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If disabled, some peer-to-peer and collaborative applications, such as Remote Assistance, may not function. If disabled, some applications, such as HomeGroup, may not function. If this service is stopped, only local users and bit processes will be able to query performance counters provided by bit DLLs. If this service is stopped, performance information will not be collected.

Plug and Play Enables a computer to recognize and adapt to hardware changes with little or no user input. Stopping or disabling this service will result in system instability. All pnpx based scenarios will stop functioning. Enables applications such as Windows Media Player and Image Import Wizard to transfer and synchronize content using removable mass-storage devices.

Power Manages power policy and power policy notification delivery. Print Spooler Loads files to memory for later printing Problem Reports and Solutions Control Panel Support This service provides support for viewing, sending and deletion of system-level problem reports for the Problem Reports and Solutions control panel. PCA monitors programs installed and run by the user and detects known compatibility problems. If this service is stopped, PCA will not function properly. Protected Storage Provides protected storage for sensitive data, such as passwords, to prevent access by unauthorized services, processes, or users.

It provides mechanisms for admission control, run time monitoring and enforcement, application feedback, and traffic prioritization. Remote Access Connection Manager Manages dial-up and virtual private network VPN connections from this computer to the Internet or other remote networks. These include per-session temporary folders, RD themes, and RD certificates. Remote Desktop Services Allows users to connect interactively to a remote computer. To prevent remote use of this computer, clear the checkboxes on the Remote tab of the System properties control panel item.

Remote Packet Capture Protocol v. In Windows Vista and later versions of Windows, this service does not provide any functionality and is present for application compatibility. Remote Registry Enables remote users to modify registry settings on this computer. If this service is stopped, the registry can be modified only by users on this computer. Routing and Remote Access Offers routing services to businesses in local area and wide area network environments.

Also provides server communication for the customer experience improvement program. Stopping or disabling this service may prevent you from getting the latest updates for Bing Bar, which may expose your computer to security vulnerabilities or functional flaws in the Bing Bar.

Secondary Logon Enables starting processes under alternate credentials. If this service is stopped, this type of logon access will be unavailable. If this service is disabled, users will not be able to use SSTP to access remote servers. Disabling this service will prevent other services in the system from being notified when the SAM is ready, which may in turn cause those services to fail to start correctly.

This service should not be disabled. The service also has a public API that allows external consumers to programmatically retrieve the aggregated security health state of the system. Server Supports file, print, and named-pipe sharing over the network for this computer. If this service is stopped, these functions will be unavailable. Smart Card Manages access to smart cards read by this computer. If this service is stopped, this computer will be unable to read smart cards.

Smart Card Removal Policy Allows the system to be configured to lock the user desktop upon smart card removal. Software Protection Enables the download, installation and enforcement of digital licenses for Windows and Windows applications. If the service is disabled, the operating system and licensed applications may run in a notification mode. It is strongly recommended that you not disable the Software Protection service. Also announces SSDP devices and services running on the local computer.

If this service is stopped, SSDP-based devices will not be discovered. Superfetch Maintains and improves system performance over time. The service also hosts multiple Windows system-critical tasks. If this service is stopped or disabled, these tasks will not be run at their scheduled times.

If this service is stopped, these functions might be unavailable. Themes Provides user experience theme management. Thread Ordering Server Provides ordered execution for a group of threads within a specific period of time. If this service is stopped or disabled, applications will be unable to use keys protected by the TPM. If this service is stopped, any hosted UPnP devices will stop functioning and no additional hosted devices can be added. User Profile Service This service is responsible for loading and unloading user profiles.

Virtual Disk Provides management services for disks, volumes, file systems, and storage arrays. If this service is stopped, shadow copies will be unavailable for backup and the backup may fail. WebClient Enables Windows-based programs to create, access, and modify Internet-based files. If this service is stopped, these functions will not be available. Windows Audio Manages audio for Windows-based programs. If this service is stopped, audio devices and effects will not function properly. If this service is disabled, any services that explicitly depend on it will fail to start Windows Audio Endpoint Builder Manages audio devices for the Windows Audio service.

If this service is disabled, any services that explicitly depend on it will fail to start Windows Backup Provides Windows Backup and Restore capabilities. Windows Biometric Service The Windows biometric service gives client applications the ability to capture, compare, manipulate, and store biometric data without gaining direct access to any biometric hardware or samples. Windows CardSpace Securely enables the creation, management, and disclosure of digital identities.

