Being exposed to trees has been shown to enhance social cohesion, improve health and recreational opportunities, and increase real estate values. The workshop brought together more than people with various interests in urban forestry research to share information and perspectives, foster communication across specific areas of ecosystem service research, and consider integrated approaches that cut across these realms.
The workshop specifically examined current capabilities to characterize and quantify the benefits, key gaps in our understanding, the challenges of planning urban forests in a way that optimizes multiple ecosystem services and more. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.
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Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. Get This Book. Visit NAP. Looking for other ways to read this? No thanks. Page 2 Share Cite. Page 3 Share Cite. Page 4 Share Cite. Page 5 Share Cite. Chapter 1 this chapter provides the context for this study and introductory material from the workshop.
Key points from the discussion sessions following each panel are also included in this chapter. Chapter 3 presents a brief overview of the issues discussed by the workshop breakout groups key remaining questions and challenges of urban forestry, strategies to address these challenges, and priorities for future research. The detailed summary of those breakout discussions are presented in Appendix A. BOX 1. Disservices: Negative or unintended consequences. Urban forestry: The care and management of urban forests.
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Login or Register to save! Urban Forestry: Toward an Ecosystem Services Research Agenda: A Workshop Summary presents an overview of the issues discussed by the workshop's breakout groups; summarizes presentations from the four panels which included Biophysical Services of the Urban Forest; and context for the study with introductory material from the workshop. Urban forests are often thought of as a tool for mitigating climate change; however, carbon sequestration by urban trees does not have a significant impact in offsetting fossil fuel emissions Pataki et al.
Trees do, however, have a significant cooling effect through evapotranspiration and shade , which may impact GHG emissions indirectly Franco and Sanstad, For example, a city can save on energy costs by requiring less air conditioning. It is important to understand these mechanisms because urban forests designed for carbon sequestration may look quite different than forest canopy designed to maximize cooling. Notice the natural shrubland in the foreground and the novel planted trees in the city.
The right image shows what Salt Lake City would like in its natural state. There are other useful tools for designing and planning urban tree populations that originate in engineering. However, utilizing trees as urban infrastructure requires monitoring and validation to ensure that urban forests meet design targets.
For example, to consider pollution removal by trees as urban infrastructure, we need measurements and monitoring of the specific and local impacts of trees on pollutant concentrations. This regularly occurs in gray infrastructure projects; sewage treatment plants, for example, are routinely monitored to ensure that effluent meets water quality standards. It is not necessary to quantify the ecosystem services provided by sewage treatment plants—they are engineered to meet specific regulatory requirements.
The scientific methodology necessary to make similar measurements for green infrastructure, such as urban trees, currently exists as shown by the other workshop speakers, and needs to be more commonly implemented along with tree planting programs. Other tools for designing and planning urban forests are available from the disciplines of architecture, planning, and design.
Existing tools can also be used for stakeholder engagement, which can help determine local values. It is possible and necessary to develop similar planning and visioning processes for urban trees and green space. In conclusion, tools for characterizing the net services of urban trees should be place-specific and spatially explicit, have visualization components, include community values and visioning, incorporate urban metabolism stock and flows, and capture measurable performance-based metrics.
These tools can also be utilized by people from different disciplines. This approach extends the tools and vision for urban forests beyond the ecosystem services concept, to capture the larger role of urban forests in the functioning of cities. There are many challenges in reaping ecosystem services within a city, including competing agendas e. As one example of failing to meet expectations, Bernhardt et al. Several as-yet-unpublished air quality case studies from the New York City area found that air quality was poorer downwind of trees.
In Case Study 1, it was hypothesized that greener surroundings e. The study found that particulate matter PM2. Fifty meters of separation were needed to disconnect a location in the landscape from events occurring on the street Figure 2. In Case Study 3, measurements were taken at a rural site to test the influence of tree canopy on background concentration. Researchers discovered that air quality was worse more than 90 percent of the time in a stand of either spruce or deciduous trees compared to an open field.
