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Tome 18, Avair Fred L. A comparison by statistical methods of certain external pelvic measurements of French and American women. The American Journal of obseetrics and gynecology. Saint-Louis, t. II, , p. Barcro ft. The respiratory function of the blood. Part 1 : Lessons from high altitudes. Cambridge, at the University press, , x p.

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New York, t. Pearson Karl. On the reconstruction of cranial capacity from external measurements. Peyre DT. Le cancer dans les races humaines. LXV, Pycraft W. Diagnoses of four species and one sub-species of the genus Homo. XXV, ,, p. XXV, , p. Race crosses. York, new series, t. Slingenberg J. Coloration capillaire et. Institut international.

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II, ,. Annaes do xx Congresso. Rio de Janeiro, t. Wissler Clark. The relation of nature to man in aboriginal America. New York. Anthropologischer Anzeiger. Stuttgart, t. Il; , p. Birket-Smith Kaj. Goteborg, ,4 p. The geographical Review. XV, , p. Dodge Ernest : The Mulatto problem , Journal of heredity. Washington, t. Triple crosses -in the South : Indian-Negro-White. Lancaster et Cold Spring Harbor, t. IX, , p. FoRBiN V.

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The eugenics Review. Londres, avril Skeletal remains from Santa Barbara, California. Indian Notes and Monographs. New -York, Museum of -the american Indian,. Pearl Raymond. Span of life and average- duration of- life. Renaud E. Uncovering the first Americans. New York, 7 janvier. Source of the Slaves of the United States. Proceedings of the american Academy of arts , and sciences. Allen Grace. Reactions of eight San Bias Indians to performance tests.

Descendants of the Maya- Indians. New York, -t. XXVI," , en face de la page 60, FoRBiN' V. Paris, 17 avril , p. Harris Reginald G. The San Bias Indians. Their physical relation to the Mayas. Izquierdo J. El gasto respiratorio maximo. Mexico, t. XLI, n04 , nov. Blond Indians of the Darien jungle. World's work. New York,. Metcalf Maynard M. Mexico, , 1. Mexico, Schultz Adolph H. Anthropological studies on Nicaraguan Indians: American. Journal of physical anthropology. III, , p. The white Indians of Darien. New York, new series, t. White Indians of Panama; a mystery of the Darien.

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The distribution of tattoing and its anthropological significance. British Association for the advancement of science. Report of the ninety- third meeting, Southampton, , august september 2. Londres, , p. Landero Carlos F. XL, nos , oct. Le Cour Paul. A la recherche d'un monde perdu. L' Atlantide et ses traditions. Lehmann J. Leite de Vasconcellos J,. Lisbonne, t. Smith G. Ancient mariners and the spread of early civilization. The scientific American. New York, mai , p. Capitan L. Clarke Louis C. Indigenous american art. The pan-american Magazine.

The other America ; the older arts will inspire the new. Eastman Charles E. Early portrayals of the opossum. The american Naturalist. XLIX, , p. Fallaize E. The antiquity of man in America. Hennig Richard. Munich, Delphin-Verlag, , p. Holmes W. The antiquity phantom in american archaeology. LXII, , p. Jochelson Waldemar. Kempton J. Maize and man. The Journal of heredity.

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Indianapolis, , p. American antiquities, being the entire section devoted to the. New York, Bancroft Co. The domestic use of oil among the southern- aborigines. Montgomery, t. Ill, sept. Bradfield Wesley. A day's work on the Mimbres. El Palacio. Santa Fe, t. Brame J. Beads of the mound-buildings tribes. Arrow points. Breazeale John M. An Arizona cliff-dweller's shawl. Brown Charles E. Additional Wisconsin spirit stones. Milwaukee, t. XX, 1, p. Milwaukee, new series, t. Lake Monona. Milwaukee, new. Fox Lake, The Wisconsin archeologist.

Mounds in Montgomery county. Il, mai-juin , p. Bushneix David I. The Hague, august , Carroll Mitchell. The story of our national monuments. Historical introduction. X, , p. Proceedings of the twenty first - international Congress of Americanists, first part, held at The Hague, august , Clotjzot Henri.

L'Opinion: -Paris, 16 janvier , p. Cole H. The marking of the Lynx mound at Devils lake. Collections from the Northwest. Cook Harold J. Definitive evidence of human artifacts in the american pleistocene. Crimmins M. Petro glyphs, picto graphs and the diffusion of primitive culture. XXI, , p. Crook A. The- origin of the Cahokia mounds.

