Nutzungsspezifika oder gemeinsamen Freizeitverhaltens. Die Fragen sind also: Warum betreiben diese Spieler soviel zeitlichen Aufwand? Welche Belohnungen Gratifikationen suchen sie im Spiel? Auswahl an relevanter Literatur: Csikszentmihalyi, M. Colleague in trouble? Or permanent trouble in the office? Various studies show that acquiring professional experience, knowledge and skills mostly happens in informal learning situations outside of instructive learning in eductional institutions.

    Beyond social support, attitudes and values are mediated. The internalization of the latter two are central for successful competence learning cp. Against the background of scientific research on development of competencies, the paper asks the question, whether profession online CoPs do indeed demonstrate a potential to support the development of professional competencies. Flash, Javascript or PHP? Comparing the availability of technical equipment among university applicants Abstract English: Modern technologies allow for a wide variety in the design of online questionnaires.

    Especially the use beyond pure HTML, e. Javascript or Flash is known to impose problems and to exclude participants. In the case of university applicants who need to apply online, everyone should be able to access the application forms. The use of Java-Applets at the university of Mannheim lead to comparatively low participation rates in the past.

    The change to server-site technology PHP lead to an online application rate of One drawback of this approach is the loss of the possibility to give immediate feedback hard and soft answer controls while responding to multiple form elements on one page. To learn more about the present coverage of different technologies Flash, Javascript, Cookies, Java, Mediaplayer, Realplayer, Quicktime, scalable vector graphics, screen resolution, browsers used in this group which is characterized by a high internet penetration rate, we collected data on more than university applicants for the summer and winter term The results show that some technologies are far more common than hitherto assumed e.

    The surprisingly high availability of several client-site technologies allows for questionnaire designs and implementations which have been hitherto avoided. The results show that the least common denominator in available technology on client-site does not necessarily need to be pure HTML-code. With the example of a long-time-survey with four periods of data collection problems regarding the technical support of longitudinal designs in online-surveys are discussed.

    The authors will present the chosen software for the survey and the procedures to manage passwords and other participant-data. These procedures should on one hand comply with regulations of data protection while on the other hand allow matching the different periods of data collection. Furthermore, the provision of incentives that not only meet the needs of participants and help to ensure their commitment over several years but also take into account the online-character of the survey is discussed.

    Finally the authors assess success and quality of the applied instruments with help of the analysis of the first period of data collection. Lorem-Ipsum Covering as a method to measure attention allocation on websites — An alternative to Site-Covering? Abstract English: The attention allocation , concerning a website, is most examined by using Eye-Tracking-Methods. But these laboratory-procedures are expendable. As alternative to these disadvantages the Site-Covering-Method was suggested Wilhelm et al. This technique can be used online, has a higher usability and is less expensive.


    At this method the website is covered with grey-transparent arrays with the intention to blur the information behind every array and to avoid its reception. An array gets uncovered by mouse-clicking on it, thereby information selection and step-by-step attention allocation are recorded. The Results of this method obtain a quite good conformability with the results of Eye-Tacking-Methods. But for this method there is a disadvantage as well. The only difference is the way of covering the arrays. At the Lorem-Ipsum-Covering-Method the arrays are covered semantical.

    Texts are transformed into pseudo Latin Lorem Ipsum and pictures are changed on their pixel base, without changing the layout of the website. Although the reception of picture and text information is blocked the kind of information and its complexity can be recognized. For comparing these methods an experiment with four websites was realized. The results show that both Covering-Methods are equally able to capture the attention allocation on websites like the usual Eye-Tracking-Method does.

    There is only a lack of capturing the orientation phase because there is no uncovering by the viewer even though he has fixations. However the behaviour of uncovering seems to differ. At the Lorem-Ipsum-Method the behaviour is dominated by the view, that means uncovering follows fixation. At the Site-Covering-Method the behaviour is channelled by schema, what means the fixation follows uncovering. Further the Site-Covering-Method was noticed by the viewer to be more disturbed and it was easier to perceive the information behind the cover without uncovering comparing to the Lorem-Ipsum-Method.