These plug-in modules are vendor-specific extensions to the Windows Color System baseline color device and gamut map models. This might result in inaccurate color rendering. The service is started programmatically as needed. Windows Defender Protection against spyware and potentially unwanted software Windows Driver Foundation — User-mode Driver Framework Manages user-mode driver host processes. Windows Error Reporting Service Allows errors to be reported when programs stop working or responding and allows existing solutions to be delivered.

Also allows logs to be generated for diagnostic and repair services. If this service is stopped, error reporting might not work correctly and results of diagnostic services and repairs might not be displayed. Windows Event Collector This service manages persistent subscriptions to events from remote sources that support WS-Management protocol.

The service stores forwarded events in a local Event Log. If this service is stopped or disabled event subscriptions cannot be created and forwarded events cannot be accepted. Windows Event Log This service manages events and event logs. It supports logging events, querying events, subscribing to events, archiving event logs, and managing event metadata. It can display events in both XML and plain text format. Stopping this service may compromise security and reliability of the system.

Windows Firewall Windows Firewall helps protect your computer by preventing unauthorized users from gaining access to your computer through the Internet or a network. Windows Font Cache Service Optimizes performance of applications by caching commonly used font data. Applications will start this service if it is not already running. It can be disabled, though doing so will degrade application performance. If this service is not running, Family Safety will not work.

Windows Live Mesh remote connections service Lets you connect over the Internet to this computer and work on it as if you were sitting in front it — you can run the programs on it and browse all the files and folders on it. Windows Management Instrumentation Provides a common interface and object model to access management information about operating system, devices, applications and services. If this service is stopped, most Windows-based software will not function properly. If this service is disabled, install or uninstall of Windows updates might fail for this computer.

Windows Presentation Foundation Font Cache 3. WPF applications will start this service if it is not already running. It can be disabled, though doing so will degrade the performance of WPF applications. WS-Management is a standard web services protocol used for remote software and hardware management. The WinRM Service needs to be configured with a listener using winrm.

Event collection and subscription to events require that the service is running. Windows Search Provides content indexing, property caching, and search results for files, e-mail, and other content. Windows Time Maintains date and time synchronization on all clients and servers in the network. If this service is stopped, date and time synchronization will be unavailable. Windows Update Enables the detection, download, and installation of updates for Windows and other programs.

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If your current wired network deployment enforces Wired networks that do not enforce It also contains the logic to turn your computer into a software access point so that other devices or computers can connect to your computer wirelessly using a WLAN adapter that can support this. This service only runs when Performance Data Helper is activated.

Workstation Creates and maintains client network connections to remote servers using the SMB protocol. If this service is stopped, these connections will be unavailable. It is strongly recommended that this service be kept running for best user experience of mobile broadband devices. Such communications and work product are private and confidential. See User Agreement for details. Abrahamian came to police headquarters to report his concerns in regards to an ex-girlfriend and his identity. Abrahamian also states that he has detected remote intrusion on his computer, as well as the computers in the Livingston Public Library.

A fraud alert has been issued with the Department of Veterans Affairs in conjunction with questions that Krawczyk had asked Abrahamian. Phishing A method of social engineering that cybercriminals use when attempting to deceive potential victims into revealing private information about themselves through their computer accounts, such as usernames, passwords, financial data, or bank account numbers.

Amassing confidential data to carry out identity theft is among the most common goals of cybercriminals who utilize phishing as an attack vector. Pharming A variant of phishing. This occurs when a cybercriminal hacks into a domain name server DNS to change the Internet protocol address of targeted web sites. This way, users attempting to access the legitimate web sites of financial institutions or retailers are redirected to spoofed websites that can automatically capture their account names and passwords with various types of spyware.

Users truly believe they are visiting authentic web sites, but are instead being redirected to bogus sites. These fraudulent sites mirror the actual sites in every which way, but are really fake. Related Links. Abrahamian exposes a veterans benefits fraud ring operating out of the Trenton, New Jersey and Southeastern Pennsylvania areas. The most frequent kind of fraud arises from a false statement or misrepresentation in order to obtain some benefit or payment for which no entitlement would otherwise exist.

In order to prove that fraud has been committed against the Government, it is necessary to prove that fraudulent acts were performed knowingly, willfully, and intentionally. Government benefits fraud is a form of identity theft that occurs when offenders make false claims for money, products, or services to which they are not legally entitled. Oftentimes, these individuals are unaware of the government benefits they are rightfully entitled to.