Bulletin of. Springfield, mai Delabarre , Edmund Burke. The inscribed rocks of Narragansett bay. Rhode Island historical Society Collections. Providence, t. XXVH, , p. Delabarre George T. The inscribed rocks of Narragansett bay suite. XIV, , p. Sciences et Voyages. English Tom. ThePiasa petro glyph : the devour er from the bluffs. Explorations in Chaco canon in Fewkes J. The Hovenweep national monument. Annual Report of the board of regents of the Smithsonian Institution for the year ending june 30 Leipzig, t.

An archaeological collection from Young's canyon, near Flagstaff, Arizona. Smithsonian miscellaneous Collections. Finds in Etowah mound. Effigy mound photographs. Milwaukee -. Milwaukee, nouv. I, avril , p. Michigan history Magazine. Lansing, t. VI, , nos , p. Germann Frank E.

Ceramic pigments of the Indians of the southwest. LXIII, , p. Archaeology of the Southern San Joa- quin valley, California. University of California Publications in american archaeology and ethnology. Greenman E. A report on Michigan archaeology. Hammett Frederick S. Notes on the shell-heap at Whitmanville, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Menasha,' new series, t. House-builders of the desert. Harrington : M. Ancient salt mine near St. Thomas, Nevada. New York, Museum of the american Indian, Heye foundation, t. New York, juillet Harris Harry.

A modern artist in flints. Hewett Edgar L. Prospective national monuments. XI, , p. American Magazine of art. New York et Washington, t. XIII, sept. Museum of the american Indian, Heye foundation, t. Holand Hj almar R. Menasha, t. VI, , p. Holmes Wm. Dighton rock. Baltimore et Washington,.

The Norsemen in Greenland. Recent discoveries at Herjolfsnes. Huffman John W. Indian cemetery site at -La Jolla. Indians of the San Francisco bay region. Jeancon Jean Allard. Two seasons' work in archaeology in Colorado. Denver, t. The Colorado Magazine. A new Eskimo - culture in Hudson bay. The geographical. Archaeological investigations in the Aleutian- islands. Washington, octobre. Judd Neil M. Every day life in Pueblo bonito. The national geographic Magazine. Keyes Charles R. An unusual type of grooved stone axe.

Annals of -Iowa. XIII, juillet , p. Excavations at Pecos in X, 15 janv. XIII, Ier nov, , p. An archaeological site in the Jornada del Muerto, New Mexico. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of american ethnology, Bulletin Washington, , xvni p. Larson Laurence M.

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The Kensington rune stone. Wisconsin Magazine of history. Madison, t. Use of tobacco among North American Indians. Field Museum of. Chicago, Anthropology, Leaflet 15, , 27 p. LooMis F. The Florida man. LXII, ,. Lummis Charles F. Mesa, Canon and Pueblo. Our wonderland of the Southwest ;. MacAlister Mary. Modern american art and the primitive. Scribner's Magazine. LXIX, , p. MacCurdy George Grant.

A rare effigy pipe from Tennessee. Marks- William M. Mound near Florence, Lauderdale county. II, mai , p. Mathiassen Therkel. Preliminary Report of the fifth Thule expedition, Archaeology. McHarg John Brainerd. The lions of Cochicti. Santa Fe,t. McIlvaine Caroline M. Cahokia mound park. Chicago historical Society Bulletin. Chicago, t. I, dec. Mercanton P.

Meddelelser om Gronland.. A second archeological note. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Easton, t. Mills William C. Flint ridge. Ohio archaeological and historical Quarterly. Columbus, t. XXX, , p. XXXI, octobre , p. Morris Earl H. Exploring in the canyon of death.

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Remains of a people who dwelt in our Southwest at least years ago are revealed. XLV1II, , p. Morse Edw. Shell-mounds and changes in the shells composing them. Myer William Edward. Recent archaeological discoveries in. Oklahoma mounds. Orchard William C. Porcupine quillwork from Lovelock cave, Nevada. Ornamental stone plummets. XX, 1,. Owen Thomas M.

Some notes on the shell banks of the Alabama coast. IV, janv. Pearls from the Ohio mound. Pit houses of Cameron creek. Prehistoric footprints from the Grand Canyon. New York, new series,. Prehistoric remains in Florida. Rasmussen Knud. The fifth Thule expedition, The Danish ethnographical. LXVII, , p. Archaeological notes on Pine river valley, Colorado, and the.

