They provide new avenues for self-reflection, peer reflection and feedback, and supervisor evaluation. Educators and institutions should be mindful of whether they are measuring what is easy to measure or what is most valuable to measure. Traditional assessments in schools and post-secondary institutions today rely largely on multiple-choice questions and fill-in-the-bubble answers. Assessments are more instructionally useful when they afford timely feedback. Continued advances in technology will expand the use of ongoing, formative, and embedded assessments that are less disruptive and more useful for improving learning.
These advances also ensure that all students have the best opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and skills on statewide assessments that increasingly focus on real-world skills and complex demonstrations of understanding. Statewide assessment—coupled with meaningful accountability—is an essential part of ensuring students have equitable access to high-quality educational experiences. At the same time, it is crucial to focus time and effort on tests worth taking—those that reflect the kind of instructional experiences students need and that provide actionable insight. As technology gives us the capability to improve on long-standing assessment approaches, our public education system has a responsibility to use the information we collect during assessment in ways that can have the greatest impact on learning.
This means using assessments that ask students to demonstrate what they have learned in meaningful ways. All learners deserve assessments that better reflect what they know and are able to do with that knowledge. Various types of assessments are appropriate for different uses and at different times. Summative assessments measure student knowledge and skills at a specific point in time. Summative assessments often are administered in common to a group of students, whether an entire class, grade level at a school, or grade level across a district.
These assessment results can help to determine whether students are meeting standards in a given subject and to evaluate the effectiveness of an instructional curriculum or model. Many PK—12 schools administer formal summative tests at the end of the year, which they may augment with interim tests earlier in the year. These assessments provide system-wide data on student achievement as well as data by sub-groups of learners.
In contrast, formative assessments are frequent, instructionally embedded checks for understanding that provide quick, continual snapshots of student progress across time. Formative assessments provide information during the instructional process, before summative assessments are administered. Both teachers and students can use the results from formative assessments to determine what actions to take to help promote further learning. Optimally, a comprehensive assessment system balances multiple assessment approaches to ensure that students, families, educators, and policymakers have timely and appropriate information to support individual learners and to make good decisions to strengthen educational systems overall.
In almost all aspects of our daily lives, data help us personalize and adapt experiences to our individual needs.
Formative Assessment / Instructional Process
However, there is much work remaining to realize the full potential of using assessment data to improve learning. One recent study of teacher perceptions of the use of data revealed a range of frustrations with many current implementations. These frustrations include being overwhelmed with large amounts of data from disparate sources, incompatibility of data systems and tools that make data analysis unnecessarily time-consuming, inconsistency in the level of detail and quality of data, and delays in being able to access data in time to modify instruction.
Education data systems do not always maximize the use of interoperability standards that would enable easy and secure sharing of information with educators, schools, districts, states, students, and their families. As a result, educators are missing out on significant opportunities to use data to improve and personalize learning.
With improved educational data systems, leaders can leverage aggregate data to improve the quality and effectiveness of technology-enabled learning tools and resources. For example, it is now possible to gather data during formative and summative assessments that can be used to create personalized digital learning experiences. In addition, teachers can use these data to inform interventions and decisions about how to engage individual students; personalize learning; and create more engaging, relevant, and accessible learning experiences for all learners.
Assessment data can be made available directly to students. When they have access to their data, students can play a larger role in choosing their own learning pathways. In many cases, pre-service teaching candidates do not receive sufficient instruction on understanding and using data. At the same time, in-service teachers can benefit from ongoing professional development on the integration of technology to enhance their teaching. According to the Data Quality Campaign, as of February , just 19 states included the demonstration of data literacy skills as a requirement for teacher licensure.
Teachers deserve ongoing support to strengthen their skills in how to use data to meet the needs of students better. Addressing these challenges will take a three-pronged approach: 1 preparing and supporting educators in realizing the full potential of using assessment data, 2 encouraging the development of data assessment tools that are more intuitive and include visualizations that clearly indicate what the data mean for instruction, and 3 ensuring the security and privacy of student data within these systems.