    The poster will present the exploration, the results and discuss the following consequences. Abstract Deutsch: Die Aufmerksamkeitsverteilung beim Betrachten einer Webseite wird meist mit Blickregistrierungsmethoden untersucht. Hierbei wird die Webseite mit grau-transparenten Feldern abgedeckt, die die Information verschleiern und ihre Rezeption verhindern. Wird ein Feld angeklickt, erscheint die verdeckte Information, wodurch sukzessive Aufmerksamkeitsverteilung und Informationsselektion erfasst und in ein Logfile geschrieben werden.

    8.2 Typen von Gruppenarbeit und Partizipation

    Die Methode hat allerdings den Nachteil, dass sie keine Bilddominanzeffekte und Eyecachter identifizieren kann. Visibility Analysis on the Web as an Indicator for Public Attention on Political Issues Abstract English: The web has already been discovered as an easily accessible and rich source of information for knowledge discovery. Results from the field of web mining have shown how real world events influence the visibility of topics on the web, which is measurable with simple methods like hit counts of a search engine. People who are concerned about certain topics often participate in web-based communication processes on these topics, thus evoking a rise in topic visibility.

    This talk proposes the use of visibility analysis as an indicator for political research. The concepts of visibility and covisibility are presented. Their use for measuring and monitoring public attention on political topics is discussed using recent examples. To improve the quality of the measured visibilities, an approach based on semantic networks is used.

    References: 1 Kiefer, P. The role of personality in knowledge management Abstract English: In organizational knowledge management online information exchange often turns out to be a social dilemma: For an individual employee the contribution of information causes costs time, effort and does not provide any benefit. Only other group members benefit from this contribution of information herein after referred to as cooperation. In terms of an Aptitude-Treatment Interaction ATI it is supposed that such an awareness tool is not equally effective for all persons. It is rather assumed that interindividual differences regarding some traits make different persons react unequally to the awareness tool.

    In fact the laboratory study reported here shows that persons with high trust Rotter, , in others high trusters are indeed more cooperative, but persons with low trust low trusters can be prompted to be equally cooperative by feedback about cooperative behavior of others. However, high trusters are not affected by such feedback.

    Here it can be seen as well that positive feedback can prompt persons with low experience seeking to be as cooperative as high experience seeker, whereas those are not affected by such feedback. However, feedback about cooperative behavior of others makes the protective self-monitors significantly more cooperative. The presentation analyzes the basics of the reported ATI-effects und discusses approaches for further research and practical applications. Lediglich andere Gruppenmitglieder profitieren von dieser im folgenden als Kooperation bezeichneten Informationsweitergabe.

    At least in western countries this seems to be more and more independent from socio-economic status, formal education and gender. Structure is nothing beyond actions but their medium and outcome — they are recursively related. Thus structural properties of social systems do not exist outside of action but are chronically implicated in its production and reproduction.

    This is the background of an online-survey study with teen users of an online-counselling service, which referred to subjective appraisals of availability and satisfaction with different support giving people offline mother, father, friends, teacher, social workers, intimate etc and within the multi-dimensional online-counselling service, including the potential support of other users, trained peer-counsellors, and professional adult counsellors. The first findings tend to indicate the "matthew effect" one more time: Kids with heterogeneous supporting people offline, finding more heterogeneous supporting people online.

    Kids with no or only few supporting people offline, tend to be more often to be 'only' lurkers within the forum-based counselling service. Results of this study are presented and discussed in a network-theoretical perspective in order to enlighten the relational inequality of social relations in the net. Den Probanden wurde im Rahmen der Befragung ein orthogonal reduziertes Haupteffektedesign mit neun Produktalternativen vorgelegt.

    Es handelte sich dabei um den Kauf eines MP3-Players. Hierzu wurden unterschiedliche Items vorgelegt, die von den Befragten auf einer 6-stufigen Ratingskala beurteilt werden mussten. A Comparison of the validity of a paper based and an online Conjoint Analysis Abstract English: The data for a Conjoint Analysis is traditionally gathered by personal interviews. Hence, reaching a sample, which is big enough for a Conjoint Analysis, is highly expensive and time consuming. By changing the data collection process from a paper based personal interview to the Internet, it is easier to contact larger number of people within a shorter amount of time.