Kayenta-Tuba region, Arizona. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of science. Topeka, t. Saville Foster H. Indian wells on Long Island. Ill, , p. At Coatepeque the Guatemalans suffered a severe defeat, which was followed by a truce. The contest was finally settled in favor of Carrera, who besieged and occupied San Salvador , and dominated Honduras and Nicaragua. He continued to act in concert with the Clerical Party , and tried to maintain friendly relations with European governments.

Before he died, Carrera nominated his friend and loyal soldier, Army Marshall Vicente Cerna y Cerna , as his successor. A conservative and archaic government, badly organized and with worse intentions, was in charge of the country, centralizing all powers in Vicente Cerna, ambitious military man, who not happy with the general rank, had promoted himself to the Army Marshall rank, even though that rank did not exist and it does not exist in the Guatemalan military.

The Marshall called himself President of the Republic, but in reality he was the foreman of oppressed and savaged people, cowardly enough that they had not dared to tell the dictator to leave threatening him with a revolution. The tight relationship between church and state had been ratified by the Concordat of , which was the law until Cerna was deposed in Thus the generals fought under his command, [42] and waited—for a long time—until Carrera's death before beginning their revolt against the tamer Cerna.

In , the merchants guild, Consulado de Comercio, lost their exclusive court privilege. They had major effects on the economics of the time, and therefore land management. From to , the Consulado held a consistent monopolistic position in the regime. Guatemala's "Liberal Revolution" came in under the leadership of Justo Rufino Barrios , who worked to modernize the country, improve trade, and introduce new crops and manufacturing. During this era coffee became an important crop for Guatemala.

Manuel Barillas was president from 16 March to 15 March Manuel Barillas was unique among liberal presidents of Guatemala between and he handed over power to his successor peacefully. When election time approached, he sent for the three Liberal candidates to ask them what their government plan would be. Reyna was elected president. During Barrios's first term in office, the power of the landowners over the rural peasantry increased. He oversaw the rebuilding of parts of Guatemala City on a grander scale, with wide, Parisian-style avenues. During his second term, Barrios printed bonds to fund his ambitious plans, fueling monetary inflation and the rise of popular opposition to his regime.

His administration also worked on improving the roads, installing national and international telegraphs and introducing electricity to Guatemala City. Completing a transoceanic railway was a main objective of his government, with a goal to attract international investors at a time when the Panama Canal was not built yet. There are two different descriptions of how Cabrera was able to become president. The first states that Cabrera entered the cabinet meeting "with pistol drawn" to assert his entitlement to the presidency, [63] while the second states that he showed up unarmed to the meeting and demanded the presidency by virtue of being the designated successor.

The first civilian Guatemalan head of state in over 50 years, Estrada Cabrera overcame resistance to his regime by August and called for elections in September, which he won handily. As a member of the Liberal Party , he sought to encourage development of the nation's infrastructure of highways , railroads , and sea ports for the sake of expanding the export economy.

By the time Estrada Cabrera assumed the presidency there had been repeated efforts to construct a railroad from the major port of Puerto Barrios to the capital, Guatemala City. Estrada Cabrera decided, without consulting the legislature or judiciary, that striking a deal with the UFCO was the only way to finish the railway. Estrada Cabrera often employed brutal methods to assert his authority. Right at the beginning of his first presidential period he started prosecuting his political rivals and soon established a well-organized web of spies.

One American ambassador returned to the United States after he learned the dictator had given orders to poison him. In one incident, when UFCO went directly to Estrada Cabrera to resolve a strike after the armed forces refused to respond , the president ordered an armed unit to enter a workers' compound. The forces "arrived in the night, firing indiscriminately into the workers' sleeping quarters, wounding and killing an unspecified number. In Estrada faced serious revolts against his rule; the rebels were supported by the governments of some of the other Central American nations, but Estrada succeeded in putting them down.

Elections were held by the people against the will of Estrada Cabrera and thus he had the president-elect murdered in retaliation. In Estrada narrowly survived an assassination attempt when a bomb exploded near his carriage. Guatemala City was badly damaged in the Guatemala earthquake. Estrada Cabrera continued in power until forced to resign after new revolts in By that time his power had declined drastically and he was reliant upon the loyalty of a few generals. While the United States threatened intervention if he was removed through revolution, a bipartisan coalition came together to remove him from the presidency.