In Case Study 4, the extinction of particle plumes was monitored in a wind tunnel containing varying amounts of leaf surface. Leaf area had no effect on the decay rate of the plumes. In Case Study 5, human health implications were studied using cytokines 3 as biomarkers for inflammation. Cell cultures challenged with airborne particulates collected from parks showed higher cytokine induction than samples near streets or rooftops.
In all of these cases, findings ran counter to expectation, indicating that we need a more sophisticated understanding of the mechanisms influencing particulate behavior if we hope to design effective pollution mitigation using green infrastructure. Another challenge for green infrastructure is to move from multi-functionality to intentional hyperfunctionality. That is, if cities can only afford to allocate limited space to green infrastructure, each unit of green needs to be hyperefficient if we intend to achieve meaningful reductions in pollution, runoff and temperature; green space needs to be deliberately designed to enhance its benefits.
We are living in a new age: the Anthropocene 5. Humans are now an urban species and shape many of Earth processes. This raises questions about what it is to be human in an. Pincetl was unable to attend the workshop, but provided her PowerPoint presentation to all workshop participants. However, where does living nature fit in? Until the industrial revolution, cities were essentially devoid of living nature, except for elite gardens.
There was a hierarchical order of civilization out toward the wilderness— cities were surrounded by agriculture and the countryside, which were surrounded by wilderness. In fact, nature was feared and powerful. The wilderness had wolves, bears, and other predators. Agriculture was a struggle against weather, weeds, animals, soils, water supply, and trees. This led to a dramatic transformation of nature, enormous increases in manufacturing productivity, and the concentration of humans in urban centers as never before.
The Industrial City was polluted, crowded, and insalubrious. During the early years of the industrial revolution, living conditions in cities were abysmal. Tree-lined streets and parks were seen as agents of change to make cities more livable. This interest reflected the new cosmopolitanism, reaching far beyond the local. Human views of trees began to change. George Perkins Marsh 6 showed the importance of trees for watershed function, which led to preservation of forests that were still in the public domain. This coincided with the rise of the preservation movement and the idealization of nature.
Eventually there was a tree-planting movement in cities. The urban expansion across the American west into the treeless plains provoked deliberate urban tree planting, starting in the s in Nebraska with the founding of Arbor Day, as lands west of the th Meridian were arid and treeless. Citizen-based urban tree planting spread in mostly affluent areas. Tree planting became a civic obsession; there was an association of virtue with trees. In the United States, emphasis was placed on neighborhood trees planted by individuals along streets.
In the 20th century, parks and open space became normalized as part of urban planning and design. Urban trees were seen as part of the health of residents and a sign of a well-tended neighborhood. Postwar prosperity led to urban expansion. In the midth century, concerns were raised about the preservation of nature and the environment. Rachel Carson sounded the alarm on chemical impacts, which led to the modern environmental movement.
In the s there was formal federal Forest Service assistance for urban tree planting. Unexpectedly, the air 10m from the mature trees is dirtier than the air 5m from the mature trees. Urban sustainability has been part of the public focus since the s. Cities are now seen as sites of their own pollution and impacts remediation. An instrumental urban nature can be developed to help in this endeavor, as it can provide provisioning, regulating, cultural, and possibly supporting services. Trees have become emblematic of urban ecosystem services in cities across the country, and million tree planting programs have become popular.
But what is sustainable for whom and where? Do alleged services add up? Some parts of the country are naturally treeless and water-restricted; yet planting trees requires water resources. Maintaining trees also requires long-term funding and specialized knowledge. This is problematic if residents have neither. It also should be acknowledged that not all people like trees. Some ecosystem service structures such as bioswales, water infiltration, and trenches are also costly and require fundamental changes in urban morphology.
How do we implement the right urban ecosystem services for each place? This will require new forms of public administration and different rules to create new agendas, sharing of budgets, and co-management of new infrastructure e. Success will depend on public acceptance of a different-looking city, and willingness to lend their individual private property to the effort.
