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They can improve or decrease relationships with the characters. Good luck and happy playing! Choices that have no outcome on the side have not been explored yet. Please help this page by contributing those answers! This choice affects your dialogue with Cassius in Chapter 6. Second option allows you to use your wiles. Cassius reacts best for the second option, because the first and third provoke Xanthe's outburst, making him uneasy. You only get this choice if you didn't tell Syphax you love him in Diamond Choice 4 of Chapter 6. If the timer ends, you say nothing. In this case Antony orders the soldier to guard Caesar's wife.

The options in Choice 5 and Choice 6 are the same for Victus and Syphax, only some of the effects depend on who was freed. You only get this choice if you did not seduce Caesar alone or with Cleopatra. It was usual for the king to take advice from a council of elders, which limited his power. The members of this class were representatives of the various families and clans within the city.

He Is Worthy

In matters of state, the king referred to the Senate and no change in law was valid without its consent. In addition to the Senate there was what might be termed a Supreme Court. As they directly represented the ten tribes who made up the citizens of Rome, they voted in blocks and not as individuals. The plebeian class had no power and had to accept what was handed down by the patricians, who had the ear of the king. Tullius was born into the plebeian class but married the daughter of the fourth king, Tarquinius Priscius. He was determined that the representation of the people should be based on property and not on accident of birth and he founded the Comitia Centuriata, an assembly of Roman citizens that included the plebeians.

The changes he instigated precipitated a revolt by the patrician families, who felt that their power was threatened. Tullius was eventually murdered. Tarquinius Superbus, the last king, ruled as a tyrant. His pride and cruelty, and that of his sons, caused his downfall. According to legend, a virtuous. Roman lady named Lucretia was violated by the son of Tarquinius.

She took the ultimate revenge, gathering her relatives around her and stabbing herself. Her family were forced to avenge her. The people of Rome rose against the king and his family, who had so abused their power, and they were forced to flee from Rome. It was the end of the monarchy. Above: A procession of senators and their wives from a marble altar frieze of the ninth century BCE, which commemorates the return of Augustus from the Spanish Campaigns.

The Patrician and the Soldier (A Roman Sex Story)

Family Other institutions had also been growing in importance during the period of Roman kings. Family and the bonds of blood relationships were always powerful influences on the development of law and, in particular, of Roman life. In public matters a son might be a magistrate and have power over his father in this domain, but this was never the case within the family itself. The head of a family had absolute power over the private conduct of all members of his clan. Opposite: The virtuous Roman lady, Lucretia, dies honourably by her own hand.

A sixteenthcentury oil painting by Sodema. He had to pronounce sentence on several patricians, including two of his own sons, who were accused of conspiring to bring back the tyrannical Tarquinius. The charge was treason and the sentence was laid down by law. Brutus sentenced his own two sons to death. It was his duty as a citizen of Rome. His paternal feelings had to be set aside for the good and honour of the state.

The legendary kingdom of Rome lasted for years. The city now faced a period of great institutional and constitutional change. The Republic, —31 BCE A key development at the start of the Republic was that some of the regal power was passed to two annually elected officials called consuls. Consuls were exclusively chosen from the ranks of the patricians, although this changed. In about BCE the patricians agreed to the creation of a plebeian magistracy. At first this collegium of magistrates consisted of two men, called tribunes, but this was later expanded to five.

They had great power, as they could veto the decisions of other magistrates and were themselves untouchable. Their defence of the interests of the plebeian classes were almost sacred and they were a powerful force throughout the period of the Republic. The patricians attempted to keep control of the power in the state but the plebeians became organized and determined that the right to power as a result solely of land ownership and wealth was not conducive to equity before the law. The plebeians.

Ancient Rome were determined to acquire the right to be elected as consuls despite the opposition of the patricians. The plebeians got what they demanded only by resorting to threats to secede from the state. As a result of their final threat in BCE they created a council of plebeians, which could make decisions with the force of law. The power struggle between the plebeians and the patricians continued. In BCE there was severe disruption as a result of the reforms proposed by Gracchus see panel who requested the fair.

This unrest resulted in armed skirmishes that bordered on civil war, short-lived dictatorships and temporary truces. Outside the city, corruption was rife and military commanders needed only the support of the army to take whatever they wanted from the areas they controlled. Commanding an army in one of the provinces amounted to permission to print money. Gracchus had made a genuine attempt to solve the problems of poverty in rural areas and massive.