He was removed from office after the national assembly charged that he was mentally incompetent, and appointed Carlos Herrera in his place on 8 April The Great Depression began in and badly damaged the Guatemalan economy, causing a rise in unemployment , and leading to unrest among workers and laborers. Afraid of a popular revolt, the Guatemalan landed elite lent their support to Jorge Ubico , who had become well known for "efficiency and cruelty" as a provincial governor. Ubico won the election that followed in , in which he was the only candidate.

He replaced the system of debt peonage with a brutally enforced vagrancy law, requiring all men of working age who did not own land to work a minimum of days of hard labor. Ubico also froze wages at very low levels, and passed a law allowing land-owners complete immunity from prosecution for any action they took to defend their property, [75] an action described by historians as legalizing murder.

These laws created tremendous resentment against him among agricultural laborers. Ubico continued his predecessor's policy of making massive concessions to the United Fruit Company , often at a cost to Guatemala. He granted the company , hectares , acres of public land in exchange for a promise to build a port, a promise he later waived. This process accelerated under Ubico's presidency, with the government doing nothing to stop it. It also controlled the sole railroad in the country, the sole facilities capable of producing electricity, and the port facilities at Puerto Barrios on the Atlantic coast.

Ubico saw the United States as an ally against the supposed communist threat of Mexico, and made efforts to gain its support. When the US declared war against Germany in , Ubico acted on American instructions and arrested all people in Guatemala of German descent. He militarized numerous political and social institutions—including the post office, schools, and symphony orchestras—and placed military officers in charge of many government posts.

On 1 July Ubico was forced to resign from the presidency in response to a wave of protests and a general strike inspired by brutal labor conditions among plantation workers. About people were killed in the coup. New Deal of President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression. Despite their popularity within the country, the reforms of the Guatemalan Revolution were disliked by the United States government, which was predisposed by the Cold War to see it as communist, and the United Fruit Company UFCO , whose hugely profitable business had been affected by the end to brutal labor practices.

Eisenhower was elected U. He is celebrated for challenging the Mexican president to a gentleman's duel on the bridge on the south border to end a feud on the subject of illegal fishing by Mexican boats on Guatemala's Pacific coast, two of which were sunk by the Guatemalan Air Force. Ydigoras authorized the training of 5, anti- Castro Cubans in Guatemala. Ydigoras' government was ousted in when the Guatemalan Air Force attacked several military bases; the coup was led by his Defense Minister, Colonel Enrique Peralta Azurdia. In , the junta called an election, which permitted Arevalo to return from exile and run.

However a coup from within the military, backed by the Kennedy Administration , prevented the election from taking place, and forestalled a likely victory for Arevalo. Mendez Montenegro was the candidate of the Revolutionary Party, a center-left party that had its origins in the post-Ubico era.

Those groups were the forerunners of the infamous " Death Squads ". Military advisers from the United States Army Special Forces Green Berets were sent to Guatemala to train these troops and help transform the army into a modern counter-insurgency force, which eventually made it the most sophisticated in Central America. By , members of the guerrilla movement entered the country from Mexico and settled in the Western Highlands. On 4 February , a major earthquake destroyed several cities and caused more than 25, deaths, especially among the poor, whose housing was substandard.

The government's failure to respond rapidly to the aftermath of the earthquake and to relieve homelessness gave rise to widespread discontent, which contributed to growing popular unrest. They began guerrilla attacks that included urban and rural warfare, mainly against the military and some civilian supporters of the army. The army and the paramilitary forces responded with a brutal counter-insurgency campaign that resulted in tens of thousands of civilian deaths.

On 31 January , a group of indigenous K'iche' took over the Spanish Embassy to protest army massacres in the countryside. The Guatemalan government armed forces launched an assault that killed almost everyone inside in a fire that consumed the building. The Guatemalan government claimed that the activists set the fire, thus immolating themselves. As a result, the government of Spain broke off diplomatic relations with Guatemala.

He continued the bloody campaign of torture, forced disappearances , and " scorched earth " warfare. As a result of the Army's "scorched earth" tactics in the countryside, more than 45, Guatemalans fled across the border to Mexico. The Mexican government placed the refugees in camps in Chiapas and Tabasco. The Guatemalan Civil War ended in with a peace accord between the guerrillas and the government, negotiated by the United Nations through intense brokerage by nations such as Norway and Spain. Both sides made major concessions.

