While it is true that in the beginning, at his own expense, the enterprising Mathew Brady secured the necessary permissions from the War Department for the purpose of documenting the "rebellion", it would be others, particularly those photographers who were under the direct supervision of, or were employed by Alexander Gardner, such as Timothy O'Sullivan, James Gibson, George Barnard, James Gardner and William Pywell, who would follow the armies and ultimately fulfill the difficult task of recording for posterity a timely, consecutive photographic history of the American Civil War.
Alexander Gardner — was born in Paisley , Scotland. He became an apprentice silversmith jeweller at the age of fourteen. Soon, Gardner found out that his interests and talents lay in finance and journalism. When he was twenty-one he left the jeweler's shop for a job on the Glasgow Sentinel as a reporter. After only a year of reporting he was appointed editor of the Sentinel. A love of chemistry soon led him to experiment with photography. Deeply disturbed by the exploitation of the working class, and in the spirit of the early cooperative movements in Scotland, Gardner organized a utopian venture in the US called the "Clydesdale Joint Stock Agricultural and Commercial Company" in Iowa , however by many at the Iowa colony were sick and dying of tuberculosis then called "consumption" and the Clydesdale company was dissolved.
In , Alex, his brother James and seven others, including Alex's wife, Margaret b. Alex sought out the renown Mathew Brady for employment, who hired him to manage the Washington D. Gardner's business acumen and expertise at wet-plate collodion photography and particularly the "Imperial Print", a 17 by 21 inch enlargement, brought Brady enormous success. The developed plates, which had typically been used as positives to create individual portraits called ambrotypes , were now being widely used as negatives, which employed the use of sensitized papers, making possible the production of unlimited copies of stereocards , album cards , and the increasingly popular " carte-de-visite ", or visiting card.
In November Gardner was appointed to the staff of General George McClellan, the commander of the Army of the Potomac, and was given the honorary rank of captain. Since the battlefields of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville were Union defeats and remained in enemy hands, Northern photographers were unable to reach the fields. By May , Gardner had opened a gallery with his brother James, taking with him many of Mathew Brady's former staff.
The circumstantial evidence suggests that Gardner's split with Brady was not caused by any altruistic concerns over the proper recognition of the photographers in published works. Gardner himself in stated in a deposition that although a photograph was identified on the mount as a "Photograph by A. Gardner", it simply meant that it was printed or copied in his gallery, and he was not necessarily the photographer. Grant's Overland Campaign and Petersburg operations were mostly photographed by Gardner's employee Timothy O'Sullivan, supervisor of his map and field work.
By June , the designation of official photographer for Grant's headquarters command had devolved to Mathew Brady.
Four months later, Gardner photographed the execution of Henry Wirz , commanding officer at the infamous prisoner of war camp in Andersonville, Georgia. In , "Lincoln's favorite photographer" published his two-volume anthology, Gardner's Photographic Sketch Book of the War.
Each volume contained 50 tipped-in, imperial size albumen prints, with an accompanying page of descriptive, letterpress. When asked about his work he said, "It is designed to speak for itself. As mementos of the fearful struggle through which the country has just passed, it is confidently hoped that it will possess an enduring interest.
In Gardner closed his gallery, and with his son Lawrence and assistant William R. Pywell set out to photograph along the proposed route of the U. In , the civic-minded Gardner worked at the D. Metropolitan Police Dept. After a brief career in hotel management, he opened a daguerreotype studio in Oswego, New York, becoming nationally known for his portraits.
It is not known where Barnard learned his trade. On July 5, , Barnard photographed the conflagration at the Ames flour mills in Oswego, producing what may be the first American "news" photograph. In , Barnard joined Edward Anthony's firm. Barnard, besides doing portraits and photographing the troops around Washington D. He continued to photograph after the war, operating studios in Charleston, S. His Chicago studio was destroyed by the historic fire of From to he was the distinguished spokesman for George Eastman's line gelatine dry plates.
Barnard ventured into his own short lived dry plate manufacturing concern with Robert H. Furman in In , the Barnards moved to Painesville, Ohio and opened a studio which utilized their own manufactured dry plates. In , George closed his business and his family moved to Gadsden, Alabama.
In , he moved for the last time to Cedarville, near Syracuse, New York, where he maintained his interest in photography, taking pictures of friends and family, and taking yearly class pictures of the school children. George Barnard died on February 4, at the home of his daughter, in Onondaga. He was Timothy H. O'Sullivan — was born in New York City. As a teenager, he was employed by Mathew Brady and worked for him continuously from to late , when he was hired by Alexander Gardner as "superintendent of my map and field work. Thomas W. Sherman's Port Royal, S. In July , O'Sullivan followed the campaign of Gen.