    In addition, collecting the data on the Internet is a more cost effective method compared to a paper based personal interview. However, it is questionable if the data, which is gathered by using the World Wide Web is of the same quality as data, which is gathered the traditional way. Therefore, a scientific study was conducted in order to compare the validity of two data sets, where one data set was the result of a paper based survey and the other data was the result of an online survey.

    To be able to compare the two methods an online survey and a paper based survey were conducted for four weeks each. However, the two samples did not consist of the same test persons. But the demographic, gender and the profession of the persons who took part in the surveys was similar. In addition, the test questions were identical.

    While taking the survey the test persons were asked to rank and rate nine specific MP3 players according to their preference. These specific products were derived from an orthogonal main effect plan.

    Since ranking and rating nine different stimuli is a rather complicated task, it had to be assured that the test persons could visually move the stimuli. Special product cards for the paper based survey assured that the test persons, who took part in the paper based survey also had the possibility to visually rank the nine products. At the end of the questionnaire several questions about the degree of difficulty had to be answered on a six point rating scale by the test persons. The comparison of the data is done in two ways. First the personal judgments of the test persons regarding the degree of difficulty are compared.

    Second certain validity criteria are used to compare the quality of the data on an individual as well as on aggregate level e. Persons R and Kendalls tau and prognostic validity e. Hit Rate. Digital Divide in Europe? Patterns of Internet usage witin the EU Abstract English: As the Usage of internet is advances more and more within society, fears of a growing digital divide are increasingly discussed. This is due to the fact, that off-liner are often viewed as being disadvantaged with respect to education, profession, pol. The paper performs an analysis of usage of internet, mobile communication and use of e-commerce in private households within the EU.

    By means of international representative data, gained in in all member countries of the EU, it is shown, in how far a digital divide still exist. The analysis is done within countries, especially comparisons between different socioeconomic groups, as well as between different countries on an international level. Finally different incentives and options for overcoming barriers to internet usage in different countries are discussed.

    Comment Oh, OK, hm--us. Thanks for pointing that out. I dithered about that ending for some time before sending off my post. Now that you mention it, it all sounds vaguely familiar Actually that whole sentence is constructed poorly. An "initiative" can't pass a bill. Comment One of the first ways that young BE children try to manipulate adults is by asserting "it's not fair! If I'm right, German speaking children should say the same thing - so what words do they use to say this? Comment Die Kinder sagen wie Lagygrey in 3 schon schreibt : Das ist nicht fair!

    Comment Steigerungsform: Du bist doof! Und im Zusammenhang mit Chancen verwenden wir in Deutschland das Wort "fair", nicht das Wort "gerecht". Hier wird also, im Gegensatz zu den amerikanischen Politikerbeispielen im Beitrag, zwischen "gerecht" und "fair" unterschieden. Dass es auch das Stichwort "gerechter Handel" gibt, ist kein Widerspruch, denn da geht es wirklich darum, ob alles mit rechten Dingen zugeht oder nicht.

    Nicht unfair, denn wer bereit ist, etwas in die Kamera zu sagen, muss auch damit rechnen, dass es gesendet wird. Comment wupper, My experience, as I have said more than once, is that many Germans use the word "fair" in the same way they would use "gerecht" - not based on process or "the rules', but on outcome alone. Why did "fair" find its way into the German language? No clue, but need is not always the reason why new words are introduced into a language. By "those politicians", I mean "those politicians" - I think I have demonstrated often enough that I have no problem calling a spade a spade.

    Actually, I should have said "those economists" because that is what Prof. Wilson said and I misremembered. Both sides of the political aisle are known to use "fair" in this new sense that Wilson is discussing. What people mean when they say "fair" is extremely germane to the meaning of the word. How does it happen? Well, here is an example of how the meaning of word is changing as we speak.

    Now, you find this boring or "ho-hum"; I find it very interesting. Different strokes for different folks, I guess. You may notice that I have not taken the bait, no matter how often it is dangled in front of my nose. You know, sometimes a spade really is just a spade. Comment Leider kann ich das Video hier nicht anschauen - kann also wenig zur Definition des Professors sagen.

    Aber nicht in allen. Ich kann die Regeln bis zum Anschlag ausreizen, um Gegenspieler zu behindern oder aus dem Konzept zu bringen - das ist dann gerade noch regelgerecht, aber eindeutig unfair. Beispielsweise kann ein Lehrer sagen: "Ihr macht das jetzt in Gruppenarbeit, und alle in einer Gruppe kriegen die gleiche Note, basierend auf dem Endergebnis.