He was present at the siege of Carthage in BCE and was appointed to carry out the agrarian reforms of his brother, Tiberius. He became a quaestor government officer in BCE and tribune two years later. In BCE he was re-elected as a tribune and he continued his reformist policies. He also created the structure for the foundation of Roman colonies at Tarentum and Carthage. Gracchus also limited military service, and initiated public works to occupy the unemployed.

He ensured that the equestrian class could set and collect taxes in the newly acquired provinces in Asia where they also had control of criminal juries. He wanted all Italians to have Roman citizenship, but this provoked the Senate to outlaw him. He fled but was captured and killed with 3, of his supporters.

Ruling Rome unemployment in the city, but his solutions did nothing but increase the anger of the people, which was whipped up by interested parties among the patrician landowners. The Senatorial Party also known as the Optimate Party was apparently in control of the government. Most members of this group were ex-magistrates. Sulla see panel, below was a powerful member of this group. The equestrian order, also known as the knights, was next in the pecking order. These wealthy men were not involved in government, but used their money to bring them the influence they desired.

Cicero, the orator, was a powerful voice within this class. The Democrat Party took its strength from the mob. Julius Caesar see page 43 was its main supporter for a time. He disliked and mistrusted the power wielded by the Senate and wanted to extend Roman privileges to new classes of citizens of the empire. There was also the ultra-conservative Cataline party whose interests lay in preserving the old Roman order. The continually expanding empire was now ruled from the centre by a group of men who were unable to control the threat posed by victorious regional commanders with potentially dangerous armies at their disposal.

In 71 BCE, an army of slaves rebelled, led by Spartacus see page The fact that it was not quickly crushed by the Senate was seen as a sign of the inherent weakness of these legislators. The Republic came to an end with the Civil Wars. Like all such conflicts, the Roman Civil Wars see chapters four and six were divisive, cruel and very bitterly fought.

They resulted in the return of rule by one man, initially Julius Caesar. Whatever its. A ruthless leader and dictator of Rome. Aged 50 he was made a consul after taking charge of the war against Mithridates in Persia. Sulla marched on Rome. Sulla returned to the east and eventually crushed the King of Pontus and returned to Rome where Marius was again in power. Sulla crushed his party and became sole master of Rome. He resigned in 79 BCE and died peacefully in Puteoli a year later. Ancient Rome divisions the Republic had left a system of lawgiving that was much more egalitarian than it had been at the end of the Kingdom.

The consuls were obliged to take heed of their own experience and also to abide by the decisions of committees of wise men and of experienced legislators. Octavian became the Emperor Augustus and it was on his skill, cunning, strength and control of the army and of the divided people of Rome that lay the only chance for their future as an empire.

Rule by one man was the pragmatic answer to the pressing need for sustained control of the centre, of the provinces and of the frontiers. Once tasted, such complete power is impossible to give up without a struggle. The emperors who followed Augustus gradually lost their grip on all except their own pleasures and their own personal ambitions. There was no room for loyalty in a court where cruel intrigue and ruthless ambition was the watchword.

In this situation lay the danger for Rome. By removing all need for loyalty, by crushing all dissent, by presiding over the erosion of a moral basis for. It was years before the Roman Empire ceased its expansion and began, as all empires eventually must, to decline and to fade.

Carthage had once seemed invincible and yet it lay under the sand and no life stirred there. The miracle of Rome is that it grew and survived for so many years. The period of empire that began with Augustus, survived as long as it did because, despite power being held by a single individual, it was built on the bedrock of civil, military and political systems that had evolved from the Kingdom through to the Republic. The patricians were a small group of wealthy families with political influence and an enhanced social position. They dominated the Senate and initially ensured that the plebeians were kept out.

They maintained their power by gathering around them individuals who relied on their influence to protect and advance them. The patricians grew in influence and power as their wealth increased, mostly through cattle rearing. They held all the priestly offices, which meant that they controlled the magistracy and the consulship as they controlled the reading of the auspices that gave advice from the gods.