The guerrilla fighters disarmed and received land to work. According to the U. In the last few years, millions of documents related to crimes committed during the civil war have been found abandoned by the former Guatemalan police. The families of over 45, Guatemalan activists who disappeared during the civil war are now reviewing the documents, which have been digitized. This could lead to further legal actions. During the first ten years of the civil war, the victims of the state-sponsored terror were primarily students, workers, professionals, and opposition figures, but in the last years they were thousands of mostly rural Maya farmers and non-combatants.

More than Maya villages were destroyed and over 1 million people became refugees or displaced within Guatemala. This report summarized testimony and statements of thousands of witnesses and victims of repression during the Civil War. A priest was convicted as an accomplice and was sentenced to 20 years in prison.

More than one million people were forced to flee their homes and hundreds of villages were destroyed. It concluded in that state actions constituted genocide. In some areas such as Baja Verapaz , the Truth Commission found that the Guatemalan state engaged in an intentional policy of genocide against particular ethnic groups in the Civil War.

Since the peace accords Guatemala has had both economic growth and successive democratic elections, most recently in He assumed office on 14 January In January Efrain Rios Montt, the former dictator of Guatemala, appeared in a Guatemalan court on genocide charges. During the hearing, the government presented evidence of over incidents involving at least 1, deaths, 1, rapes, and the displacement of nearly 30, Guatemalans during his month rule from — The prosecution wanted him incarcerated because he was viewed as a flight risk but he remained free on bail, under house arrest and guarded by the Guatemalan National Civil Police PNC.

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On 10 May , Rios Montt was found guilty and sentenced to 80 years in prison. It marked the first time that a national court had found a former head of state guilty of genocide. He was acquitted in May , by a panel of judges that threw out some of the evidence and discounted certain witnesses as unreliable. Officials received bribes from importers in exchange for discounted import tariffs, [] a practice rooted in a long tradition of customs corruption in the country, as a fund-raising tactic of successive military governments for counterinsurgency operations during Guatemala's year-long civil war.

Within days, over 10, people RSVPed that they would attend. Organisers made clear that no political party or group was behind the event, and instructed protesters at the event to follow the law. They also urged people to bring water, food and sunblock, but not to cover their faces or wear political party colors. They protested in front of the presidential palace. Baldetti resigned a few days later. She was forced to remain in Guatemala when the United States revoked her visa.

The Guatemalan government arraigned her, since it had enough evidence to suspect her involvement in the "La Linea" scandal. The prominence of US Ambassador Todd Robinson in the Guatemalan political scene once the scandal broke led to the suspicion that the US government was behind the investigation, perhaps because it needed an honest government in Guatemala to counter the presence of China and Russia in the region. The UN anti-corruption committee has reported on other cases since then, and more than 20 government officials have stepped down.

Some were arrested. Baldetti was arrested the same day and an impeachment was requested for the president. Several cabinet members resigned and the clamor for the president's resignation grew after Perez Molina defiantly assured the nation in a televised message broadcast on 23 August that he was not going to resign.

Thousands of protesters took to the streets again, this time to demand the increasingly isolated president's resignation. Guatemala's Congress named a commission of five legislators to consider whether to remove the president's immunity from prosecution. The Supreme Court approved. A major day of action kicked off early on 27 August, with marches and roadblocks across the country. Urban groups who had spearheaded regular protests since the scandal broke in April, on the 27th sought to unite with the rural and indigenous organizations who orchestrated the road blocks.

The strike in Guatemala City was full of a diverse and peaceful crowd ranging from the indigenous poor to the well-heeled, and it included many students from public and private universities. Hundreds of schools and businesses closed in support of the protests. The attorney general's office released its own statement, calling for the president's resignation "to prevent ungovernability that could destabilize the nation.

Asked whether he planned to resign, he wrote: "I will face whatever is necessary to face, and what the law requires. Others warned that suspending the vote could lead to an institutional vacuum. These three regions vary in climate, elevation, and landscape, providing dramatic contrasts between hot, humid tropical lowlands and colder, drier highland peaks.

The rivers are short and shallow in the Pacific drainage basin, larger and deeper in the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico drainage basins. Guatemala's location between the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean makes it a target for hurricanes such as Hurricane Mitch in and Hurricane Stan in October , which killed more than 1, people.