Their personal information is then used to claim fraudulent veterans benefits claims. In most scenarios, a victim will be found in New Jersey and their information utilized in a different state, in an effort to conceal and distance the offender from the unsuspecting individual. Criminals locate victims in New Jersey, and then create claims in their behalf, supplying physical addresses in Pennsylvania. However, the sponsor must register eligible family members.

Family members can update personal information such as addresses and phone numbers once they are registered in DEERS. Note: Addresses must be a physical address; P. Boxes cannot be used. This Web site allows beneficiaries to perform self-service functions that previously required support. What started as a blog soon became a movement. What began as a slogan evolved into a way of life. I came to resent the corruption I saw on many fronts. The more I investigated, the clearer it became.

The more you stir it, the worse it stinks. The mission of Advanced Defiance is to combat fraud and expose corruption. You fucked with the wrong person. Lyon Mountain, New York; an unassuming hamlet and former mining town splitting clouds high up in the Adirondacks, is a perfect example. Contact ICE U. Please see below for contact information for local ICE offices around the nation.

Immigration and Customs Enforcement 12th St. Fraud and related activity in connection with identification documents, authentication features, and information 18 U. Communication Lines, Stations, or Systems 18 U. Thousands of innocent victims have had their personal and financial information compromised.

This is a relatively new area of focus for Advanced Defiance but much headway is being made. Electronic filing has made it easier than ever for cowards to perpetrate this type of crime. The bigger they are, the harder they fall. Investigators look for patterns, so be sure to get as much information and names as possible.

DEERS is a computerized databases which stores information regarding those who have served. MilConnect is the electronic avenue through which individuals can electronically access their benefits and personal information. EBenefits allows you to do this over the computer.

Technology is a double-edged sword. It facilitates things for people who use it legitimately, but it also provides new opportunities for criminals to exploit. This article has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of,,. Violates Wikipedia:External links: 'Wikipedia articles may include links to web pages outside Wikipedia external links , but they should not normally be used in the body of an article.

It is most commonly used by recent versions of,,, and to deliver to clients, 's anti-virus scanner a later version of to fetch signature updates, and is also used by Microsoft's instant messaging products to transfer files. Normally, BITS transfers data in the background, i.

BITS also supports resuming transfers in case of disruptions. BITS version 1. From version 1. Uploads require the, with BITS server extension, on the receiving side. Transfers [ ] BITS transfers files on behalf of requesting applications asynchronously, i. The transfer will continue in the background as long as the network connection is there and the job owner is logged in.

BITS jobs do not transfer when the job owner is not signed in. BITS suspends any ongoing transfer when the network connection is lost or the operating system is shut down. It resumes the transfer from where it left off when the computer is turned on later and the network connection is restored. BITS supports transfers over, and. Bandwidth [ ] BITS attempts to use only spare bandwidth. BITS constantly monitors network traffic for any increase or decrease in network traffic and its own transfers to ensure that other foreground applications such as a get the bandwidth they need.

Note that BITS does not necessarily measure the actual bandwidth. BITS versions 3. Otherwise, BITS will use the speed as reported by the to calculate bandwidth. Jobs [ ] BITS uses a queue to manage file transfers. A job is a container, which has one or more files to transfer. A newly created job is empty. Files must be added, specifying both the source and destination. While a download job can have any number of files, upload jobs can have only one. Properties can be set for individual files. Jobs inherit the security context of the application that creates them.

BITS provides access to control jobs. A job can be programmatically started, stopped, paused, resumed, and queried for status. Before starting a job, a priority has to be set for it to specify when the job is processed relative to other jobs in the transfer queue. By default, all jobs are of Normal priority. Jobs can optionally be set to High, Low, or Foreground priority.

Background transfers are optimized by BITS, which increases and decreases or throttles the rate of transfer based on the amount of idle network bandwidth that is available. If a network application begins to consume more bandwidth, BITS decreases its transfer rate to preserve the user's interactive experience, except for Foreground priority downloads.

Scheduling [ ] BITS each job to receive only a finite, for which only that job is allowed to transfer, before it is temporarily paused to give another job a chance to transfer. Higher priority jobs get a higher chunk of time slice. BITS uses to process jobs in the same priority and to prevent a large transfer job from blocking smaller jobs.

When a job is newly created, it is automatically suspended or paused. It has to be explicitly resumed to be activated. Resuming moves the job to the queued state. On its turn to transfer data, it first connects to the remote server and then starts transferring. After the job's time slice expires, the transfer is temporarily paused, and the job is moved back to the queued state.