Eventually the distinction between the patrician and plebeian see below classes became blurred. Aediles took on the duties of police magistrates and the maintenance of all the public works in Rome. It was an arduous duty and men in this position were open to bribery and corruption as the financial demands on the position grew greater. These were not high-ranking men and were kept out of public office by the patricians see above. This exclusion ceased when the plebeians demanded and achieved their own collegium in which their tribunes became extraordinarily powerful.

In BCE, as a result of wielding the power of their numbers, they gained social and political rights that were equal to those of the patricians. They achieved power by wielding their undoubted strength in the streets with leaders who were not afraid to rabble rouse if necessary. A Praetor was the head of the judicial business of Rome.

As this business increased a second praetor was appointed whose main area of work was to guide disputes between foreigners and Roman citizens. He might well be specialized in a particular area of law. A man had to be aged 40 before he could become a praetor.

Initially it had been an office dating from the kingdom to deal with matters of law. In the period of the republic a quaestor was a magistrate who specialized in financial matters and answered only to the consuls. To be appointed as quaestor a man had to be 28 years old. It was an important rite of passage for any ambitious Roman man. A consul was the highest form of magistrate during the period of the Roman Republic. Two consuls with equal power were elected annually. A consul could be opposed by his fellow consul or by the tribunes see below. Initially both consuls were patricians, but this changed in BCE when it was decided that one should also be plebeian.

After Augustus came to power, the consuls lost a great deal of their influence. During the period of the Roman monarchy, the equestrians were men capable of bringing horses to the battlefield. After the reforms begun by the Gracchus brothers, they became a political party formed from a commercial and trading class.

They were free to create banks, public works departments and trading houses. During the period of the emperors, knights were the high administrators in the civil service. This was a class of men and women that grew as the slave population grew in numbers and in power. At first they were merely those slaves set free by humane or kindly masters. Often this freedom was given as payment for loyalty, or in the case of a female slave, because the owner had children by her and wanted to marry her and legitimize their children.

At first they could only exercise the vote inside the city but in BCE they were given the same rights as other citizens. As these freemen were often working successfully in business in the city it gave them considerable power. In the early days of the republic the affairs of state were determined by debate in the Senate.

Inevitably it was a small number of conservative influential families who carried through the laws and controlled elections. This group was known as the Optimates. These traditionalist political power brokers came under threat from the more radical and younger members of their own class, the Populares. Originally the members of the Senate were exclusively patricians see above. During the period of the Roman Republic and until the plebeians gained the franchise they were the real focus of power. When Augustus became emperor the Senate was allowed to feel that it had parallel power with the Emperor.

But in fact he kept the real power to himself while allowing the Senate a token of its past strength. The power of the Senate was eroded by successive emperors. While many of its members were against democracy, which was initially advocated by men such as Brutus and Cicero, the Senate was also opposed to the return of the monarchy. These were magistrates with many duties both political and military. They were appointed by the Comitia Tributa, which was an assembly elected by the plebeians. Only those who had been adopted or born plebeians could become tribunes of the people.

Tribunes had the power of veto against magistrates. They could arrest and fine people and they organized and controlled public meetings.

The civil power of the tribunes was wide ranging and their military power lay with levying troops for the Roman army. A quickwitted and intelligent boy, he was brought up with many advantages. Yet his family was not rich by the fabulously wealthy standards of many at that time. Lack of money could prove to be a handicap to any ambitions that the young Caesar might have for a life at the forefront of Roman society. Caesar proudly claimed to be descended from Venus Aphrodite and Anchises, father of Aeneas and ancestor of Romulus, the founder of Rome.

His mother, Aurelia, was from a powerful family, although they had plebeian roots. The Caesars lived in modest circumstances in an unremarkable area of the city where Julius received the usual schooling for a boy of his background. It seems he had a facility with languages. The usual military training of a patrician youth would have been part of his normal routine — mastery of sword and spear were expected and he appears to have been a particularly good horseman.

At around the age of 14 Caesar was engaged to marry Cossutia who was, according to the Greek writer Plutarch, from a family of the equestrian caste. From an illuminated manuscript c. Caesar and the Conquest of Gaul However impeccable his aristocratic background and however much Julius proved to have a fine and able intelligence, lack of money was a constant problem. Nevertheless, the family did have some influential connections. Marius was an influential politician, who did not tolerate fools and vigorously opposed the arrogance of the patricians in the Senate.

