The hymns proper to the weekend suggest that as he did on Earth, John the Baptist prepared the way for Jesus in Hell by prophesying to the spirits held there that Christ would soon save them. In the Acts of Pilate —usually incorporated with the widely read medieval Gospel of Nicodemus —texts built around an original that might have been as old as the 3rd century AD with many improvements and embroidered interpolations, chapters 17 to 27 are called the Decensus Christi ad Inferos.
They contain a dramatic dialogue between Hades and Prince Satan , and the entry of the King of Glory, imagined as from within Tartarus. The richest, most circumstantial accounts of the Harrowing of Hell are found in medieval dramatic literature, such as the four great cycles of English mystery plays which each devote a separate scene to depict it, or in passing references in Dante 's Inferno.
The subject is found also in the Cornish mystery plays and the York and Wakefield cycles. These medieval versions of the story do not derive from the bare suggestion made in the Epistle ascribed to Peter, but come from the Gospel of Nicodemus. The Old Testament view of the afterlife was that all people, whether righteous or unrighteous, went to Sheol when they died.
No Hebrew figure ever descended into Sheol and returned, although an apparition of the recently deceased Samuel briefly appeared to Saul when summoned by the Witch of Endor. Several works from the Second Temple period elaborate the concept of Sheol, dividing it into sections based on the righteousness or unrighteousness of those who have died.
The New Testament maintains a distinction between Sheol, the common "place of the dead", and the eternal destiny of those condemned at the Final Judgment , variously described as Gehenna , "the outer darkness," or a lake of eternal fire. Modern English translations of the Bible maintain this distinction e.
The Hellenistic views of heroic descent into the Underworld and successful return follow traditions that are far older than the mystery religions popular at the time of Christ. Writing shortly before the birth of Jesus, Vergil included it in the Aeneid. What little we know of the worship in mystery religions such as the Eleusinian Mysteries and Mithraism suggests that a ritual death and rebirth of the initiate was an important part of their liturgy.
Again, this has earlier parallels, in particular with the worship of Osiris. The ancient homily on The Lord's Descent into Hell may mirror these traditions by referring to baptism as a symbolic death and rebirth. Colossians —15 Or, these traditions of Mithraism may be drawn from early Christian homilies.
There is an ancient homily on the subject, of unknown authorship, usually entitled The Lord's Descent into Hell that is the second reading at the Office of Readings on Holy Saturday in the Roman Catholic Church. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: "By the expression 'He descended into Hell', the Apostles' Creed confesses that Jesus did really die and through his death for us conquered death and the devil 'who has the power of death' Hebrews In his human soul united to his divine person, the dead Christ went down to the realm of the dead.
He opened Heaven's gates for the just who had gone before him. This abode of the dead is the "Hell" into which the Creed says Christ descended. His death freed from exclusion from Heaven the just who had gone before him: "It is precisely these holy souls who awaited their Savior in Abraham's bosom whom Christ the Lord delivered when he descended into Hell", the Catechism states CCC , echoing the words of the Roman Catechism , 1,6,3. His death was of no avail to the damned. Conceptualization of the abode of the dead as a place, though possible and customary, is not obligatory Church documents, such as catechisms, speak of a "state or place".
Some maintain that Christ did not go to the place of the damned, which is what is generally understood today by the word "Hell". For instance, Thomas Aquinas taught that Christ did not descend into the "Hell of the lost" in his essence, but only by the effect of his death, through which "he put them to shame for their unbelief and wickedness: but to them who were detained in Purgatory he gave hope of attaining to glory: while upon the holy Fathers detained in Hell solely on account of original sin , he shed the light of glory everlasting.
While some maintain that Christ merely descended into the "limbo of the fathers", others, notably theologian Hans Urs von Balthasar inspired by the visions of Adrienne von Speyr , maintain that it was more than this and that the descent involved suffering by Jesus. At the beginning of the service, the hangings in the church and the vestments worn by the clergy are all somber Lenten colours usually purple or black. Then, just before the Gospel reading, the liturgical colors are changed white and the deacon performs a censing , and the priest strews laurel leaves around the church, symbolizing the broken gates of Hell; this is done in celebration of the harrowing of Hades then taking place, and in anticipation of Christ's imminent resurrection.