This will require a deep shift involving public stewardship,. Finally, the sanitary city 8 of the 20th century needs to be retrofitted so natural processes can work to help mitigate urban impacts and to develop the sustainable city of the twenty-first century. Urban ecosystems have costs and benefits, and quantifying the benefits is difficult. Trees perform differently across different ecosystems and in different urban locations. Does their performance translate to the benefits claimed such as reducing the use of air conditioning or sequestering GHG emission?
Trees that are brutally pruned will see their ecosystem services severely curtailed. These kinds of factors should be taken into account. What is the value of ecosystem services? This is still largely unknown and represents the instrumentalization of nature. There has been minimal effort to address the public administration and land management changes that are necessary to implement the changes proposed.
The issues of beauty and wellbeing are also unaddressed. Yet humans are now urban dwellers and our relationship to nature has changed. Do we need nature to feel happy? As discussed in the previous session, urban forests provide a variety of functions including climate mitigation, carbon sequestration, mitigation of stormwater runoff, and regulation of nutrient cycling, as well as habitats for many species of wildlife. This session was a continuation of the previous session and focused on the biophysical services of trees with respect to air, water, climate, wildlife, and health.
Panelists were asked to discuss the current state of the science in their respective disciplines on the biophysical services provided by urban forests. They were also asked to discuss the remaining challenges and open questions surrounding the science and the additional research, data, and observations that are needed to resolve these questions.
Sewage treatment utilizes very sophisticated systems, whereas stormwater management is relatively low tech.
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Many types of processes are utilized in stormwater management, including hydraulic control, storage, sedimentation, filtration, infiltration, sorption, biodegradation microbial, rhizospheric, plant , and chemical. Systems that perform filtration yield higher water quality effluent than other systems. Common filtration systems can include constructed systems e. Green infrastructure can be designed to perform better at stormwater management than pre-development ecosystems. Often, aside from filtration, these designs incorporate infiltration as part of the stormwater management.
A tree box filter is a mini-bioretention system. A bioretention system consists of a high permeability, manufactured organic soil bed planted with suitable, preferably native vegetation. Vegetation in the soil planting bed assists in removing pollutants from stormwater runoff. Subsurface gravel wetlands, an example of a biological mechanism for filtration, are an innovative variation on the traditional stormwater wetland Figure 2.
Subsurface gravel wetlands have high efficiencies for removing sediments, nutrients, and other pollutants commonly found in runoff. The stormwater is filtered as it flows underground, horizontally through the wetland. Because the primary flowpath is subsurface, the system runs anaerobically, which supports denitrification. However, an aerobic zone needs to be placed in front of the subsurface gravel wetland to convert most of the dissolved nitrogen forms to nitrate.
As stormwater moves from the aerobic zone through the subsurface gravel, it becomes denitrified. This type of system requires a significant amount of land, but it does allow for more diversity in the types of vegetation that can be planted over it e. There are various metrics that can be used to measure the social benefits of the use of green infrastructure for stormwater management. One example is cost.
Conventional technologies e. A normalizing method of comparing costs considers dollars per pound of pollutant. There are hidden costs to gray infrastructure: water quality degradation due to poor removal efficiencies, lost recreational values, watershed impairments, property value loss, uncontrolled contaminants temperature, energy , and sustainability water supply, low flow. It is important to determine the objective of the infrastructure and then match technologies to that objective. Green infrastructure designs should not be considered too generically.
There are also low-hanging fruit. For example, a substantial reduction in pollutant loading could be achieved by modifying some of the areas with relatively low land cover but high loading and imperviousness. This includes both commercial and industrial sites building sites, parking lots, etc. There are several barriers to the implementation of green infrastructure.
The science exists, but implementation remains slow. Green stormwater management is not yet part of the DNA of urban planning and design.