For a more complete discussion of student data safety and privacy, see Section 5: Infrastructure. Technology can help us imagine and redefine assessment in a variety of ways. These tools can provide unobtrusive measurements for learners who are designing and building products, conducting experiments using mobile devices, and manipulating parameters in simulations. Problems can be situated in real-world environments, where students perform tasks, or include multi-stage scenarios that simulate authentic, progressive engagement with the subject matter.
Teachers can access information on student progress and learning throughout the school day, which allows them to adapt instruction to personalize learning or intervene to address particular learning shortfalls. The unique attributes of technology-based assessments that enable these activities include the following.
Technology-based assessments allow for a variety of question types beyond the limited multiple-choice, true-or-false, or fill-in-the-blank options that have characterized traditional assessments. Examples of enhanced question types include the following:. Technology-enhanced questions allow students to demonstrate more complex thinking and share their understanding of material in a way that was previously difficult to assess using traditional means.
In particular, performance-based assessments are designed so that students must complete a series of complex skills that ask them to synthesize information from multiple sources, analyze that information, and justify their conclusions. For example, a performance task in English language arts might include reading passages from primary documents, analyzing the set of passages, and writing an essay in response to a prompt.
In a mathematics class, a performance task might ask students to analyze a graph based on actual data and describe the linear relationship between the quantities. Using the technology offered in performance-based assessments, students can enter their responses in the online interface. For tasks that require hand scoring, scores can be merged with machine-scored items in the same system, thus providing complete test results.
PISA is a triennial international survey that aims to evaluate education systems worldwide by testing the skills and knowledge of year-old students. For additional information, visit www. A recent convening of the National Research Council NRC underscored the importance of broadening the focus of assessment to include non-cognitive competencies and the importance of technology in measuring knowledge, skills, and abilities.
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With funding from the U. Through animations, assessments, and classroom activities, students learn a growth mindset—the understanding that ability develops with effort. Pilot research in nine middle schools showed significant increases in student growth mindset, which related to increases in learning goals, positive beliefs about effort, and positive academic habits and behaviors such as resilient responses to failure and better learning strategies.
Since launching in , SchoolKit has been used by tens of thousands of students around the country, including all middle schools in Washington, D. Such assessments can enable educators to see, evaluate, and respond to student work more quickly than can traditional assessments. Similarly, learners and their families can access this information almost in real time. Technology-based summative assessments also facilitate faster turnaround of results.
Certain formative assessment platforms allow educators to provide feedback to students via in-line comments through video, audio, or text , engage in online chats, e-mail feedback directly to families and learners, and connect learners to additional resources for practicing specific skills or developing key understandings.
These technologies also can increase the efficiency of the process of giving feedback, allowing educators more time to focus on areas of greatest need. For example, for giving feedback on areas of frequent concern, educators can pre-populate a menu of responses to use as comments, allowing them to shift focus to areas of feedback unique to each student. Automated responses can be generated as well when assignments are late or incomplete.
Although this is still nascent technology, in recent years, advances have occurred in automated scoring of essays that may make it a more powerful tool to generate timely feedback. Advances in technology grounded in UD and systems that align to UDL have made assessments more accessible and valid for a greater number of students, including those with diverse abilities and language capabilities.
These advances have allowed a greater proportion of the population access to assessments. Special features include the ability to increase font sizes and change color contrast, text-to-speech, bilingual dictionaries, glossaries, and more. These features can be embedded in assessments and made available to students, depending on what the assessment is measuring and identified learner needs. Seamless accessibility features embedded in technology-based assessments reduce the need to single out individual students for extra supports, providing an added benefit for students and educators alike.
Similarly, assistive technology, such as text-to-speech, alternate response systems, and refreshable braille, supports students with disabilities in accessing learning. These technologies continue to advance and can make it possible for students to interact with digital learning resources in ways that would be impossible with standard print-based assessments. When both assistive technologies and assessments effectively interoperate, students are better able to demonstrate what they know and how to apply this knowledge. Computer adaptive testing has facilitated the ability of assessments to estimate accurately what students know and can do across the curriculum in a shorter testing session than would otherwise be necessary.