When the job gets another time slice, it has to connect again before it can transfer. When the job is complete, BITS transfers ownership of the job to the application that created it. BITS includes a built-in mechanism for error handling and recovery attempts. Errors can be either fatal or transient; either moves a job to the respective state. A transient error is a temporary error that resolves itself after some time. For a transient error, BITS waits for some time and then retries. For fatal errors, BITS transfers control of the job to the creating application, with as much information regarding the error as it can provide.

It is available as a part of or and later versions of both, as well as a standard command-line tool in. Included with RTM. BITS 3. BITS 2. It is also now used in the client repair tool. It was produced by Microsoft and released to manufacturing on December 15, and it is the successor to Windows NT4. Support for people with disabilities was improved over Windows NT4. Windows can be installed either a manual or unattended installation. Microsoft marketed Windows as the most secure Windows version ever at the time, however, it became the target of a number of high-profile virus attacks such as Code Red and Nimda.

For ten years after its release, it continued to receive patches for security vulnerabilities nearly every month until reaching the end of its lifecycle on July 13, Windows is a continuation of the Microsoft Windows NT family of operating systems, the original name for the operating system was Windows NT5. On October 27,, Microsoft announced that the name of the version of the operating system would be Windows Windows Beta 3 was released in January , NT5. The new login prompt from the version made its first appearance in Beta 3 build The new, updated icons first appeared in Beta 3 build , the Windows boot screen in the final version first appeared in Beta 3 build During development, there was a build for the Alpha which was abandoned some time after RC1 after Compaq announced they had dropped support for Windows NT on Alpha.

From here, Microsoft issued three release candidates between July and November , and finally released the system to partners on December 12, The public could buy the version of Windows on February 17, 2. The service provides different kinds of updates, security updates or critical updates protect against vulnerabilities to malware and security exploits. Other updates correct errors unrelated to security, or enhance functionality, Windows Vista and later provide a Control Panel to configure update settings and check for updates.

Windows Update was introduced as an Internet web site with the launch of Windows 95, a link to Windows Update on the Start Menu gave access to additional downloads for the operating system. At the time of Windows 98s release, Windows Update offered additional desktop themes, games, device driver updates, fixes to Windows 98 to resolve the Year problem were distributed using Windows Update in December Microsoft attributed the success of Windows 98 in part to Windows Update. The first version of the Windows Update web site did not require any personally-identifiable information to be sent to Microsoft, as the number of updates offered by Windows Update grew, this resulted in performance concerns.

Arie Slob, writing for the Windows-help. Net newsletter in March , noted that the size of the update list had exceeded KB, which caused delays of more than a minute for dial-up users. It also narrowed down the list of updates for the operating system and related components by sending details of what operating system version, service pack.

German technology web site tecchannel. De published an analysis of the Windows Update communication protocol in February , the check was performed by querying the server for a file, cucif. Cab, which contains a list of all the critical updates released for the users operating system. An analysis done by security researcher H. Moore in early was critical of this approach, describing it as horribly inefficient and susceptible to attacks. In a posting to BugTraq, he explained that, every single Windows 98 computer that wishes to get an update has to rely on a single host for the security.

If that one server got compromised one day, or an attacker cracks the MS DNS server again, the scope of this attack is big enough to attract crackers who actually know what they are doing. The Critical Update Notification tool continued to be promoted by Microsoft through , initial releases of Windows shipped with the tool, but Windows 95 and Windows NT4.

Table of contents

Unlike its predecessor, Automatic Updates includes the ability to download, instead of the five-minute schedule used by its predecessor, the Automatic Updates client checks the Windows Update servers once a day. The user is given the option to download available updates then prompt the user to install them, after Windows Me is installed, the user is prompted via a notification balloon to configure the Automatic Updates client 3. The user is given the option to download available updates then prompt the user to install them, after Windows Me is installed, the user is prompted via a notification balloon to configure the Automatic Updates client 4.

At first, it only delivered hotfixes and patches for Microsoft operating systems, SUS ran on a Windows Server operating system and downloaded updates for the specified versions of Windows from the remote Windows Update site which was operated by Microsoft. Clients could then download updates from this server, rather than connecting directly to Windows Update.

It allows administrators to approve or decline updates before release, to force updates to install by a given date, system administrators can also configure WSUS to approve certain classes of updates automatically. One can also approve updates for detection only, allowing an administrator to see what machines will require a given update without also installing that update. Latest version 2. Automator enables the repetition of tasks across a variety of programs, including Finder, Safari, Calendar, Contacts.