The Harrowing of Hades is generally more common and prominent in Orthodox iconography compared to the Western tradition.
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It is the traditional icon for Holy Saturday , and is used during the Paschal season and on Sundays throughout the year. The traditional Orthodox icon of the Resurrection of Jesus , partially inspired by the apocryphal Acts of Pilate 4th c. The icon depicts Jesus, vested in white and gold to symbolize his divine majesty, standing on the brazen gates of Hades also called the "Doors of Death" , which are broken and have fallen in the form of a cross, illustrating the belief that by his death on the cross, Jesus "trampled down death by death" see Paschal troparion.
He is holding Adam and Eve and pulling them up out of Hades. Traditionally, he is not shown holding them by the hands, but by their wrists, to illustrate the theological teaching that mankind could not pull himself out of his original or ancestral sin , but that it could come about only by the work energia of God. Jesus is surrounded by various righteous figures from the Old Testament Abraham , David , etc. Quite frequently, one or two figures are shown in the darkness, bound in chains, who are generally identified as personifications of Death or the devil.
Martin Luther , in a sermon delivered in Torgau in , stated that Christ descended into Hell. The Formula of Concord a Lutheran confession states, "we believe simply that the entire person, God and human being, descended to Hell after his burial, conquered the devil, destroyed the power of Hell, and took from the devil all his power. Many attempts were made following Luther's death to systematize his theology of the descensus, whether Christ descended in victory or humiliation.
For Luther, however, the defeat or " humiliation " of Christ is never fully separable from His victorious glorification. The ten judges are also known as the 10 Kings of Yama. Each Court deals with a different aspect of atonement. For example, murder is punished in one Court, adultery in another.
In his near-death experience of hell, he saw Christians who refused to forgive
According to some Chinese legends, there are eighteen levels in Hell. Punishment also varies according to belief, but most legends speak of highly imaginative chambers where wrong-doers are sawn in half, beheaded, thrown into pits of filth or forced to climb trees adorned with sharp blades. However, most legends agree that once a soul usually referred to as a 'ghost' has atoned for their deeds and repented, he or she is given the Drink of Forgetfulness by Meng Po and sent back into the world to be reborn, possibly as an animal or a poor or sick person, for further punishment.
Zoroastrianism has historically suggested several possible fates for the wicked, including annihilation, purgation in molten metal, and eternal punishment, all of which have standing in Zoroaster's writings. Zoroastrian eschatology includes the belief that wicked souls will remain in hell until, following the arrival of three saviors at thousand-year intervals, Ahura Mazda reconciles the world, destroying evil and resurrecting tormented souls to perfection. Those laws state that wiccan souls are privileged with reincarnation, but that the souls of wiccans who break the wiccan laws are sent by the goddess to the fiery christian hell.
The influential wiccan author Raymond Buckland wrote that the wiccan laws are unimportant. Solitary neo-wiccans, who originated in the s, do not include the wiccan laws in their doctrine. In his Divina commedia Divine Comedy , set in the year , Dante Alighieri employed the concept of taking Virgil as his guide through Inferno and then, in the second canticle, up the mountain of Purgatorio. Virgil himself is not condemned to Hell proper in Dante's poem but is rather, as a virtuous pagan, confined to Limbo just at the edge of Hell.
The geography of Hell is very elaborately laid out in this work, with nine concentric rings leading deeper into Earth, and deeper into the various punishments of Hell, until, at the center of the world, Dante finds Satan himself trapped in the frozen lake of Cocytus.
The reality of hell: stories of persons who visited hell and apparitions of the damned
A small tunnel leads past Satan and out to the other side of the world, at the base of the Mount of Purgatory. John Milton 's Paradise Lost opens with the fallen angels , including their leader Satan , waking up in Hell after having been defeated in the war in heaven and the action returns there at several points throughout the poem.
Milton portrays Hell as the abode of the demons, and the passive prison from which they plot their revenge upon Heaven through the corruption of the human race. Rimbaud's poetry portrays his own suffering in a poetic form as well as other themes. Many of the great epics of European literature include episodes that occur in Hell.