He was a fine if impetuous general and helped to reform the Roman army. He was also a leading democrat, intent on confronting the conservative wing of the Senate. He had clawed his way to political prominence despite being born outside Rome to a family that did not even have the right to vote. Because of his contentious nature, the influence Gaius Marius could wield for Caesar was something of a double-edged sword.

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The ambitious young man had to make some moves for himself. The young Caesar may have decided this union was an astute move into the political arena. Taking advantage of his absence, Marius pushed through reforms of the Senate, cutting back its power and influence. When Sulla learned about this, he returned at the head of his army, crushed Marius and his supporters and declared himself sole ruler — dictator — of Rome.

It was the first time that a Roman general had ever used his military command against the city. Sulla restored the privileges of the Senate, reformed and weakened the public institutions, and had a number of his opponents killed. He was a ruthless political operator and to stand in his way was to invite danger. Caesar was a man on the rise and Sulla considered him a potential enemy. Through his family ties to Marius, who died in 86 BCE, he was connected to the Democrat Party, and through his marriage he was connected to Cinna, an outspoken enemy of Sulla.

Despite his youth, Caesar was proving to be a good public orator. His speeches were greeted with delight by those who were opposed to the conservative. In the hotbed of political infighting, Sulla began a campaign to destroy the ambitious young man through intimidation and threat. It was a true baptism of fire. Sulla stripped Caesar of his inheritance and ordered him to divorce Cornelia, but the young man refused and was forced into hiding. Sulla used his secret agents to try to find him, so Caesar had to move every night to avoid the assassination squads.

Marius was an ambitious and determined man and saw a way out of the poverty of peasant farming by joining the army. He was voted a tribune of the people in BCE and served in Spain as praetor law official , which gave him experience in government. In BCE Marius was elected to the position of consul, although he continued to command armies during the Teuton and Cimbri invasions of Italy. Marius was an important figure in the fight against the power of the patricians, who controlled the Senate. They resisted him because of his low birth, but he still managed to implement reforms in the army.

He believed these changes, which affected the system of enlistment, armaments and the organization of the legions, were essential if the Roman army was to avoid unnecessary defeats. The changes made by Marius made the army a profession that was open to all free-born citizens, rather than just the aristocratic classes.

A legion was now to be 6, men and was given its own eagle standard. The cohort was to consist of men, each armed with a pilum. One drawback of his changes meant that each legion had to depend on a particular commander and because the appointment of generals was in the hands of the Senate, it opened the way for the appointment of men who were not always suitable for command. There are many Mariuses in this Caesar. Caesar Joins the Roman Army Julius Caesar had already wisely decided that Rome might become too dangerous for him and he left the city.

He was deeply in debt and needed to escape his creditors. Joining the army might give him a chance to win some prize money and so settle his debts. Caesar and the Pirates Rhodes lay in an area of the Mediterranean that was dominated by pirates who specialized in kidnap, extortion and blackmail.

After his capture, Caesar was taken to their stronghold, where it seems that they took him for a wealthy Roman. They had no idea that they had captured one of the most distinguished and brave soldiers in the Roman army who had very little money. He was, after all, a very young man. They were told they had only 40 days to collect the money or their friend would die. It appears that the pirate chief and Caesar got on well.

They joked, played games, talked and ate together like good friends. Julius told his captor that if he regained his freedom he would come back and take not only the ransom but the lives of the entire pirate gang too. The pirate laughed at the very idea. As the deadline for the ransom loomed, even the pirate chief seemed to be concerned that the money should arrive and he would be able to let his victim go free with honour. After 38 days, the money was paid. Caesar was free. He reminded his captors of his promise, telling them that they would have done better to kill him, as he was going to return and kill them.

They had completely misread this man as other, better men did in the future. The moment he reached safety, Caesar organized a fleet. He was asked what was to be done with the men among whom he had lived for nearly two months. They may have hoped for freedom, for they had not harmed him and they had let him go free. These were men he admired for their skills and their courage, and they hoped he might show them mercy.

But Caesar reminded them that he too kept his word. He had scaffolds constructed and ordered that they all be crucified. To make their deaths a little easier, and because he respected them as warriors, he ordered that their throats be cut before they were nailed to the crosses. Julius Caesar had proved that he was already a ruthless and a merciless opponent.