For example, if the student answers a question correctly, a slightly more challenging item is presented next; if the student answers incorrectly, he or she receives another opportunity to demonstrate knowledge in a different manner. Achieving the same level of precision in a traditional paper-and-pencil test would require students to answer many more questions, potentially impacting instructional time.
Moving forward, these assessments can benefit from increased interoperability so that the data from these adaptive measures can be pulled into a centralized dashboard that allows a more integrated understanding of student performance. Embedded assessments are woven directly into the fabric of learning activities students undertake.
Such assessments may be technology driven or simply a part of effective instruction, and they may appear in digital learning tools and games. They are generally invisible to the instructional process because they are embedded in the regular classroom activities. Embedded assessments have the potential to be useful for diagnostic and support purposes in that they provide insights into why students are having difficulties in mastering concepts and provide insights into how to personalize feedback to address these challenges.
Game-based assessment is designed to leverage parallels between video game design and next-generation learning and assessment. GlassLab creates and supports high-impact games that make learning visible by creating games, conducting research, and building infrastructure that lowers entry costs for new developers. For example, GlassLab has conducted a number of studies investigating the efficacy of games as a tool for learning and unobtrusive assessment.
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While learning how economic and environmental issues influence one another, students are assessed on their ability to problem-solve and understand relationships in complex systems. To support teacher facilitation, and enrich teacher-student interactions, the game also includes lessons plans, teacher and student dashboards, and student data reporting. Valerie Shute, the Mack and Effie Campbell Tyner Endowed Professor in Education at Florida State University, is studying the impact of video games on learning, with a focus on building a greater understanding of the future of embedded assessment.
Players guide a ball to a balloon across a set of increasingly challenging two-dimensional environments involving the placement and manipulation of ramps, pendulums, levers, and springboards. After taking a traditional pre-test and answering a background questionnaire to assess prior knowledge, students played the game during six class periods—about four hours in total—and concluded their participation by completing a traditional post-test.
On the basis of analyses of the pre- and post-test data, game log files, and the background questionnaire, Shute and her colleagues demonstrated the following:. Technology provides students with multiple pathways to create assessable work throughout the year.
To demonstrate their understanding, students can create multimedia productions, construct websites to organize and analyze information, and design interactive presentations to serve as products for assessment. These pathways allow teachers to understand how students access and understand information across given categories. For students who need individual accommodations, advances in technology allow for dynamic and personalized presentation and assessment using alternative representations of the same concept or skill.
For example, alternative text can be provided for images through the work of the Diagram Center to make graphics accessible to learners with print disabilities. Moving forward, increasingly sophisticated technology-driven assessments will enable more powerful personalized learning, likely accelerating the shift from time-based learning to competency-based learning. Although the process is often challenging, in many places, transitioning to technology-based assessment is well under way. Such assessments will continue to improve across time in the following ways.
Traditional paper-and-pencil tests, and even some first-generation technology-based assessments, usually are reviewed and updated only on a designated schedule, often driven by printing and distribution cycles rather than when test items need to be updated. Online delivery of assessments allows for continuous improvement of test items. Technology has the potential to move assessment from disjointed separate measures of student progress to an integrated system of assessments and personalized instruction to meet the needs of the learner.
Technology can integrate more fully student classroom experiences, homework assignments, and formative and summative assessments, all of which are tied closely to academic standards. Online learning platforms can display effects of missing assignments, progress toward goals, and channels for communication with mentors and teachers. We also should expect to see integrated systems that make the learning process more seamless for students and educators. As students progress along personalized learning pathways, they will be assessed when they are ready to demonstrate mastery over particular skills and content rather than when the calendar indicates there is a testing date.
At the same time, we have a responsibility to ensure that all students are held to high standards and offered excellent educational experiences. Ensuring equity while also providing accelerated personalization is the one of the greatest challenges and opportunities moving forward for technology in assessment. Since formative assessments are considered part of the learning, they need not be graded as summative assessments end-of-unit exams or quarterlies, for example are. Rather, they serve as practice for students, just like a meaningful homework assignment.
Assessment - Office of Educational Technology
They check for understanding along the way and guide teacher decision making about future instruction; they also provide feedback to students so they can improve their performance. Educational consultant Rick Stiggins suggests "the student's role is to strive to understand what success looks like and to use each assessment to try to understand how to do better the next time. When I work with teachers during staff development, they often tell me they don't have time to assess students along the way. They fear sacrificing coverage and insist they must move on quickly.