In the Roman poet Virgil 's Latin epic, the Aeneid , Aeneas descends into Dis the underworld to visit his father's spirit. The underworld is only vaguely described, with one unexplored path leading to the punishments of Tartarus, while the other leads through Erebus and the Elysian Fields. The idea of Hell was highly influential to writers such as Jean-Paul Sartre who authored the play No Exit about the idea that "Hell is other people". Although not a religious man, Sartre was fascinated by his interpretation of a Hellish state of suffering.
Hell is portrayed here as an endless, desolate twilight city upon which night is imperceptibly sinking. The night is actually the Apocalypse , and it heralds the arrival of the demons after their judgment. Before the night comes, anyone can escape Hell if they leave behind their former selves and accept Heaven's offer, and a journey to Heaven reveals that Hell is infinitely small; it is nothing more or less than what happens to a soul that turns away from God and into itself. Robert A. Heinlein offers a yin-yang version of Hell where there is still some good within; most evident in his book Job: A Comedy of Justice.
Michael Moorcock is one of many who offer Chaos-Evil- Hell and Uniformity-Good- Heaven as equally unacceptable extremes which must be held in balance; in particular in the Elric and Eternal Champion series. Fredric Brown wrote a number of fantasy short stories about Satan 's activities in Hell. Cartoonist Jimmy Hatlo created a series of cartoons about life in Hell called The Hatlo Inferno , which ran from to From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Afterlife location in which souls are subjected to punitive suffering, often torture. This article is about the abode of the dead in various cultures and religious traditions around the world.
For other uses, see Hell disambiguation. Main article: Ancient Mesopotamian underworld. Main article: Tartarus. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Gehenna and Sheol. Main articles: Christian views on hell and Christian views on Hades.
Main article: Jahannam. Main article: Naraka Buddhism. Main article: Naraka Hinduism. Main article: Naraka Jainism. Main article: Diyu. Main article: Zoroastrian eschatology. Main article: Hell in popular culture. Accessed 7 February John Ciardi 2 ed. New York : Penguin. The British Museum Press. Journal of Ancient Near Eastern Religions. Archived from the original on 26 September Retrieved 18 August Griffith to The Independent , 32 [ clarification needed ] December "Archived copy".
Archived from the original on 1 September Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original on 5 November Simon and Schuster. Retrieved 5 August Boustan, Ra'anan S. Reed, Annette Yoshiko. Cambridge University Press, Studies on Biblical Studies, No. Clarence Larkin. The Spirit World. Philadelphia, PA. Edinburgh, Scotland. Clark; pg. Edward Bouverie Pusey. Traditional Aspects of Hell: Ancient and Modern. The Ascension of Isaiah. Black, Signification of the Proper Names, Etc. The Bible and the Future. Grand Rapids: Wm. Blue Letter Bible. BLB Institute. Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 26 February Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 28 January Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Archived from the original on 30 January Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short. A Latin Dictionary on Perseus Project. Archived from the original on 2 February Unger's Bible Dictionary.
Chicago: Moody Bible Institute, The. Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 3 December Archived from the original on 2 June Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 30 April The Christadelphians. Retrieved 6 August Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 10 August Berean Bible Society. Archived from the original on 11 July Moreover a much cited view of the future from Ken Peters, saw a revival occurring post Rapture during the Tribulation.
There are also considerations I have put in my most recent website article that while they cannot be conclusive are nonetheless very suggestive. Are you sure that Jesus is about to come back within a few years? Possibly He will but not within hundreds of years.
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There may be a huge, miraculous revival of the christian Faith very soon but the revival could possibly be delaying some decades or centuries later. No it is not…the antichrist is nowhere on this earth yet…just an antichrist system which God is now destroying and exposing. No such thing as rapture. When the end comes, the weeds will be gathered first and burnt with unquenchable fire. Then the wheat will be gathered into his barn. As in the days of Noah, so it will be at the end of time.