    Trotzdem sollten wir Solitudinarian mindestens hier nichts vorwerfen, er? Comment It's hard to discuss the video, though, if not everyone can see the video. It might be nice if someone would at least summarize who this professor is, in what context he is speaking, and how he claims who uses the word 'fair. Sie schreibt da unter anderem "Since fairness has no colloquial equivalents in either German or French, [ Portions of his video discuss a chapter on the word "fair" published in a book by a Polish linguist who works at the Australian National University.

    His discussion on the video traces the history of the various meanings of "fair" throughout the history of the English language, how it was originally used, and how those uses can be used to understand how the word is used now. One of his points is that "fair" used to relate, primarily, to how people did business, but that now, in public discourse at least, the word relates to the outcomes. His comments related to the German ungerecht discuss the difference between the use of the English word "just" and the English word "fair". He notes that although gerecht generally means "just" - "fair" does not mean just, and is often used in circumstances where "just" wouldn't be appropriate in English.

    On a related note, I saw the Ambassador to the US from German speak last week, and he talked about how learning different languages helps people learn how to think differently, in part because different languages include words and concepts that don't exist in your native language, and you can learn to appreciate different subtleties of meaning that might not be expressed in a different language.

    Comment Thank you, both of you, for the information. It sounds to me as if the Polish-Australian professor must have just meant to write that German has adopted the English word 'fair' as an import? Is that also true of French? I don't see how you can discuss the meaning of a word like 'fair' in relation to economics without discussing political systems and their effects on people. I wonder if that's partly because in previous stages in human history, people tended to focus more on individual honesty and probity, and on balancing individual rights against each other, because the larger system, the right of rulers and institutions, was seen as given, immutable, even divinely ordained.

    But in the last century or two, we have indeed come to question more and more the fairness of systems as a whole, and to try to make outcomes better for everyone, not just for the ruling class or, now, the 'moral' majority. To me, that is indeed a progressive concept of fairness -- just as, formerly, written law was progress over brute force, monarchy was progress over tribalism, and democracy was progress over monarchy.

    But I'm not sure it matters whether you refer to it using the more common-sense, everyday term 'fairness' or the more serious, philosophical even religious? Comment Solitudinarian, 34 : My experience, as I have said more than once, is that many Germans use the word "fair" in the same way they would use "gerecht" Die Nabelschau ist zwar immer schwierig, aber dem wuerde ich ganz sicher ebenfalls widersprechen.

    Genauso wie im E kann fair auch im D die Bedeutung von "gerecht" haben, wenn es zwischen zwei gleichberechtigten Parteien differenziert. Die Kinderbeschwerde "Das ist unfair! Wenn man ein "gegenueber xxx" hinzufuegen kann, dann kann man auch "Das ist ungerecht! So ist es unfair, dass ich schon um acht ins Bett muss, bloss weil ich xxx. Das heisst, "fair" nimmt im Deutschen eine Mittelstellung zwischen anstaendig und gerecht ein.

    Es hat eine moralische Komponente des gleichberechtigten Verhaltens, die bei "anstaendig" fehlt, ist aber nicht auf Entscheidungstraeger begrenzt, wie das fuer "gerecht" der Fall ist. Der Schiedsrichter kann gerecht sein, die Spieler nur fair. Was ist daran neu? Das Englische hat kein Wort, dass alle Nuancen von "anstaendig" widergibt und man kann davon auch nicht ableiten, dass Manieren in Deutschland erfunden wurden.

    Wilson ist, dass er als Uebersetzung fuer "fair" nur "gerecht" betrachtet, nicht aber, dass es je nach Kontext auch "anstaendig" sein kann. Daher auch "fair trade": Hier steckt zwar die Idee des "gerechten Handels" dahinter, impliziert aber, dass es im Prinzip wir sind, die die Entscheidungsgewalt haben und die sich anstaendig verhalten sollen. Comment Solitudinarian, I can assure you I am very interested in the subtle differences in the meanings of words and in how the meanings of words have changed over time.