Yet in the rush to cover more, students are actually learning less. Without time to reflect on and interact meaningfully with new information, students are unlikely to retain much of what is "covered" in their classrooms. Formative assessments, however, do not have to take an inordinate amount of time. While a few types such as extended responses or essays take considerably more time than others, many are quick and easy to use on a daily basis. On balance, the time they take from a lesson is well worth the information you gather and the retention students gain.
The National Forum on Assessment suggests that assessment systems include opportunities for both individual and group work. Listening in on student partners or small-group conversations allows you to quickly identify problems or misconceptions, which you can address immediately. If you choose a group assessment activity, you will frequently want to follow it up with an individual one to more effectively pinpoint what each student needs. Often, the opportunity to work with others before working on their own leads students toward mastery. The group assessment process is part of the learning; don't feel you must grade it.
The individual assessment that follows can remain ungraded, as well, although it will be most useful if you provide some feedback to the learner, perhaps in the form of a brief comment or, at the very least, a check, check-plus or check-minus, with a brief verbal explanation about what each symbol indicates You have mastered the skill , You need more practice, etc. Using at least one formative assessment daily enables you to evaluate and assess the quality of the learning that is taking place in your classroom and answer these driving questions: How is this student evolving as a learner?
What can I do to assist this learner on his path to mastery? I have chosen a variety of quick ways for you to check for understanding and gather "evidence" of learning in your classroom. The quick formative assessments found within this book are designed for easy implementation in any classroom. Almost all can be used, with a little modification, throughout grades and across the curriculum.
A few are better for either younger or more sophisticated learners. Each strategy is labeled for easy identification by grade level on the list of strategies. For each strategy, I provide the following. One of the easiest formative assessments is the Exit Card. Exit Cards are index cards or sticky notes that students hand to you, deposit in a box, or post on the door as they leave your classroom.
On the Exit Card, your students have written their names and have responded to a question, solved a problem, or summarized their understanding after a particular learning experience. In a few short minutes, you can read the responses, sort them into groups students who have not yet mastered the skill , students who are ready to apply the skill , students who are ready to go ahead or to go deeper , and use the data to inform the next day's or, even, that afternoon's instruction.
Feedback provided by the Exit Cards frequently leads to the formation of a needs-based group whose members require re-teaching of the concept in a different way. It also identifies which of your students do not need to participate in your planned whole-group mini-lesson, because they are ready to be challenged at a greater level of complexity. Several of the formative assessments contained in this book can be used as Exit Cards.
In the table I have placed an asterisk next to those assessments that you can use as an Exit Card to quickly sort and group students for subsequent instruction. When you use formative assessments, you must keep track of the data that you collect. The easiest way to observe and assess student growth is to walk around your room with a clipboard and sticky notes. As you notice acquisition of a new skill or confusion and struggle with a skill, record the student's name and jot down a brief comment.
Consider keeping a folder for each child in which you insert any notes that you make on a daily basis. This process will help you focus on the needs of individual students when you confer with each child or develop lessons for your whole class. Another way to keep track of the data is to use a class list.
On this sheet, you can note specific skills and record how each student is doing. You can use a system of check-minus, check, and check-plus or the numbers 4, 3, 2, 1 to indicate student proficiency with the skill. Thomas R. Guskey suggests that for assessments to become an integral part of the instructional process, teachers need to change their approach in three important ways. They must "1 use assessments as sources of information for both students and teachers, 2 follow assessments with high-quality corrective instruction, and 3 give students second chances to demonstrate success" Once you have assessed your learners, you must take action.
You will be able to help your students achieve success by differentiating your instruction based on the information you have gathered. Ask yourself, "Who needs my attention now? Which students need a different approach? Which students are not learning anything new, because I haven't challenged them? We must be prepared to provide both corrective activities and enrichment activities for those who need them.
Your challenge will be to find a new and different pathway to understanding. The suggestions for struggling learners will help students during their "second-chance" learning on the road toward mastery.