It can also work with third-party applications such as Microsoft Office, the icon features a robot holding a pipe, a reference to pipelines, a computer science term for connected data workflows. Automator was first released with Mac OS X Tiger, Automator provides a graphical user interface for automating tasks without knowledge of programming or scripting languages. Tasks can be recorded as they are performed by the user or can be selected from a list, the output of the previous action can become the input to the next action. Automator comes with a library of Actions that act as individual steps in a Workflow document, a Workflow document is used to carry out repetitive tasks.

Workflows can be saved and reused, unix command line scripts and AppleScripts can also be invoked as Actions. The actions are linked together in a Workflow, the Workflow can be saved as an application, Workflow file or a contextual menu item. Latest version It has three modes, basic, scientific, and programmer, Basic includes a number pad, buttons for adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing, as well as memory keys. Scientific mode supports exponents and trigonometric functions, and programmer mode gives the user access to more options related to computer programming, Apple currently ships a different application called Grapher.

Calculator has Reverse Polish notation support, and can speak the buttons pressed. The Calculator appeared first as an accessory in first version of Macintosh System for the Macintosh k. Its design was maintained with the basic math operations until the final release of classic Mac OS in Since the release of OS X Yosemite, there is also a simple calculator widget available in the notifications area, since the release of Mac OS X Leopard, simple arithmetic functions can be calculated from Spotlight feature 6.

Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface tablet lineup, as of , it was the worlds largest software maker by revenue, and one of the worlds most valuable companies. The companys initial public offering, and subsequent rise in its share price, since the s, it has increasingly diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions. The word Microsoft is a portmanteau of microcomputer and software, Paul Allen and Bill Gates, childhood friends with a passion for computer programming, sought to make a successful business utilizing their shared skills.

In they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which offered a computer that tracked and analyzed automobile traffic data. Allen went on to pursue a degree in science at Washington State University. Since they didnt actually have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter and they officially established Microsoft on April 4,, with Gates as the CEO. Allen came up with the name of Micro-Soft, as recounted in a Fortune magazine article. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOSs available software selection, the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in , as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press.

Before version 4. The license agreement allows home users and small businesses to install and it replaces Windows Live OneCare, a discontinued commercial subscription-based AV service, and the free Windows Defender, which until Windows 8 protected users from only adware and spyware. It lacks the personal firewall of OneCare or the management features of Forefront Endpoint Protection. The product received generally positive reviews praising its interface, low resource usage. It secured AV-TEST certification on October , having demonstrated its ability to eliminate all widely encountered malware, however, it lost the certificate on October , having shown a constant decline in protection and repair scores.

In June , MSE achieved the lowest possible protection score, Microsoft Security Essentials is an antivirus software product that fights malicious software, including computer viruses, spyware, Trojan horses and rootkits. It replaces Windows Live OneCare, a discontinued commercial subscription-based AV service, and the free Windows Defender and it automatically checks for and downloads the virus definitions it relies on from Microsoft Update, a web-based software service updated three times a day. Users may alternatively download the updates manually from the Microsoft Security Portal website, on 30 September , a faulty definition update caused the product to incorrectly tag Google Chrome as malware.

The issue was resolved within three hours, MSE is built upon the same foundation as other Microsoft security products, all use the same virus definitions and anti-malware engine, known as Microsoft Malware Protection Engine. It does not have the personal firewall of OneCare or the management features of Forefront Endpoint Protection.

MSE provides real-time protection, constantly monitoring activities on the computer and it disables detected threats and prompts for user input on how to deal with them. If no response is received within ten minutes, suspected threats are handled according to the default actions defined in the applications settings, depending on those settings, it may also create System Restore checkpoints before removing the detected malware.

As a part of protection, by default, MSE reports all suspicious behaviors of monitored programs to Microsoft Active Protection Service. If the report matches a newly discovered malware threat with an unreleased virus definition, on 18 November , Microsoft announced plans for a free consumer security product, codenamed Morro. By 17 June , the name of Morro was revealed. Before Windows 8, Windows Defender protected against spyware and it included a number of real-time security agents that monitored several common areas of Windows for changes which might have been caused by spyware.

It also included the ability to easily remove installed ActiveX software, protection against viruses was added in Windows 8, Windows Defender in Windows 8 resembles Microsoft Security Essentials and uses the same virus definitions. In Windows 10, Windows Defender settings are controlled by the Settings app, in the Windows 10 Anniversary Update, toast notifications appear to announce the results of a scan, even if no viruses are found.