Ultimately, in the absence of green infrastructure, everyone will have to continue to subsidize the cultural and ecosystem consequences resulting from conventional land development, whether new development or redevelopment. In recent years, EPA has been pushing towards integrated, transdiscplinary research where air quality is considered along with climate change and meteorology. Coupled modeling systems are important tools for this research, but the models can become so complex that they are difficult to run and interpret. There are several key questions related to the effects that urban characteristics and urban forests have on meteorology and air quality.
For example, do we have the data and models that can adequately capture and assess these effects? What are the gaps in our understanding and modeling capabilities? How should we consider changes in air quality along with other effects of increased urban tree coverage? The UHI effect is a well understood phenomenon that leads to hotter daytime and nighttime temperatures in urban areas, compared to surrounding rural areas.
Hotter daytime temperatures in cities are a result of widespread dark impervious surfaces and less vegetation, which leads to reduced evapotranspiration and thus greater sensible heat flux.
Warmer nighttime temperatures are caused by the high heat capacity of building materials, which store more daytime heat and release it at night. There are also the effects of limited sky view, which reduces radiational cooling i. Anthropogenic energy use from cooling, heating, industrial processes, and vehicular traffic also adds heat during both the day and night. Trees mitigate the UHI by increasing evapotranspiration, reducing the sensible heat flux and providing shade over high heat capacity surfaces.
However, studies have also found that trees impact pollutant dispersion by reducing convective turbulent mixing, boundary layer depth the zone through which pollutants are well mixed , and ventilation. These three factors all lead to higher pollutant concentrations. Pleim was unable to attend the workshop. His presentation was given by S.
Trees also have direct and indirect impacts on air chemistry. They enhance the removal of air pollutants and the emission of volatile organic compounds. The cooler temperatures that can result from trees lead to reduced evaporative anthropogenic emissions, slower photochemistry, and reduced energy use in the summer. An increased number of trees provides greater leaf surface area for dry deposition of both gas and particulate pollution.
Dry deposition of gases occurs via two pathways: onto leaf surfaces and through leaf stomata. Particulate deposition occurs by impaction, interception, and diffusion at leaf surfaces. The efficiency of aerosol uptake depends on the type of tree i. Also, reducing the air temperature by a couple of degrees will lower energy [cooling] demand, which in turn reduces pollutant emissions from power generation.
These types of feedbacks have not yet been fully taken into account in studies of the effects of urban trees on air quality. The net impacts could be that air pollution levels are lowered by trees, but this is not necessarily the case in all situations. The extent of tree cover varies widely across cities. The greatest effect of urban trees is on the surface energy budget, because cooling results from the latent heat of evapotranspiration.
Observations across many cities show that the fraction of surface energy converted to latent heat increases proportionally to vegetation coverage, with the greatest cooling benefits in higher density urban areas. Urban land surface modeling varies widely in complexity.
Models with greater complexity require specifications of a large number of parameters that are difficult to obtain or to specify. There are tradeoffs between complexity and computational requirements, with more complex models generally requiring more computational resources. Also, evaluation studies suggest that increased complexity does not necessarily result in improved performance Grimmond et al.
Determining the appropriate complexity depends on the scale and application of the model. Accurate specification and modeling of vegetation is crucial for accurate simulation of the surface fluxes. Vegetation data and land surface modeling are especially important for assessing the impacts of urban forests. Based on model runs, urban trees generally mitigate the UHI effect by partitioning surface energy more into latent heat and less into sensible heat. The cooling benefits of additional tree coverage are greatest in medium- and high-density urban areas.
The effects of trees on air quality are complex with opposing tendencies. Trees tend to increase pollutant concentrations by reducing dispersion and increasing biogenic volatile organic compound emissions. Trees decrease air pollutant concentrations through enhanced deposition and cooler photochemistry. Primary pollutants may increase while secondary pollutants e. Urban canopy models are needed that balance complexity with data requirements and realistic response to changing tree cover and land use. There is also a critical need for accurate high-resolution site-specific land use, impervious, canopy, and vegetation data.