He was still just 24 years old. Caesar was coming to the notice of the right people and above all was gaining a reputation among his men for concern for the safety of the soldiers he commanded. It was a reputation he carried with him to later commands and to more important battles. With Sulla dead, the most dangerous threat to his political future had been removed, Caesar was determined that the reforms instigated by the dictator should be repealed and that power should be taken back from the magistrates and the Senate and given to the tribunes of the people.

He wisely turned down the offer, as he was not confident that Lepidus had the mettle for the political battles ahead. He was right. The revolt was put down. In 76 BCE Caesar decided to go to Greece to study at the training school for rhetoric under the best living practitioner, Apollonius Molo. On his way to the eastern Mediterranean he was captured by pirates off the island of Pharmacussa, near Rhodes see panel. Caesar was broken-hearted.

In the same year his Aunt Julia also died. The same year Caesar was elected to the position of quaestor in southern Spain and Portugal. While there he attacked independent tribes and made enough money to settle his debts. He returned to Rome and was elected as aedile magistrate in 65 BCE. Caesar was climbing the political ladder at the same time as ensuring his connections with people of influence. The great general Pompey Magnus Pompeius wanted to continue the war in the east, a plan that was supported by Caesar, who gained.

At about the same time he made a friend of Marcus Licinius Crassus c. Caesar needed to ensure that he had a source of funds if he was to make his next ambitious move. The populace were always volatile which made them difficult to keep calm. His position as aedile meant that he had the responsibility for the daily running of the growing city and also had to organize and fund the Roman games.

Caesar could not afford to get things wrong. The moment of maximum risk and of maximum potential gain had arrived and Caesar made a spectacular decision. He risked all on creating. It was a triumph. Caesar owed hundreds of gold talents at the end of it, although Crassus paid off the debt. In 63 BCE a conspiracy to overthrow the magistrates and seize the consulship was revealed by the senior consul, Marcus Tullius Cicero. The leader of the conspiracy was said to be Lucius Catalina Cataline of the patrician party.

Caesar was vehemently opposed to this judicial murder but he had against him a consistent and long-time personal enemy, Marcus Porcius Cato, the leader of the patrician Optimate party. Left: Marcus Licinius Crassus c. One of the first Triumvirate with Pompey and Caesar. Caesar was left with bad blood between himself and Cato and Cicero. As Ptolemy was a client of Rome, Caesar felt it was right that his rule be re-established.

It would be an opportunity to build up his funds as Ptolemy was offering a large inducement to whoever would help him. The ruling patricians vetoed his request. But Caesar had his revenge. He used his position as aedile to arrange an exhibition of all the public monuments commemorating the victories of Marius, who stood for everything the patricians despised. He had defeated Mithridates in Persia, added Syria and Judaea to the list of Roman territories and made vast amounts of money.

There was a natural fear that he would do as Sulla had done and arrive with his army and become dictator. He disbanded his troops to whom he had promised grants of land from the Senate as reward for their service. Cato led the Senate in refusing to give Pompey any of the things he had promised his soldiers. The city was in turmoil as Crassus prepared his forces in case Pompey made a move on the city.

Crassus did not trust Pompey as they had their differences when they had served as consuls. However, in 60 BCE Caesar brokered a peace between the two men and the trio formed a secret alliance, swearing to oppose any legislation of which any of them disapproved. In 59 BCE Caesar was elected to the highest Roman office when he became consul, and that year he married his third wife, Calpurnia, having divorced Pompeia. Using a. Caesar and the Conquest of Gaul series of questionable tactics, the Triumvirate came to dominate the Senate.

The Triumvirate was flexing its muscles. In order to do this, Caesar broke her previous engagement to a fellow Roman who had given him much support in the recent struggles against the Senate. Caesar was now in a position to ensure that he got exactly what he wanted. He had risked all the money he had on political deals and bribery, and he needed to rebuild his funds. He wanted to be given a large province to control or an undefeated country to engage in battle.

Initially, the Senate gave him Cisalpine Gaul to govern, but Caesar wanted more, so he was given Transalpine Gaul as well. Once he had conquered Gaul, he could return to Rome a wealthy man and implement the greatest and most ambitious of his plans. Caesar saw no limit to what he could achieve. The Gallic campaigns would make him wealthy enough to buy and blackmail, to extort and to cajole the Romans into doing what he wanted. If they refused he would have a loyal, tried and tested army under his control.