The companys acquisition was announced by Microsoft on December 16,, while the original GIANT AntiSpyware supported older Windows versions, support for the Windows 9x line of operating systems was later dropped.


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Windows Defender was released on February 13, and it featured the programs new name and a significant user interface redesign. Windows Defender was released with Windows Vista and Windows 7, serving as their built-in antispyware component, in Windows Vista and Windows 7, Windows Defender was superseded by Microsoft Security Essentials, an antivirus product from Microsoft which provided protection against a wider range of malware.

Upon installation, Microsoft Security Essentials disabled and replaced Windows Defender, in Windows 8, Microsoft upgraded Windows Defender into an antivirus program very similar to Microsoft Security Essentials for Windows 7 and using the same virus definition updates. It switches itself off on installation of a third party anti-virus package, real-time protection In the Windows Defender options, the user can configure real-time protection options. Browser integration Integration with Internet Explorer and Microsoft Edge enables files to be scanned as they are downloaded to detect malicious software inadvertently downloaded, although it does not integrate with non-Microsoft web browsers, Windows Defender scans for malicious downloaded files as part of its real-time protection.

Windows 10s Anniversary Update introduced Limited Periodic Scanning, which optionally allows Windows Defender to scan a system periodically if another antivirus app is installed and it also introduced Block at First Sight, which uses machine learning to predict whether a file is malicious. Windows Defender had additional functionality in Windows Vista which was removed in subsequent versions of Windows, Security agents Security agents monitor the computer for malicious activities 9.

Com, Microsoft was forced to develop its own web server, IIS. It also introduced TLS1. Netscape wrote an letter to the Antitrust Division of the U. Department of Justice regarding this distinction in product licensing HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web, Hypertext is structured text that uses logical links between nodes containing text. A web browser, for example, may be the client, the client submits an HTTP request message to the server.

The server, which provides resources such as HTML files and other content, or performs other functions on behalf of the client, the response contains completion status information about the request and may also contain requested content in its message body. A web browser is an example of a user agent, other types of user agent include the indexing software used by search providers, voice browsers, mobile apps, and other software that accesses, consumes, or displays web content.

HTTP is designed to permit intermediate network elements to improve or enable communications between clients and servers, high-traffic websites often benefit from web cache servers that deliver content on behalf of upstream servers to improve response time. Web browsers cache previously accessed web resources and reuse them when possible to network traffic.

HTTP proxy servers at private network boundaries can facilitate communication for clients without a globally routable address, HTTP is an application layer protocol designed within the framework of the Internet protocol suite. Berners-Lee first proposed the WorldWideWeb project in —now known as the World Wide Web, the first version of the protocol had only one method, namely GET, which would request a page from a server An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier that may be a web page, image, hyperlinks present in resources enable users easily to navigate their browsers to related resources.

His browser was called WorldWideWeb and later renamed Nexus, the first commonly available web browser with a graphical user interface was Erwise. The development of Erwise was initiated by Robert Cailliau, andreesens browser sparked the internet boom of the s. The introduction of Mosaic in — one of the first graphical web browsers — led to an explosion in web use, Microsoft responded with its Internet Explorer in , also heavily influenced by Mosaic, initiating the industrys first browser war.

Opera debuted in , it has never achieved widespread use and it is also available on several other embedded systems, including Nintendos Wii video game console.

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Apples Safari had its first beta release in January , as of April , the most recent major entrant to the browser market is Chrome, first released in September This increase seems largely to be at the expense of Internet Explorer, in December , Chrome overtook Internet Explorer 8 as the most widely used web browser but still had lower usage than all versions of Internet Explorer combined.

Internet Explorer was deprecated in Windows 10, with Microsoft Edge replacing it as the web browser. The ways that web browser makers fund their development costs has changed over time, the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, was a research project. In addition to being freeware, Netscape Navigator and Opera were also sold commercially, Internet Explorer, on the other hand, was bundled free with the Windows operating system, and therefore it was funded partly by the sales of Windows to computer manufacturers and direct to users.

Internet Explorer also used to be available for the Mac, in this respect, IE may have contributed to Windows and Microsoft applications sales in another way, through lock-in to Microsofts browser It is a communications protocol of automatically configuring port forwarding. Applications using peer-to-peer networks, multiplayer gaming, and remote assistance programs need a way to communicate through home, without IGD one has to manually configure the gateway to allow traffic through, a process which is error-prone and time-consuming.