Land use and vegetation data need to be harmonized with parameterizations across various scales and all meteorological and chemical processes e. Modeling techniques are needed that distinguish trees from other vegetation. Accurate high-resolution emission data are also required in addition to high-resolution, fully coupled meteorology-chemistry models. A comprehensive evaluation of meteorology and air quality in urban areas should also be performed.
The UHI is indicated by the vertical offset between the two lines. Two temperature variables are often used to measure the UHI: surface temperature and air temperature. Controlling surface temperature i. The first priority is to try to reduce surface temperatures, thereby mitigating air temperatures. The UHI effect is much more pronounced at night than during the daytime. Gaffin has conducted several studies aimed at using urban trees to help mitigate the UHI in New York.
Two streets in the Bronx were compared in the field. Tree-lined streets had lower temperatures, but it is important to note that many other factors such as building type, etc. Measuring the temperature of these streets is also a challenge because there is no standard protocol for how to collect these kinds of observations.
The lack of a standard data collection protocol needs to be addressed. Using projections of how the heat burden will change over time, Dr. Gaffin is finding that the temperature extremes are changing rapidly. This is a difficult and important phenomenon to study, and taking representative measurements is a challenge. For instance, a weather station in a forested area of Central Park may not be the best representation for temperature conditions on the street where people live and work and children play. Another key question is: Are there different levels of urban warming?
The projections of future extremes may be greatly underestimated if we are not looking at different microenvironments. There is a broad spectrum of environments that may impact the temperature within a city e. In conclusion, UHIs are generally well documented on large space and time scales. Urban green infrastructure and albedo strategies are clearly understood as UHI mitigation methods.
However, better tools, methods, and strategies are needed to understand small-scale microclimates and benefits of urban green infrastructure. Better modeling capabilities are needed to allow scientists to study large-scale greening and albedo strategies to determine overall and long term benefits vis a vis global warming.
More research is needed to understand the potential biases of urban weather stations located in parks and airports and how these may be affecting statistics for extreme heat and precipitation events at the street level, where people work and reside. The planet is losing biodiversity. This is important because the relation between the number of species and ecosystem function is linear MacArthur, ; Maestre et al. Most of these habitat fragments are too small to sustain biodiversity.
Creating corridors between the fragments allows species to travel from habitat fragment to habitat fragment. This connectedness is one solution to increasing biodiversity. However, this connectedness is typically divided by houses, highways, and other areas where people live and work. Landscapes have been built only from an aesthetic perspective, not from the perspective of managing ecosystems.
It is very difficult for species to survive in parks and land preserves because as habitats shrink, so do the populations. Small populations are more vulnerable to local extinction Pimm and Redfearn, Species extinction should be considered on the local level, not just the global level. Our natural areas are not large enough to support the needed biodiversity. Plants play a significant role in animal biodiversity because they are the first trophic level and the primary producers of energy.
Managed landscapes are filled with non-native plants and trees which are not well suited for supporting local and regional biodiversity compared to native plants Burghardt et al. Non-native plants support fewer insects e. In fact, there are often five times more species and 22 times more insects in native-plant-only areas. Most insect herbivores are specialized to eat particular plants Ehrlich and Raven, and can develop and reproduce only on the plants with which they share an evolutionary history.
Insects that are specialized to eat one plant cannot eat other plants. Ninety percent of all phytophagous i. Most can tolerate only a few closely related species Bernays and Graham, Insects play a significant role in supporting biodiversity because they are eaten by many animals e. For example, the Carolina chickadee rears its young exclusively on caterpillars, all of which are typically collected within 50 meters of the nest.
A chickadee pair brings caterpillars to the nest per day Brewer, As a result, planning informed by intentionally incorporate the values of multiple stakeholders into deci- an ecosystem service framework could inject ecological information sion-making, but must balance the plethora of actors involved in the plan- into decision-making processes that account for multiple viewpoints ning process e.