Pompey would perhaps stand in his way, but Caesar had no fear of him. Sulla had shown him that the path to victory lay in creating loyal legions. To do that all he had to do was lead them to victory. Plutarch claims that towns were destroyed and a million lives were lost on the side of the Gauls. The Senate might have had great misgivings about allowing this clever and ambitious man free reign in Gaul, but they may well also have hoped that at 40, he might fail, be disgraced and ruined.

There were those in the Senate already at work trying to separate Pompey from his fellows in the Triumvirate. Crassus was anxious to go to war in Syria and Pompey had misgivings about the way in which Caesar had consolidated his hold on the institutions of law and order in Rome. For the moment Pompey held his peace, but as Caesar later realized matters, were not entirely under control in the city. Above: Cicero —43 BCE : orator, politician and writer.

Opposite: A triumphal arch at Carpentras showing Gallic prisoners-of-war in chains with their weapons beside them. First century CE. Cisalpine Gaul was the corridor along both banks of the River Po, which had been settled by Celtic tribes from Gaul. The Romans controlled a corridor along the Mediterranean that allowed them to move freely across the Rhone down into their Spanish colonies. As a result of pleas by some Gallic settlements, Caesar attacked the Helvetii, , of whom had moved from their homes on the west of Switzerland to invade Gaul.

Then he dealt with the German tribes, 20, of which had moved into Gaul under their leader Ariovistus. Caesar demanded that Ariovistus remove his troops from Gaul. The German chief refused. Caesar had to work hard on the morale of his army to persuade them to confront the terrifying German warriors.


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One of the key aspects of his campaigns was the speed at which Caesar moved his troops. They thought nothing of a three-day forced march before going straight into battle. At the Rhine, Caesar gained the confidence of the Triboci nobles. He may have bribed them, but they agreed to act as border guards to keep their own countrymen behind the line of the river. After a winter in camp among friendly tribes, the legions turned against the Belgae who had formed a confederacy.

At the River Axona Aisne the confederacy fell apart and Caesar mopped up each tribe separately. It was an easy campaign, except when the Nervii surprised his legions as they made camp. Caesar had to pull the men together by stepping into the ranks himself and fighting alongside his legionaries. The Nervii were almost annihilated as a result. Caesar imbued his commanders the confidence that they could take on any enemy in any place.

Prostitution Notes from the Satyricon of Petronius Arbiter

In the north and west the Veniti were as at home on the sea as any Bretons. He sent a lieutenant to take them on, who had ships built and raided the enemy fortresses along the coast until the Veniti surrendered. At the same time Caesar marched north against the tribes near the Channel coasts and wintered there. Caesar and the Conquest of Gaul There were attacks on three fronts and each resulted in victory for Caesar. It was a masterly campaign. They say he invaded Britain in the hope of getting pearls that he could weigh in his own hand. He was always a most enthusiastic collector of gems, carvings and pictures and also of slaves of exceptional figure and training.

He paid so much for these slaves that he forbade the entry into his accounts. Romans at home magnified his achievement to a remarkable degree. Caesar needed the mob behind him and the best way to achieve that was to make sure they had historic victories to celebrate. His victories. As Plutarch noted in Caesar, he had the courage to push the boundaries of the empire beyond the known world. In this he had achieved the sort of fame and adulation that he knew would serve him well when he returned to Rome.

Caesar had achieved the two things he set out to do. He had subdued the Gauls from taking vast amounts of loot as a result. He had continually sent news to Rome of his progress and of his many gains and the citizens of the city were eager for him to return in triumph. Most importantly for him he had forged a bond between himself and his soldiers that would serve him well in the future. Plutarch again sums up this achievement by retelling a story, which puts Caesar in a good light. He was so much master of the good-will and willing service of his soldiers that ordinary men were changed under his command and displayed a courage past defeating.

Opposite: Vercingetorix, the leader of the Gauls who fought against Caesar from 52 BCE until his own surrender at Alesia seven years later. In the end this brave soldier swam and waded out of the bog. In the clinging mud he lost his shield. Caesar and his officers saw his bravery and met him with delight. This love of honour and passion for distinction were inspired in them by Caesar who by his unsparing distribution of money and honours, showed them that he did not heap up wealth from the wars for gratifying his private pleasures. That he looked upon all he gave to deserving soldiers as so much increase to his own riches.