Universal Plug and Play comes with a solution for network address translation traversal, a seek request is sent via HTTP and port to the multicast address Thereby it would be possible to bring a computer or also a network under the control of a foreign user. Boucadair, F. Early network interface controllers were commonly implemented on expansion cards that plugged into a computer bus, the low cost and ubiquity of the Ethernet standard means that most newer computers have a network interface built into the motherboard.

The network controller implements the electronic circuitry required to communicate using a physical layer and data link layer standard such as Ethernet, Fibre Channel. The NIC allows computers to communicate over a network, either by using cables or wirelessly. Although other network technologies exist, IEEE networks including the Ethernet variants have achieved near-ubiquity since the mids, newer server motherboards may even have dual network interfaces built-in.

The Ethernet capabilities are integrated into the motherboard chipset or implemented via a low-cost dedicated Ethernet chip. A separate network card is not required unless additional interfaces are needed or some type of network is used.

The NIC may use one or more of the techniques to indicate the availability of packets to transfer. Direct memory access is where some other device other than the CPU assumes control of the bus to move data to or from the NIC to memory. This removes load from the CPU but requires more logic on the card, in addition, a packet buffer on the NIC may not be required and latency can be reduced. The hardware-based distribution of the interrupts, described above, is referred to as receive-side scaling, purely software implementations also exist, such as the receive packet steering and receive flow steering.

Examples of such implementations are the RFS and Intel Flow Director, with multiqueue NICs, additional performance improvements can be achieved by distributing outgoing traffic among different transmit queues. Such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network, typically the World Wide Web, schemes specifying a concrete syntax and associated protocols define each URI.

The most common form of URI is the Uniform Resource Locator, more rarely seen in usage is the Uniform Resource Name, which was designed to complement URLs by providing a mechanism for the identification of resources in particular namespaces. A URN is a URI that identifies a resource by name in a particular namespace, a URN may be used to talk about a resource without implying its location or how to access it. To gain access to the book, its location is needed, a URL is simply a URI that happens to point to a resource over a network.

However, in non-technical contexts and in software for the World Wide Web, additionally, the term web address often occurs in non-technical publications as a synonym for a URI that uses the http or https scheme. Such assumptions can lead to confusion, for example in the case of XML namespaces, while most URI schemes were originally designed to be used with a particular protocol, and often have the same name, they should not be referred to as protocols.

Some URI schemes are not associated with any specific protocol and many others do not use the name of a protocol as their prefix. The syntax of generic URIs and absolute URI references was first defined in Request for Comments , published in August , although schemes are case-insensitive, the canonical form is lowercase and documents that specify schemes must do so with lowercase letters.

It is followed by a colon, examples of popular schemes include http, ftp, mailto, file, data, and irc. URI schemes should be registered with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, two slashes, This is required by some schemes and not required by some others. When the authority component is absent, the path component cannot begin with two slashes, iPv4 addresses must be in dot-decimal notation, and IPv6 addresses must be enclosed in brackets.

An optional port number, separated from the hostname by a colon A path, which contains data, usually organized in hierarchical form, such a sequence may resemble or map exactly to a file system path, but does not always imply a relation to one. The path must begin with a single slash if an authority part was present, and may also if one was not, but must not begin with a double slash. The path is defined, though the defined path may be empty An optional query, separated from the preceding part by a question mark.

Its syntax is not well defined, but by convention is most often a sequence of attribute—value pairs separated by a delimiter, an optional fragment, separated from the preceding part by a hash As the term is used, time slices are assigned to each process in equal portions and in circular order. Round-robin scheduling is simple, easy to implement, and starvation-free, round-robin scheduling can also be applied to other scheduling problems, such as data packet scheduling in computer networks.

It is an operating system concept, the name of the algorithm comes from the round-robin principle known from other fields, where each person takes an equal share of something in turn. To schedule processes fairly, a round-robin scheduler generally employs time-sharing, giving each job a time slot or quantum, the job is resumed next time a time slot is assigned to that process. If the process terminates or changes its state to waiting during its attributed time quantum, in the absence of time-sharing, or if the quanta were large relative to the sizes of the jobs, a process that produced large jobs would be favoured over other processes.

Round-robin algorithm is an algorithm as the scheduler forces the process out of the CPU once the time quota expires. Once the other jobs have had their share, job1 will get another allocation of CPU time. In best-effort packet switching and other statistical multiplexing, round-robin scheduling can be used as an alternative to first-come first-served queuing. A multiplexer, switch, or router that provides round-robin scheduling has a queue for every data flow.