An alternative possibility — routing the highway around deliberative planning processes. By identifying variations in the constitu- the complex — may preserve these services, while damaging others encies concerned with each ecosystem service, planners can 1 create op- e. An ES planning framework basis for future land use and environmental planning activities Yin, would make these factors, weights, and tradeoffs explicit to more accu- We focus on the analyses Theobald et al. Case selection to analyze ES in planning today 4. Wilmington — New Hanover County joint coastal area management The previous section explored how an ES framework for planning plan could build on the work of McHarg by utilizing ecological informational advances, enhancing stakeholder participation, and explicitly consider- With over , residents in , New Hanover County is the ing tradeoffs.
To explore how this extended framework could be applied most populous coastal county in North Carolina and their continued to current planning practice, we used two criteria to select four compre- growth is an important issue to residents. In preparing their hensive plans for evaluation. First, we wanted to examine plans in juris- plan, New Hanover County surveyed over voters and found that dictions with widely acknowledged environmental leadership and two-thirds believed the county was growing too fast with environmen- where environmental constraints and regulations have acutely affected tal issues e.
We aimed to select plans creat- value of coastal natural resources and the threat that uncontrolled de- ed under a diverse subset of planning frameworks and processes, velopment poses to these resources. As such, CAMA delineates guide- including countywide comprehensive planning, major metropolitan lines for county land use planning including conducting a land area master planning, focused new town planning, and hazard-related suitability analysis, mapping natural resources, and assessing environ- coastal area management planning.
Using these two criteria, we delib- mental conditions. This framework requires county governments to eratively sampled Yin, four well-known plans in diverse urban consider factors such as coastal hazards and water quality in their land and environmental settings: New Hanover County, NC; Baltimore Coun- use decision-making. The plan creation. New Hanover County, North Carolina lies in a hurricane-ex- builds upon the county's past CAMA plans to ensure wise development posed area, contains the highest population density along the North and minimize further degradation and loss of the natural landscape.
Carolina coast, and faces immense environmental pressure from both growth and climate-related coastal change. New Hanover County is 4. Bal- Between and the population of Baltimore County nearly timore County's master plan builds on Ian McHarg's previous work in doubled, increasing from , to ,, prompting strong plan- the region The Plan for the Valleys and was created in direct response ning and growth management initiatives to help retain the county's to unique and expansive federal and state water quality regulations af- rural character.
Chesapeake Bay's water quality protection efforts are widely The plan, for which McHarg acted as a consultant, has had a lasting im- viewed as an example that will guide future water quality management pact. In , the county established an urban growth boundary and, efforts for many of the other estuaries across the US Chesapeake since then, has successfully guided development into a concentrated Bay Program, For example, to facilities plan, comprehensive plan, and market-based planning comply with federal and state programs like the Chesapeake Bay Critical initiative.
In addition, Damascus explores the potential of an ES market to 4. City of Philadelphia comprehensive plan help better represent the cost of development. In contrast to the population increases observed in New Hanover 4. Information quantity and Baltimore Counties, Philadelphia followed the trajectory of many industrial cities in the U.
Industrial output and population in Philadel- The Wilmington — New Hanover County CAMA plan provides phia peaked in , and then dramatically declined during decades of an example of a traditional use of ecological information to inform plan- de-industrialization that resulted in migration to the suburbs, closed ning recommendations. Al- zones. To ad- duce coliform, or 2 could be selectively enhanced to contribute to even dress this issue, the Citywide Vision for Philadelphia supports the further reductions.
The collection of additional ecological data would use of green infrastructure as a cost effective way to manage enable these types of highly directed planning recommendations. These strategies are drawn from the Philadelphia ing stream temperatures Baltimore County, , p. Phil- stream stability, and forest community structure p. Rather, preservation of forest cal functions and at the same time revitalize the city by improving is quota driven.