Caesar continued to consolidate his victories over the various tribes in Gaul. Some agreed to give him hostages, others conceded victory and gave him gold, others promised to join him. Caesar even created a legion from Gauls who wanted to fight under his command. But there were those who still refused to bend the knee and others who were ready for revolt if a suitably charismatic leader appeared.

He had decided that confronting the Roman army head-on was a foolish tactic and began to use a scorched-earth policy to deny the Roman legions food or shelter wherever they moved. Caesar and his legions harried him through the Loire valley, crossed the Cevennes in the dead of winter and took Bourges, which the inhabitants had refused to burn as Vercingetorix had demanded. Former allies of Rome joined Vercingetorix in a general revolt. It was essential for Caesar to destroy this warrior chief. He turned south and Vercingetorix attacked the Romans and was forced to retreat to an utterly impregnable fortress near Dijon called Alesia.

Here Caesar demonstrated his formidable military talents and here the battle for Gaul was won and lost. After it was over Caesar took reprisals of a savage nature on those tribes who had betrayed him, took hostages from all the tribes and also took tribute in slaves and jewels, in corn and horses, in gold and land. Gaul would not revolt or threaten Rome in his lifetime. Too much killing. Too much sex. And too much cruelty. Endless cruelty. Look no farther than the savage blood sport recreation of the Romans - watching slaves bash their comrade's brains in during gladiatorial contests, watching defenseless Christians slaughtered by fierce animals, torturing criminals in public for amusement, watching helpless animals abused in all sorts of hideous ways, laughing and jeering at the suffering - and you begin to comprehend this was a horrible, violent society.

Why they call it the "Roman Civilization" is a mystery. These people were NOT civilized. These events occurred two thousand years ago. Therefore I cannot promise that everything I have written is the truth since I had no choice but to rely on the accounts of others before me. You can assume, however, that everything I write was faithfully copied from research I did on the Internet.

My main source, of course, was the amazingly helpful Wikipedia. What I mean to say is that no matter how outrageous the story is, you have my absolute promise I did not make it up. I read it, gasped in amazement, then looked at several more sources to see what they had to say. I found there is strong consensus on even the most outrageous of tales. And now I am passing it on to you. This is a long tale. Let me assure you of one thing - once you start reading it, you won't want to stop.

This story is told in four parts. Augustus Caesar, the Greatest of them All. The Julio-Claudian Dynasty. The ruling line was founded upon an alliance between these two families. The 5 Emperors of the Dynasty: 1. More than any other leader, he was responsible for the creation of the remarkable Roman Empire. Yet for his efforts, he was assassinated on the Ides of March in 44 B. Caesar wasn't just murdered, he was brutally pummeled in an incredible act of passion by a huge mob of men.

After all, a single knife in the right place would have done the trick, but Caesar received 23 stabs wounds from the Conspirators before succumbing. This was as clear a case of "overkill" as you will ever find. Most school books will tell you that he was murdered due to his brutal policies, his despotic leadership, and the desire to become the supreme ruler for life. After all, by most accounts, he was doing a pretty job of transforming Rome into something good. In truth, Caesar was one of Rome's greatest leaders, passing a number of historic reforms that saved society from total collapse.

His employment reforms ended the economic stagnation caused by the influx of slaves. By changing the amount of power creditors had over the citizens, people were able to pay off their debts. Thanks to Caesar, things were steadily improving for Rome. Employment in the city was up, security and confidence were up, people were entertained by the gladiator games, and the economy was stimulated with import and export.

People were generally simply happy with the way life was going. So why did they assassinate Caesar? It all goes back to the founding of Rome in BC. First Came the Etruscans. Caesar was assassinated because he was the man who dared to change Rome from a Republic to an Empire. In so doing, Caesar hit a deep nerve. Many Romans were deeply paranoid about giving too much power to one man.

They had good reason. To understand Rome, you have to go back years to the hated Etruscan kings who ruled Rome during its infancy. These men were the leaders of an invading tribe known as the Etruscans. Prior to the Etruscans, this area on the Tiber River had been a small, inconspicuous town. Then in BC, out of nowhere, a powerful tribe known as the Etruscans moved into town and took over.