The damage was not wind-related, but rather due to significant flooding and resulting mudslides. The most recent was Tropical Storm Agatha in late May , which killed more than Guatemala's highlands lie along the Motagua Fault , part of the boundary between the Caribbean and North American tectonic plates. This fault has been responsible for several major earthquakes in historic times, including a 7. In addition, the Middle America Trench , a major subduction zone lies off the Pacific coast.

Here, the Cocos Plate is sinking beneath the Caribbean Plate, producing volcanic activity inland of the coast. Natural disasters have a long history in this geologically active part of the world. For example, two of the three moves of the capital of Guatemala have been due to volcanic mudflows in and earthquakes in Guatemala has 14 ecoregions ranging from mangrove forests to both ocean littorals with 5 different ecosystems.

Guatemala has listed wetlands, including five lakes, 61 lagoons, rivers, and four swamps. Guatemala is a country of distinct fauna. It has some known species. Of these, 6. Guatemala is home to at least 8, species of vascular plants, of which Guatemala is a constitutional democratic republic whereby the President of Guatemala is both head of state and head of government , and of a multi-party system.

Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Congress of the Republic. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Jimmy Morales assumed office on 14 January Guatemala has long claimed all or part of the territory of neighboring Belize. Due to this territorial dispute, Guatemala did not recognize Belize's independence until 6 September , [] but the dispute is not resolved.

Negotiations are currently under way under the auspices of the Organization of American States to conclude it. Guatemala has a modest military, with between 15, and 20, personnel. Guatemala is divided into 22 departments Spanish : departamentos and sub-divided into about municipalities Spanish : municipios. Killings and death squads have been common in Guatemala since the end of the civil war in They had significant influence, now somewhat lessened.

It was the first ruling by the court against the Guatemalan state for any of the massacres reported in its s scorched-earth campaign.

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In , Guatemala became the first country to officially recognize femicide , the murder of a female because of her gender, as a crime. However, Guatemala faces many social problems and is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. The income distribution is highly unequal with more than half of the population below the national poverty line and just over , 3. Remittances from Guatemalans living in United States now constitute the largest single source of foreign income two thirds of exports and one tenth of GDP.

Some of Guatemala's main exports are fruits, vegetables, flowers, handicrafts, cloths and others. In the face of a rising demand for biofuels , the country is growing and exporting an increasing amount of raw materials for biofuel production, especially sugar cane and palm oil. Critics say that this development leads to higher prices for staple foods like corn, a major ingredient in the Guatemalan diet. As a consequence of the subsidization of US American corn, Guatemala imports nearly half of its corn from the United States that is using 40 percent of its crop harvest for biofuel production.

Mines produce gold, silver, zinc, cobalt and nickel. Organic coffee, sugar, textiles, fresh vegetables, and bananas are the country's main exports. Inflation was 3. The peace accords that ended the decades-long civil war removed a major obstacle to foreign investment. Tourism has become an increasing source of revenue for Guatemala thanks to the new foreign investment. Guatemala received around two million tourists annually. In recent years, an increase in the number of cruise ships have been visiting Guatemalan seaports, leading to higher tourist numbers. Natural attractions include locations such as Lake Atitlan and Semuc Champey.

There is a strong interest within the international community for archaeological sites like the city of Tikal. To note, Tikal was built and inhabited in a period where the culture had its greatest literary and artistic expression, and was ruled by a dynasty of 16 kings. The Maya of Tikal built many temples, a ball park, altars and stelae in high and low relief.

Guatemala is visited for its archaeological sites, pre-Hispanic cities as well as tourist-religious centers like the Basilica of Esquipulas in the city of Esquipulas, and the beaches on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of Guatemala. Other tourist destinations are the national parks and other protected areas such as the Maya Biosphere Reserve. Guatemala has a population of 16,, est. The census was burned. Guatemala is heavily centralized: transportation, communications, business, politics, and the most relevant urban activity takes place in the capital of Guatemala City, [ citation needed ] whose urban area has a population of almost 3 million.

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The estimated median age in Guatemala is 20 years old, The proportion of the population below the age of 15 in was A significant number of Guatemalans live outside of their country. The majority of the Guatemalan diaspora is located in the United States of America, with estimates ranging from , [] to 1,, Guatemala is populated by a variety of ethnic, cultural, racial, and linguistic groups. Most indigenous Guatemalans are of the Maya people , namely K'iche' White Guatemalans of European descent, also called Criollo , make up German settlers are credited with bringing the tradition of Christmas trees to Guatemala.