The plan ambitiously sets a goal of preserving 80, public health, recreation, and housing PWD, Similarly, the plan 4. Damascus, OR comprehensive plan and public facilities plan proposes a no-net loss of forest policy based on area, rather than ser- vices, which has been widely critiqued in the ES market literature for Damascus, OR is a new municipality that incorporated in after producing a net loss of services de Groot et al. In summary, the the area City of Damascus, To accom- to protect ES from future development. As the area vacant, Philadelphia has little, if any, undeveloped natural areas city develops drinking, storm, and wastewater infrastructure, it foresaw to preserve.
Rather, the city is seeking opportunities to create green in- utilizing ES to lower costs and protect environmental resources. Howev- frastructure that can restore ecological functions, especially stormwater er, the comprehensive plan was quickly rescinded after being management, at schools, parks, vacant lots, or underutilized properties.
An ditional infrastructure such as parks and transportation. For each parcel of natural space, ecosystem services. In- take a more targeted approach to development decisions. By quantify- stead of the gross quantities or generalized impacts that characterize ing ES provided by the community's natural resources, Damascus' plan current resource inventories, the higher resolution and data integrity demonstrates how additional information can be incorporated into yielded by using ES concepts could allow ecological quality to enter planning decisions.
In contrast to broad policies to discourage develop- into strategic decision-making. The comprehensive plan also includes multiple policies that use ES to 4. Stakeholder engagement guide development and the location of public facilities in particular City of Damascus, An ES approach should enhance planning's incorporation of multiple Damascus not only uses ecosystem service information as a basis for stakeholder viewpoints and values with ecological information Fig.
While the decision to use an ES sensitive environmental areas to offset the impacts to ES. In Damascus's approach in Damascus included extensive stakeholder engagement Ecosystem Service Market Program Component CH2MHill, , plan- and visioning exercises, the ES planning process was highly technical ners attempt to incorporate the ecological tradeoffs associated with de- with no community input. CH2MHill, a contractor outside the commu- velopment into upfront development cost.
This exclusion may be one of the reasons that the Damascus parks and restoration efforts in degraded environments, creating eco- plan was quickly rescinded after its initial adoption, and signals that system credits that could offset impacts elsewhere City of Damascus, major improvements can be made in stakeholder involvement in the , p. This approach green infrastructure program, community groups may propose loca- moves beyond traditional planning approaches of incorporating envi- tions for green infrastructure projects, which are then prioritized by ronmental information by creating metrics that enable a discussion of the PWD if the green infrastructure projects are recommended by com- the tradeoffs between the services and their locations, resource types, munity groups, supported by community partnerships, have undergone and neighborhoods served being lost due to development and the ser- a community-based planning process, and include community outreach vices created by conservation and restoration projects.
By focusing on the need for green infra- structure investments to revitalize the community and better manage stormwater, Philadelphia's approach may better account for community 4. Information quality values and concerns. While wetland de- Efforts to integrate planning and ES do not and should not end lineation requires ecological information to differentiate wetland types, with the provision of information.
The information needed to support alternate planning decisions. Similarly, the recognizing the ever-present calculus of tradeoffs inherent in develop- ment decisions. Further ex- age of maximum functionality per acre or an alternate spatial measure. This the landscape. Should effective land use interventions planned at later stages when the need for higher resolution data that demand large scale buy-in be delayed until we have better data would emerge. An ES approach could inform public discourse by providing more 5. Using ES information should, in theory, efforts, they are at the forefront of plans to manage water quality and allow planners to communicate environmental information more easi- coastal hazards.
An ES framework framework could balance increased data and public communication. For example, Baltimore Coun- should be interpreted.
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How can ability of ES data and its incorporation into local policy. In other in- planners resolve stakeholder disagreements about how to measure stances, data may not even be available to make informed decisions and quantify services? While ranking systems are simplistic, it is imme- about how to structure local regulations Rose et al. Consequently, a tions within the same watershed. This data infrastructure scholars point to imperfect data, limited cognitive capacity, and political will be critical to creating mainstream considering of ES in planning.