John Pope in Virginia. In July , he reached the pinnacle of his career when he took pictures at Gettysburg, PA. In , following Gen. Grant 's trail, he photographed during the Siege of Petersburg and the siege of Fort Fisher. At the end of the Civil War, O'Sullivan was made official government photographer for the Clarence King , 68, 69, 72 , Isthmus of Darien Panama and George Wheeler , 73, 74 Expeditions respectively, during which time he married fellow photographer, William Pywell's sister Laura in O'Sullivan's pictures were among the first to record the prehistoric ruins, Navajo weavers, and Pueblo villages of the southwest, and were instrumental in attracting settlers to the West.
James F. Gibson may have emigrated to America with Alexander Gardner, who was also from Scotland. Gibson's first documented trip into the field was when he accompanied George N. Barnard to the Bull Run battlefield in March He worked with Gardner at Gettysburg and partnered with him at Sharpsburg, but Gibson's own greatest legacy was the wide array of photographs he took while on the Virginia peninsula,  in particular his poignant, landmark photo of the wounded at Savage Station, Virginia. He was raised in Nunda, New York.
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He took an early interest in painting, and in addition to executing portraiture for local public figures, he was drawn to railroads and trains. During the first two years of the Civil War, Russell painted a diorama used to recruit soldiers for the Union Army.
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Russell's first photographs were used by Brigadier General Herman Haupt to illustrate his reports. Philip Haas. In his embedded capacity, Russell not only photographed transportation subjects for the War Department, but also likely moonlighted by selling battlefield negatives to the Anthonys. Thomas C. Roche — In , Roche became interested in photography and was listed as an agent at 83 South St. In he went to work for Anthony Co. Many, early Anthony stereoviews by Roche were published on fragile glass which, not surprisingly, are today extremely rare. Over the years, Roche was Anthony Co.
Arguably, Roche's most important patent , was taken out in for a silver bromide-sensitized gelatin, " dry plate. Roche lived well off his many royalties, and continued as technical advisor to the company, sharing his knowledge, wisdom and anecdotes with readers of Anthony's Bulletin up until his death in These include the "death studies", at least 20 stereoviews of the dead, allegedly taken inside Fort Mahone  The War Department contracts guaranteed the Anthonys the stereo negatives, while furnishing the government with the large format plates.
When war erupted, Coonley remained in Washington, photographing generals soldiers, statesman and the like. In , he was awarded a contract by Quartermaster General Montgomery Meigs, for photographic work along the lines of the railroads in US. During this time, Coonley also produced the Nashville series for Edward Anthony. The photographic evidence suggests the Anthony Co. Quinby's Charleston, S.
Photographers of the American Civil War
Barnard joining as a partner in He returned to New York in and took a position as operator for J. In Coonley returned to Nassau, establishing a successful business there until , when he sold out and returned to New York. Seventy-two year old Coonley would continue to spend his winters in the Bahamas. A December article on his death published in the New York Evening World stated that Coonley, who had been an invalid for some time, died after attempting suicide.
Samuel Abbot Cooley , from Connecticut, surfaced in the Beaufort area before the war as a photographer. He stayed in the occupied area as a sutler and photographer for X Corps, employing his large format, drop-shutter and twin lens stereo cameras. By Cooley had a photographic studio above his store located next door to the Arsenal. He sold his photographic business in May with the intent of returning to the North. He reappeared in Beaufort in , where he opened a mercantile and simultaneously advertised himself as "Photographer, Department of the South", doing contract work for the government.
C, to St. Augustine Fla. Cooley also opened galleries in Hilton Head, S. In he had also established himself as an auctioneer and a town marshal, with his office at the Beaufort Hotel in Beaufort. His account book indicates he sold bread and foodstuffs to various businesses as well as to the General Hospital and the Small Pox Hospital. He eventually returned home to Hartford, Connecticut in , where he offered at his gallery, an "exhibition of beautiful Stereopticon Views. John Reekie was another little known Civil War photographer. Scotsman, Reekie was employed by Alexander Gardner.
Reekie's probably best known for his scenes of the unburied dead, on the battlefields of Gaines' Mill and Cold Harbor. It depicts African American soldiers gathering human remains on the Cold Harbor battlefield, almost a year after the battle. David B. Woodbury  — was arguably the best of the artists who stayed with Brady through the war.
In July , Woodbury and Anthony Berger photographed the Gettysburg battlefield for Brady, returning on November 19 to take "pictures of the crowd and Procession" Nov. In the summer of , Woodbury photographed Grant's Headquarters Command for Brady, who had replaced Alexander Gardner as official photographer. Coonley on the steps the Treasury Building, for the purpose of photographing the Grand Review of the Army , "the plates being exposed with a drop shutter, this being the nearest thing to an instantaneous exposure with a wet plate.