The population includes about , Salvadorans. Vincent, live mainly in Livingston and Puerto Barrios. Afro-Guatemalans and mulattos descended primarily from banana plantation workers. A growing Korean community in Guatemala City and in nearby Mixco , numbers about 50, Guatemala's sole official language is Spanish, spoken by 93 percent of the population as either the first or second language. Twenty-one Mayan languages are spoken, especially in rural areas, as well as two non-Mayan Amerindian languages: Xinca , which is indigenous to the country, and Garifuna , an Arawakan language spoken on the Caribbean coast.

According to the Language Law of , these languages are unrecognized as National Languages. There are also significant numbers of German , Chinese , French and English language speakers. Throughout the 20th century there have been many developments in the integration of Mayan languages into the Guatemalan society and educational system. Originating from political reasons, these processes have aided the revival of some Mayan languages and advanced bilingual education in the country. In , in order to overcome "the Indian problem", the Guatemalan government founded The Institute Indigents ta National NH , the purpose of which was to teach literacy to Mayan children in their mother tongue instead of Spanish, to prepare the ground for later assimilation of the latter.

The teaching of literacy in the first language, which received support from the UN, significantly advanced in , when the SIL Summer Institute of Linguistics , located in Dallas, Texas, partnered with the Guatemalan Ministry of Education; within 2 years, numerous written works in Mayan languages had been printed and published, and vast advancement was done in the translation of the New Testament. Further efforts to integrate the indigenous into the Ladino [] society were made in the following years, including the invention of a special alphabet to assist Mayan students transition to Spanish, and bilingual education in the Q'eqchi' area.

When Spanish became the official language of Guatemala in , the government started several programs, such as the Bilingual Castellanizacion Program and the Radiophonic Schools, to accelerate the move of Mayan students to Spanish. Unintentionally, the efforts to integrate the indigenous using language, especially the new alphabet, gave institutions tools to use Mayan tongues in schools, and while improving Mayan children's learning, they left them unequipped to learn in a solely Spanish environment.

So, an additional expansion of bilingual education took place in , when an experimental program in which children were to be instructed in their mother tongue until they are fluent enough in Spanish was created. The program proved successful when the students of the pilot showed higher academic achievements than the ones in the Spanish-only control schools.

In , when the pilot was to finish, bilingual education was made official in Guatemala. Christianity continues to remain strong and vital for the life of Guatemalan society , but its composition has changed over generations of social and political unrest. Roman Catholicism , introduced by the Spanish during the colonial era, remains the largest denomination or church, accounting for Protestants , most of them Evangelical most Protestants are called Evangelicos in Latin America in a wide number of different denominations, made up A more recent survey reveals Catholics at Over the past two decades, particularly since the end of the civil war, Guatemala has seen heightened missionary activity.

Protestant denominations have grown markedly in recent decades, chiefly Evangelical and Pentecostal varieties; growth is particularly strong among the ethnic Maya population, with the National Evangelical Presbyterian Church of Guatemala maintaining 11 indigenous-language presbyteries. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has grown from 40, members in to , in , and continues to expand. Traditional Maya religion persists through the process of inculturation , in which certain practices are incorporated into Catholic ceremonies and worship when they are sympathetic to the meaning of Catholic belief.

The government has instituted a policy of providing altars at every Maya ruin to facilitate traditional ceremonies. In , Catholics and Evangelical Protestants found common cause against abortion, in a rare public demonstration of unity. During the colonial era Guatemala received immigrants settlers only from Spain. Subsequently, Guatemala received waves of immigration from Europe in the mid 19th century and early 20th century.

Many European immigrants to Guatemala were politicians, refugees, and entrepreneurs as well as families looking to settle. Up to Guatemala was the Central American country that received the most immigrants, behind Costa Rica , and large numbers of immigrants are still received today. Also, beginning with the First World War , the immigrant population is being strengthened by Jewish immigration. During the second half of the twentieth century, Latin American immigration grew in Guatemala, particularly from other Central American countries, Mexico, Cuba, and Argentina, although most of these immigrants stayed only temporarily before going to their final destinations in the United States.

Guatemala has among the worst health outcomes in Latin America with some of the highest infant mortality rates, and one of the lowest life expectancies at birth in the region. Healthcare has received different levels of support from different political administrations who disagree on how best to manage distribution of services — via a private or a public entity — and the scale of financing that should be made available. Total healthcare spending, both public and private, has remained constant at between 6.