    I show this interest almost every day here posting in the forum. Even in this thread I was very curious as to when "fair" actually entered the German language. I have since learned that it has been around for a long time over years and most likely won't disappear any time soon. Of course, it's difficult to say exactly why a certain foreign word enters a language, but in this case it seems reasonable to me that there was a need for it. Because no other German word at that time covered this meaning.

    Maybe the initial impulse came from sports, but it soon became used in a wide variety of contexts. Anyway, this does interest me.


    Many most? English loan words today are completely unnecessary in German IMO. There are already German words that perfectly express the idea. Why are they adopted? I personally think that economic interests are behind a lot of it, which is sad. If there is a clear linguistic reason for borrowing a word, then that is an enrichment of the language. But cultural or economic pressure is not a good reason. Again, my personal opinions. My experience, as I have said more than once, is that many Germans use the word "fair" in the same way they would use "gerecht" - not based on process or "the rules', but on outcome alone.

    Several Germans in this thread have contradicted this. They have given their personal understanding of the difference in meaning between "fair" and "gerecht", given you examples of when they would use one word or the other and why, even quoted dictionary definitions. So far you haven't commented on any of their replies 12, 14, 19, 33, 35, You just keep maintaining your first stance.

    This is curious. Aren't their replies relevant? Maybe you just have not had enough time to digest and answer their comments. I don't understand this statement. Could you please explain this to me? What "outcome" are you or Prof. Wilson referring to in the case of the minimum wage law? You have to instead take dictation, which involves much more work. Wilson also talks about "a tacit system of rules governing behaviour", one which "varies from situtation to situation". There are "bounds that cannot be crossed". This system of rules also varies from person to person according to their political beliefs, their personal experiences and a whole range of other factors.

    The "fairness" in the minimum wage law, at least according to the supporters of the law, is about the behavior of the employer towards the employee, and in a wider sense, what society in general owes to its hardworking citizens. It's not about the employee's behavior towards his employer. What are the rules of fairness that govern the employer's behavior? When does fair treatment turn into exploitation?

    What bounds can the employer not cross? Wilson doesn't address this question in his video, but that's the answer to his own question. Like I said previously and what hm--us basically repeated in to answer Prof. The answer doesn't have to do with "outcomes"; it has to do with rules governing people's behavior in a certain situation. Where is the conflict? Comment Vielen Dank allen, die das Video zusammengefasst und sogar zitiert haben! Also auch hier ein Bezug zum Handeln nach "rules governing people's behavior in a certain situation"?

    Comment wupper, Whether you or I think cultural or economics pressure is a good reason or no for borrowing a word, it is a reason nonetheless. I see it as neither good nor bad, but this is also just personal opinion. Several Germans have contradicted my observation from experience. Oh well. It does not invalidate what I have observed. From the posters here, I have every reason to expect that they are acutely aware of the connotation the word possesses - knowledge of languages is, after all, our bread and butter well, maybe not mine so much anymore, but I use the skills whenever I have an opportunity.

    From Germans outside of fields that use English constantly, I have noticed quite often a blurring of that connotation to the point where it becomes a simple translation for gerecht. As far as to the six replies you mention, two things come to mind: one, what else can I say than what I have already said? Our experiences and thus our viewpoints differ.

    Two, you are quite right that my time is irregular and limited. I post when I can: if I have a lot of time, I post a lot. If I don't, I don't. Of the two statements you asked me to explain, only one is mine and I will explain it thus: If I have understood Prof. Wilson correctly, the word "fair" has been used as "a tacit system of rules governing behavior" in the process of individuals dealing with one another. Now, there is a tendency to use "fair" for the outcome of that process between individuals. I believe that Prof. Wilson is pointing out that it is quite easy for individuals to tacitly agree on a system of rules - these rules can vary according to each individual and his or her beliefs, experiences, etc.

    But individuals agreeing on an outcome decided by a third party, who is not involved in the dealings between those individuals, is another matter indeed. This is briefly how I interpret what Prof. Wilson is saying. To use your example, the minimum wage law is a third party deciding for others what they shall agree on. It is left neither to those individuals nor to a tacit set of rules. I was unaware that viewing the video would be so problematic for so many. If I had even suspected, I would have spared the forum this thread.