Gradually expanding northward from the Bay of Naples, the Etruscans organized the backward Italic peoples into a loose confederation of Etruscan-dominated city-states. Rome had become just the latest victim in the shadow of Etruscan expansion. Before they were free. Now they had rulers. From the very start, Rome was bathed in violence. During an argument, Romulus killed his brother.

No one knows what the argument was about, but I suspect they couldn't agree on what to call their new city. Remus' death solved that problem nicely. Romulus decided to name the city after himself. Now that he was in charge, Romulus didn't waste any time. This town lacked fortifications, so it was vulnerable to attack. Romulus put the conquered people of Rome to work in a massive building project. In short order, Rome had grown from a village to a city. It was now the largest city in the area. Just like a modern boomtown, people from around the countryside flocked to the area in search of work and adventure.

There was one problem - almost all the newcomers were nomadic single men. This problem led to the incident with the Sabine women. Rome's population growth was stagnating because there weren't enough women. Romulus petitioned the surrounding tribes for rights to intermarry. Despite his efforts, the Roman requests were all met with stern declination. Leave our women alone. Romulus decided that if the neighboring towns would not share their women, Rome would take them. The Romans hid their dismay and pretended to be friends with their stingy neighbors.

Roman Prostitution from the Satyricon by Petronius

Then they resorted to trickery. Romulus sent out word that they would hold the grandest festival and greatest games in a celebration to honor 'Equestrian Neptune'. He made sure the spectacle was thoroughly announced to the neighboring peoples. He gave the event great publicity by the most lavish means possible in those days. Excited at the prospect of such a festival and curious to get a glimpse of the new city, the surrounding tribes flocked to Rome. The visitors were received with hospitality in the houses. After having seen the position of the city, its walls, and the large number of buildings, they marveled that Rome had grown so fast.

The Sabine people came in the greatest number, bringing their wives and children. All were hypnotized by the great city; the men ready to compete against its builders in the games, the women and children anxious to watch. When the games began and all were distracted, the signal was given.

Suddenly the Roman men stopped whatever they were doing and rushed after the young maidens, mostly the women of the Sabine. They swept them up and carried them off in all directions to their homes. Startled at the sudden violence, most of the visitors fled, leaving their women at the mercy of the Romans. You have to assume the most barbaric of the Roman men won the initial mating privileges because their offspring would go on to carry the ' vicious gene ' through many generations.


  • Now You Know?
  • Собрание сочинений. Том 1: Песни. 1961 - 1970 (Собрание сочинений в четырех томах) (Russian Edition)!
  • See a Problem?.
  • Sexuality in ancient Rome;
  • Padre Ignacio; or, the song of temptation;
  • Prostitution Notes from the Satyricon of Petronius Arbiter!

The Destiny of Rome would be one of brutality and blood lust for many centuries to come. Rule of the Hated Etruscan Kings. Romulus was the first of seven Etruscan Kings that would rule Rome. One of the most important features of the Etruscan dynasty was the increase of the kingly power. All the Etruscan kings were powerful , ruthless rulers. Although everyone wishes to be free, you can't help but note that without the Etruscan influence, Rome would never had amounted to anything. The massive building project begun by Romulus turned Rome from a village into a city which in turn led to a rapid population growth.

Furthermore, the Italic people were more or less peaceful, but the Etruscans changed that attitude quickly. T hey gave to Rome a certain kind of strength and influence which it did not have before. Mostly the kings mistreated the citizens so badly that over time they began to grow a backbone.

Resentment has a way of doing that. Th e great power of the Etruscan kings was at first used for the good of the people , but unchecked power corrupts. Etruscan Rule became a tyranny which was oppressive and hateful. For years, the Roman people chafed under the rule of these outsiders. Finally, in BC , the last Etruscan king was expelled. This moment marked the birth of the Roman Republic. The ejection of the Etruscan kings brought about the establishment of a R epublican government in Rome that allowed all citizens to participate.

Once the monarchy was abolished , a decree was passed that there would be no more kings in Rome. Their next step was to establish a constitution. Roman Law became a way the citizens could find protection from complete domination by the elite.