Noah was left behind. The Damned were Raptured in the flood. Lot was left behind. Sodom and Gomorrah Raptured. Passover, First born of the Jews left behind, the first born of the Egyptians raptured. At the red sea, the Jews left behind, the army chasing them, Raptured. We are no where near the end. Which side you end up on is based on what you did for the least of His brethren!!!
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As dificult as forgiveness, making amends and reconciliation are — I discovered that when you ask Holy Spirit to help, it really can go well. The most amazing thing is that once I did this, I felt completely free, light as a feather! Since this occurred, I am especially cautious in not allowing offense to take hold in my spirit again.
I am a practicing emergency physician and have witnessed many deaths and several near death experiences. This one is like none I have ever had relayed to me. I do not understand them but do recognize they are real. I pray there will be a spiritual reawakening but cannot realistically envision that with our current moral decay.
God help us. God help us all. When Trump entered the Presidential race, I thought he was a shill for the Democratic Party, running to knock other Republican contenders out of the possibility of winning, so Hillary Clinton would win. When he became the Republican nominee, I was horrified. When it came time to vote, I considered skipping the vote for President, because I just could not stomach him, and would never vote for Clinton.
But after much prayer and thought, I went into the voting booth and held my nose, so to speak, and voted for him. When he won, I was stunned. I hate his bombastic way of talking. But I have to say, I feel very happy at what he is doing as President. I feel finally, finally someone is actually putting a stop to the march of evil in our land, and reversing it. I thought it was absurd. God can do anything. Perhaps God is answering the many, many prayers of faithful believers begging for His help against the wickedness of the evil that has infiltrated our governments.
Perhaps God is moving mightily. I just keep praying. Even if Trump did nothing else, it was worth having him if only to establish and embassy in Jerusalem. Some of the medical details of this account are perplexing to me. I certainly understand events ocur that are unexplainable.
My duaghter totaled my suburban, it rolled three times. An eye witness said a man helped her out of the vehicle. She walked away without a scratch. My husband had died of leukemia shortly before this accident. Less than two weeks later, I would be the first to arrive on the scene of an accident. The car she was thrown from was barely scratched. The bible says God knows befoe we are born the day, hour and minute of our death.
I think it wise to be on the safe side and just go ahead and ask forgiveness, forgive others, make amends and reconcile. Maybe we should all go to church and take our children with us? Romans He who did not spare His own Son but gave Him up for us all, how will He not also, along with Him, freely give us all things? It is God who justifies. Who is there to condemn us? For Christ Jesus, who died, and more than that was raised to life, is at the right hand of God—and He is interceding for us. For Christ Jesus, who died, and more than that was raised to life, is at the right hand of God — and He is interceding for us.
He Himself is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not for ours alone, but also for the sins of the whole world. I would say that being able to forgive is a good work.
Atheist professor’s near-death experience in hell left him changed
I Pray for People to get Healed of infections, bad backs and hips,vertigo,Brain injuries etc. I guess you have to look at the glass as half full not half empty. The Parable of the Unforgiving Servant makes me think about Purgatory. At the gates of hell, but not in hell. If Purgatory, we should pray for the dead. They may have debts that can only be paid by our prayers or their suffering. It is unbiblical to pray for the dead, there is no such thing as purgatory, that concept is not biblical.
What does forgiveness feel like? I say I forgive and I pray for the person but I am still mad inside. How do you know you have forgiven? We must choose to forgive, God requires it. We pray for those who have harmed us, we pray for God to bless them. To increase their gifts of faith, hope, love, etc. God bless you. Fergis: Too many people say we should forgive another Christian carte blanc, with no repentance from the offender who is a Christian. The Bible does not say so. In Luke we are told that if a brother sister trespass against us, we should rebuke him, and IF he repent you shall forgive him.
It does nothing to promote spiritual growth for a Christian to be allowed to hurt and trouble people in the church and nothing said or done about it. Jesus says we should confront them and tell them what they did wrong to give them a chance to repent to say Sorry. If you told nasty lies about me and I confronted you about it, and you admitted it and told me you were sorry, I would feel mitigated. I would forgive you and I would ask you to recover the damage you did to me, by going to those people and telling them the truth.
You and I would likely be best friends after that!