For ex- Salzman, For example, Raleigh NC is investing in land protection that will help wa- ample, despite long-term and widespread water quality impairment in ter quality in Falls Lake, an impoundment that is major source of drinking water for Ra- leigh, yet is surrounded by the City of Durham, NC Monti, Additionally, the B. Future work should delve deeper into de- against management changes. As we saw in the Damascus, OR, a termining how and where inclusion of ES information can occur in dif- major hurdle to the an ES framework is the institutional barriers to ferent types of planning processes, seeking qualitative understanding of the implementation of new environmental management paradigms.
One potential approach, developed by Wensem et al. Extending ES into planning: a call for research in press , involves using three criteria for evaluating the extent of ES use in decision-making processes, including 1 creating clear connec- The incorporation of ES into the land use and environmental plan- tions bridging ecosystem change and human well-being, 2 consider- ning process necessitates an outlay of resources i. Thus, it will be essential for proponents to ar- comparisons between well-being changes in different groups of ticulate a clear set of arguments to justify this investment in the often- stakeholders.
While work has begun to improve tech- mental planning research community to explore a fundamental ques- niques for integrating of ES into planning processes — e. Researchers could then assess the planning process and varia- 6. ES measurement and communication tions in the expected outcomes of the plan with and without ES incorporated and assess the role of ES across 1 jurisdictions, 2 types The third area of research seeks to understand how ES information of plans, and 3 types of services.
In the federal decision making context, many agen- 6. For an ES framework, we might measure different sce- gy are already incorporated. This approach im- spective, considerations of cost and public perception have played a plies the need for a system for gauging the level of effort for providing major part in the adoption of green infrastructure stormwater manage- services, the necessary data and models for measuring those services, ment practices.
Many plans already assess various aspects of ecological and a test of implementation feasibility for different levels of services functioning and community valuation. If they incorporate information based on this effort. At the far end of this continuum, the City of Da- areas where they are used or appreciated.
Visualizations and data shar- mascus, OR explicitly used an ES approach to quantify the ecological ing tools developed as part of this research program could be tested di- services associated with selected parcels Yap, It is critical to rectly with focus groups of urban planners. Improving the use of ES in planning 7. Conclusions The second facet of our agenda calls on researchers to develop tech- niques e. By drawing on a system that explicitly facilitates implementation efforts. Existing research has been primarily theoretical tradeoffs among environmental outcomes, an ES-based platform may in proposals for improved ES use in decision-making Bateman et al.
Planning policies and actions are typically informed by data with low The potential outcomes of this part of the research agenda could be temporal and spatial resolutions. An ES approach involves the integra- evaluated by examining how these tools might change existing plans tion of more, higher quality ecological and social data as planners and and their implementation. A thorough research design would involve policy-makers balance tradeoffs.
Ecosystem service market program component. Our explora- Chan, K. Con- tion lays out a research agenda to address whether an ES framework servation planning for ecosystem services. PLoS Biology, 4, e Why is the Chesapeake Bay so important? Chesapeake Bay News. Envision Damascus: Comprehensive plan. Damascus, OR: City of and decision making processes. Citywide vision: Philadelphia Philadelphia, PA: City of Philadelphia.
The Philadelphia story-A triple-bottom-line assessment of traditional and green infrastructure options for controlling CSO events in Philadelphia's watersheds. Water Environment and Technology, 24, Acknowledgements Cowling, R. Wilhelm- Rechman, A. An operational model for mainstreaming ecosystem services for implementation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, , — We would like to integrating the concept of ecosystem services and values in landscape plan- thank the attendees of the workshop organized in Chapel Hill, NC ning, management and decision making. Ecological Complexity, 7, — Denver Water From forests to faucets: U.
Forest Service and Denver water water- April 10—12, for their input, including Lewis Hopkins shed management partnership. Denver, CO: Denver Water. Fisher, B. Ecological Economics, 68, — We would Flyvbjerg, B. Rationality and power: Democracy in practice. Forester, J. Planning in the face of power.