The algorithm lets every active data flow that has data packets in the queue to take turns in transferring packets on a channel in a periodically repeated order. The scheduling is work-conserving, meaning if one flow is out of packets. Hence, the scheduling tries to prevent link resources from going unused, round-robin scheduling results in max-min fairness if the data packets are equally sized, since the data flow that has waited the longest time is given scheduling priority.

It may not be if the size of the data packets varies widely from one job to another. A user that produces large packets would be favored over other users, in that case fair queuing would be preferable. However, if link adaptation is used, it take a much longer time to transmit a certain amount of data to expensive users than to others since the channel conditions differ Development was completed on 8 November , and over the three months, it was released in stages to computer hardware and software manufacturers, business customers. On 30 January , it was released worldwide and was available for purchase.

It was succeeded by Windows 7, which was released to manufacturing on 22 July , Vista aimed to increase the level of communication between machines on a home network, using peer-to-peer technology to simplify sharing files and media between computers and devices. Windows Vista included version 3. NET Framework, Microsofts primary stated objective with Windows Vista was to improve the state of security in the Windows operating system.

One common criticism of Windows XP and its predecessors was their commonly exploited security vulnerabilities and overall susceptibility to malware, viruses, Microsoft stated that it prioritized improving the security of Windows XP and Windows Server above finishing Windows Vista, thus delaying its completion. While these new features and security improvements have garnered positive reviews, Vista has also been the target of much criticism, as a result of these and other issues, Windows Vista had seen initial adoption and satisfaction rates lower than Windows XP.

On 22 October , Microsoft ceased sales of copies of Windows Vista. As of March , Vistas market share was 0. Extended support will end on 11 April , Microsoft began work on Windows Vista, known at the time by its codename Longhorn, in May , five months before the release of Windows XP. It was originally expected to ship sometime late in as a step between Windows XP and Blackcomb, which was planned to be the companys next major operating system release. Gradually, Longhorn assimilated many of the important new features and technologies slated for Blackcomb, in some builds of Longhorn, their license agreement said For the Microsoft product codenamed Whistler.

Many of Microsofts developers were also re-tasked to build updates to Windows XP, faced with ongoing delays and concerns about feature creep, Microsoft announced on 27 August , that it had revised its plans. Longhorn became known as Vista in , the early development stages of Longhorn were generally characterized by incremental improvements and updates to Windows XP. After several months of relatively little news or activity from Microsoft with Longhorn, Microsoft released Build and it was also privately handed out to a select group of software developers.

An optional new taskbar was introduced that was thinner than the previous build, the most notable visual and functional difference, however, came with Windows Explorer. The incorporation of the Plex theme made blue the dominant color of the entire application, the Windows XP-style task pane was almost completely replaced with a large horizontal pane that appeared under the toolbars It is a part of the Windows NT family of operating systems, Windows 7 was released to manufacturing on July 22,, and became generally available on October 22,, less than three years after the release of its predecessor, Windows Vista.

Windows 7s server counterpart, Windows Server R2, was released at the same time, Windows 7 continued improvements on Windows Aero with the addition of a redesigned taskbar that allows applications to be pinned to it, and new window management features. Other new features were added to the system, including libraries, the new file sharing system HomeGroup. A new Action Center interface was added to provide an overview of system security and maintenance information.

Windows 7 also shipped with updated versions of several applications, including Internet Explorer 8, Windows Media Player. Windows 7 was a success for Microsoft, even prior to its official release. Originally, a version of Windows codenamed Blackcomb was planned as the successor to Windows XP, major features were planned for Blackcomb, including an emphasis on searching and querying data and an advanced storage system named WinFS to enable such scenarios.

However, an interim, minor release, codenamed Longhorn, was announced for , by the middle of , however, Longhorn had acquired some of the features originally intended for Blackcomb. Development of Longhorn was also restarted, and thus delayed, in August , a number of features were cut from Longhorn. Blackcomb was renamed Vienna in early , as such, adoption of Vista in comparison to XP remained somewhat low. In July , six months following the release of Vista, it was reported that the next version of Windows would then be codenamed Windows 7.

Bill Gates, in an interview with Newsweek, suggested that Windows 7 would be more user-centric, Gates later said that Windows 7 would also focus on performance improvements. Senior Vice President Bill Veghte stated that Windows Vista users migrating to Windows 7 would not find the kind of device compatibility issues they encountered migrating from Windows XP, an estimated 1, developers worked on Windows 7. These were broadly divided into core operating system and Windows client experience, in October , it was announced that Windows 7 would also be the official name of the operating system.