    I hope those who have not been able to watch the video so far have an opportunity later to do so, but I apologize for the irritation of posting a video that can't be seen. Comment Solitudinarian: Ich glaube, ich muss dir hier widersprechen. Es gibt nur eine neue Untergrenze. Comment Interessantes Thema. Der Gegensatz zu "fair", so wie er in dem Video intendiert ist, ist m. Die Frage des Professors, ob das Wort "fair" durch den Gebrauch in der Politik ihres eigentlichen Inhalts enthoben bzw. Nun beschreibt der Professor, dass es im Schnitt zur Akzeptanz von Teilungen, die den Auszahler deutlich bevorzugen, kommt, wenn vorher durch ein irgendwie leistungsorientiertes System bestimmt wurde, wer den Auszahler spielen darf.

    Der Grad, in dem das zu geschehen hat, ist dabei durchaus variabel, so variabel wie eine zu ziehende Lohnuntergrenze z. I'm not sure I agree. For example, in my entire freelance career, it always was a case of two individuals negotiating one party sometimes represented a company, but still. I'm pretty sure that's what happens at job interviews in the white-collar world, at least in the US.

    Don't get me wrong: I have had many conversations with Germans who evidently knew this particular nuance of "fair". But I have had many more with Germans who used it as a simple synonym for gerecht. Comment " one party sometimes represented a company, but still " For me, there's no "but still". Aber er ist nicht daran gebunden, bzw.

    Comment Absolutely. Natuerlich findest du viele solche Beispiele. Aber du wirst genausoviele E-Muttersprachler finden, die "fair" synonym zu "just" verwenden. Aber auch wenn du noch so viele Deutsche siehst, die "fair" synonym zu gerecht gebrauchen, sie benutzen "fair" ebenfalls synonym zu anstaendig. Bitte nicht falsch verstehen, aber wenn du sagst, du hoerst den Gebrauch "almost always as a direct synonym for gerecht", dann spielt dir entweder deine Erinnerung einen Streich oder deine persoenliche Erfahrung folgt aus irgendwelchen Gruenden nicht dem Sprachgebrauch: Ich kann mir nicht vorstellen, dass du "fair" im D nicht im Zusammenhang mit Sport oder in Kombinationen wie "faires Angebot" gehoert hast, was nicht synonym zu gerecht ist.

    Im Gegenteil: ich wuerde behaupten, dass "faires Urteil" im D weniger haeufig anstelle von "gerechtes Urteil" verwendet wird, als "fair ruling" im E anstelle von "just ruling". Wie gesagt, auf deine Ausgangsfrage hin: Ja, "fair" hat keine direkte Entsprechung im D was ich ohne jeden Belang finde und nein, fair hat im D genau die gleiche Bedeutung wie im E. I didn't understand either one of the statements, or Wilson's use of "outcomes", but thanks for answering. I'm still not sure why anyone would want to interpret "fair" in that manner in this context. My explanation seems much more straighforward.

    If you and Dr. Wilson want to see this as evidence of the word "fair" changing its meaning, then so be it. Maybe we will just have to disagree with each other here. Ebooks and Manuals

    Wilson is pointing out that it is quite easy for individuals to tacitly agree on a system of rules [ Well, this is where I also have to disagree. Whether it's relatively easy or not to come to an agreement about what is "fair", depends on the situation. Sometimes it's easy - baseball, for instance; sometimes it's not. If you look at the history of labor relations in the U. In fact it's been well-nigh impossible and has in the past, at times, broken out into violent and bloody confrontation. That's because of a fundamental conflict of interest in the parties involved.

    In the past unskilled or low-skilled workers have accepted extremely low wages, wages so low that they can't afford a roof over their head or put food on the table. And they've accepted extremely poor working conditions. But that doesn't mean they thought they were being paid or treated fairly, it's just that they had no other choice. That's a big difference. RE Skilled employees in the U. However, that doesn't apply to unskilled, minimum wage jobs. With all the minimum wage jobs I've ever had, and I've had a few, it was either "take it or leave it; there's the door". There is no bargaining; the employer has absolute say over what their employees will be paid.

    The system is hardly "fair" to those employees in my opinion. Anyway, it was not my example of the minimum wage law That was the example given by Wilson and the only example he mentioned in the entire video to support his claim. I must admit that I don't really understand what he is talking about with this supposed new meaning in the word "fair".