Guatemala has a plan to increase literacy over the next 20 years. The government runs a number of public elementary and secondary-level schools, as youth in Guatemala do not fully participate in education. These schools are free, though the cost of uniforms, books, supplies, and transportation makes them less accessible to the poorer segments of society and significant numbers of poor children do not attend school. Organizations such as Child Aid , Pueblo a Pueblo , and Common Hope , which train teachers in villages throughout the Central Highlands region, are working to improve educational outcomes for children.

Lack of training for rural teachers is one of the key contributors to Guatemala's low literacy rates. Guatemala City is home to many of the nation's libraries and museums, including the National Archives, the National Library, and the Museum of Archeology and Ethnology, which has an extensive collection of Maya artifacts. Most of the municipalities in the country have at least a small museum. Guatemala has produced many indigenous artists who follow centuries-old Pre-Columbian traditions. Reflecting Guatemala's colonial and post-colonial history, encounters with multiple global art movements also have produced a wealth of artists who have combined the traditional primitivist or naive aesthetic with European, North American, and other traditions.

Guatemalan music comprises a number of styles and expressions. Guatemalan social change has been empowered by music such as nueva cancion , which blends together histories, present-day issues, and the political values and struggles of common people. The Maya had an intense musical practice, as documented by their iconography. Many composers from the Renaissance, baroque, classical, romantic, and contemporary music styles have contributed works of all genres.

The marimba , which is like a wooden xylophone, [] is the national instrument and its music is widely found in Guatemala. The Historia General de Guatemala has published a series of CDs compiling the historical music of Guatemala, in which every style is represented, from the Maya, colonial, independent and republican eras to the present. Many contemporary music groups in Guatemala play Caribbean music , salsa , Garifuna -influenced punta , Latin pop , Mexican regional , and mariachi.

Many traditional foods in Guatemalan cuisine are based on Mayan cuisine and prominently feature maize , chilies and black beans as key ingredients. Traditional dishes also include a variety of stews including Kak'ik Kak-ik , which is a tomato-based stew with turkey , pepian, and cocido. Guatemala is also known for its antojitos , which include small tamales called chuchitos , fried plantains , and tostadas with tomato sauce , guacamole or black beans. Certain foods are also commonly eaten on certain days of the week; for example, a popular custom is to eat paches a kind of tamale made from potatoes on Thursday.

Certain dishes are also associated with special occasions, such as fiambre for All Saints' Day on 1 November, or tamales and ponche fruit punch , which are both very common around Christmas. Established in , the National Football Federation of Guatemala organizes the country's national league and its lower-level competitions. Futsal is probably the most successful team sport in Guatemala.

It was also the runner-up in as hosts and won the bronze medal in Guatemala participated for the first time in the FIFA Futsal World Cup in , as hosts, and has played in every competition from onwards. It has never passed the first round. It has also participated in every Grand Prix de Futsal since , reaching the semifinals in The Guatemalan Olympic Committee was founded in and recognized by the International Olympic Committee that same year.

Guatemala participated in the Summer Olympics , and in every edition since the Summer Olympics. It has also appeared in a single Winter Olympics edition, in Erick Barrondo won the only Olympic medal for Guatemala so far, silver in race walking at the Summer Olympics. Guatemala also keeps national sports teams in several disciplines. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 8 July This article is about the country in Central America.

For other uses, see Guatemala disambiguation. Republic in Central America. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Coat of arms.

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Land controlled by Guatemala shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled land shown in light green. Main article: History of Guatemala. Further information: Vicente Cerna y Cerna. Further information: Justo Rufino Barrios. Main article: Manuel Estrada Cabrera. Main article: Jorge Ubico. Main article: Guatemalan Revolution. See also: United States involvement in regime change. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Main article: Geography of Guatemala. Main article: Politics of Guatemala. Further information: Foreign relations of Guatemala. Further information: Military of Guatemala. Main articles: Departments of Guatemala and Municipalities of Guatemala. Main article: Economy of Guatemala. Main article: Tourism in Guatemala. Main article: Demographics of Guatemala. Main article: Languages of Guatemala. Main article: Religion in Guatemala.

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Main article: Immigration to Guatemala. Main article: Health in Guatemala. Main article: Education in Guatemala. Main article: Culture of Guatemala. Further information: Guatemalan literature. Further information: Media of Guatemala. Further information: Music of Guatemala. Main article: Guatemalan cuisine.

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