Woodbury died December 30, in Gibraltar , where he had traveled, seeking a milder climate for his declining health caused by consumption. David Knox was born in Renfrew, Scotland. Knox became a naturalized citizen on March 22, , just five years after the tragic deaths of 28 year-old Jane and hus 7 week-old son David. In , David moved to Springfield, Ill. His home was just one block from the residence of Abraham Lincoln. Soon after, Knox relocated his family to Washington D. The first reference to Knox working at the Mathew B. Knox was likely trained there by Gardner in the use of a large format camera.
Historians don't know exactly when Knox left Brady's employ to Join Alexander Gardner's new competing firm. Returns for the June-July Draft Registration show Knox as a year-old photographer, very near Gardner's gallery. Saint Andrews Society, a Scottish relief organization. Gardner" and "David Knox" establishing that Knox was engaged there in picture taking with Gardner.
In David Knox and his wife Marion moved to Omaha, Nebraska, where he had apparently finished with photography to pursue regular employment as a machinist. He became head of the Union Pacific Railroad machinist shops. Pywell's photographs are an important and integral part of the historic photographic record of the American Civil War.
Stanley, with Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer as second in command. William Frank Browne? After the end of his two-year enlistment, Brown began working as a freelance camp photographer for the 5th Michigan Cavalry, part of George A. Custer's Michigan brigade. Browne wintered with them in their encampment at Stevensburg, Virginia while taking some of the earliest photographs of Brigadier General Custer.
In —65 Browne began doing contract work for Alexander Gardner. In May , Maj. General Henry H. Isaac Griffith —  and Charles John — Tyson. The Tysons evacuated town, as did most of the residents, prior to the Rebel shelling and occupation on July 1. Brady, the Tyson brothers, now fully equipped to take views in the field, by December were offering their "Photographic Views of the Battle-Field of Gettysburg. Tipton , an apprentice of the Tysons, took over the Tyson gallery in George Stacy — George Stacy was a Civil War, field photographer and later a prolific publisher of stereoviews, not necessisarily his own.
A photographer by that name placed and advertisement in a Federicton, New Brunswick newspaper dated July 7, His earliest confirmed stereoveiws are a series he took of the Prince of Whales' visit to Portland, ME. An industry census shows that Stacy was still marketing stereoviews in However, he's also listed as a farmer in that and the census, while living in Patterson N.
It's likely that photography was his winter activity, whereas farming was taken up during the warmer months. Frederick Gutekunst — Pennsylvania photographer, Gutekunst opened two studios in Philadelphia in On July 9, just six days after the Battle of Gettysburg , Gutekunst produced a series seven large plates of exquisite quality, including the first image of local hero John L. Ulysses S. Grant stirred national interest and further set the "Dean of American Photographers" apart from his contemporaries. By he had been in business almost forty years and was residing in the upscale suburb of Germantown.
Gutekunst suffered from Bright's Disease, which may have precipitated a fall down some stairs eight weeks before his death. Lawrence, before moving to Rochester New York in , as an operator in the studio of Thomas Mercer. In , J. Black of Boston instructed Whitney in the "new art" of wet-plate collodion photography. Whitney opened his own "Skylight Gallery" in Rochester in , and made regular trips to the New York City studios of Matthew Brady and Jeremiah Gurney in order to study the latest improvements in photography.
Paradise, Mathew Brady's "right-hand man. Whitney's last documented self-portrait Anthony, Views in Washington City , is on March 27, during which time he documented the Southern Plains Indian Delegation inside the White House's well lit conservatory , Beckwith in Norwalk, Connecticut. Lastly he can be placed in Wilton, Connecticut from to Jeremiah Gurney — was born in Coeymans, New York . Gurney, then a jeweler in Saratoga, N. Gurney was taught the process by Samuel F. Morse in , who explained to Gurney that "What you will have to allow for is the initial outlay.
And there is of course my fee. In , he took time off to recover from a common illness of the daguerreian trade, mercury vapor poisoning. D Fredericks. In , he was listed as a "photographist" at Broadway, in business as "J. Gurney and Son. Jeremiah Gurney is probably best known for his having taken a photograph of Abraham Lincoln in an open coffin April 24, , as the President's body lay in state in City Hall, New York City.
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The episode caused much distress to Mary Lincoln, who had forbid the taking of any photographs of her husband's corpse. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton was furious and succeeded in confiscating all of the existing prints and negatives but one  That print, secreted away by Lincoln secretary John Hay was rediscovered in at the Illinois State Historical Library by year-old Ronald Rietveld. In Gurney's partnership with his son was dissolved.
In his memoirs, Gurney stated that in , at 83 years old, "I am currently semi-retired from the photographic arts industry, living here in Coxsackie [New York] with my daughter Martha. George Oscar Brown b? Active — In April , under the direction of Dr. C, was hired as an assistant cameraman by the museum's photographer, William Bell. Their guide on that occasion was none other than Lt. George E. Chancellor, Co. E, 9th Va. In the census, Brown was listed as a photographer at the Medical Museum. By , Brown was promoting and instructing others in the use of the "Porcelain Print" process, which was patented by photographer Egebert Guy Fowx.
Philip Haas and Washington Peale — While but little is known of Haas' early personal history, almost nothing is known about Peale. In —40, Haas, a lithographer based in Washington D. Engineers, claiming he was forty-three. Haas was mustered in January 17, as a 2nd Lt. In , the engineers were in South Carolina, and 2nd Lt.
After , the trail of his life grows thin. It depicts monitor-class ironclads and U. A September 8, date has been suggested for the photo, however during that action the gun frigate was engaging Fort Moultrie at close range and out of view of the Federal camps which were 4 miles away.
In fact, it was Southern photographer George S. Cook , who was taking combat action photographs from the parapet of Fort Sumter on September 8, while he himself was being shelled by monitor "Weehawken", grounded off Cummings Point. A more plausible opportunity for Haas and Peale to have captured U.
New Ironsides in action would have been the extended period from September , when for 36 straight hours the ironclads engaged batteries Wagner and Gregg top photo , prior to the Rebel evacuations on September 7. John Carbutt — was born in Sheffield, England.
His first stop in the New World was Canada. The Chicago, Illinois city directory of is the first to bear his name in the United States. Carbutt may be best recognized for his significant contributions to the advancement of photographic processes in the 19th Century and early 20th Century. He was among the earliest photographers to experiment with magnesium light January , he experimented with dry plates as early as and began producing commercial dry plates in Carbutt and Dr. Arthur W. Goodspeed produced the earliest X-ray photographs in February Thus it is no wonder that his biographer William Brey barely mentions his Civil War photographs.
The largest known output of Civil War photographs by Carbutt are 40 or so stereoviews of the th Illinois Infantry camped at Columbus, Kentucky. The th was a day unit that were in Columbus from June until October Lincoln's funeral train was photographed by Carbutt as it passed through Chicago on May 1, and he followed the train to Springfield where he obtained photographs of Lincoln's home. The last of the great Sanitary Fairs was held in Chicago in June and Carbutt was there to photograph the interior and exterior of the second Northwestern Soldiers Fair.
The Illinois soldiers' homes at Chicago and Cairo, Illinois required continued funding, and the fair helped cover other continuing expenses of the Northwestern Sanitary Commission. The Bierstadt brothers opened a photographic gallery in New Bedford which they operated from to about Albert seems to have been the driving force behind the brothers' Civil War images. He and his friend Emanuel Leutze obtained passes in October from Gen.
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They took 19 stereoview photographs of war-time Washington DC and its nearby defenses. The photographs of defenses showed Union pickets near Lewinsville, Virginia and scenes at Camp Griffin, which was near Lewinsville. There he joined other photographers, including George Houghton, who took some iconic photographs of the Vermont Brigade in Northern Virginia. Washington, DC was not the brothers' only foray into Civil War photography. Albert Bierstadt had an exhibit at the fair featuring Native American culture. After the partnership broke up around Albert pursued his career as an artist and became a member of the Hudson River school of artists.
He is best known for his dramatic paintings of the Western United States. Edward and Charles continued independent careers as photographers. Henry P. Moore — was born in Goffstown, New Hampshire. His family moved to Concord, New Hampshire when Henry was seven.
By Moore was a "well known" photographer in Concord, New Hampshire. His photography studio on the island of Hilton Head, South Carolina, comprised a tent set up in a sandy cotton field. He took at least one more trip to the same area that extended from April 22 to the end of May, The glass plate negatives he used measured 5 x 8 inches.
Photographic prints were sold at his Concord, NH gallery for one dollar each. Moore produced more than 60 photographs of the South.
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The images include extensive coverage of the Third New Hampshire Regiment, but are not limited to that. Military operations were not his only interest. Scenes of plantations and recently freed slaves fill out his portfolio. He photographed cotton processing and slave quarters on Hilton Head, J. Seabrook's plantation on Edisto Island, and "contrabands" harvesting sweet potatoes at Hopkinson's Plantation on Edisto Island. Moore continued as a photographer in Concord, NH after the war. Average Review.
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