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The tiny hooks on bur fruits left inspired Velcro tape right. Biomimetics or biomimicry is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems. A closely related field is bionics. Biomimetics has given rise to new technologies inspired by biological solutions at macro and nanoscales. Humans have looked at nature for answers to problems throughout our existence. Nature has solved engineering problems such as self-healing abilities, environmental exposure tolerance and resistance, hydrophobicity, self-assembly, and harnessing solar energy.

History One of the early examples of would-be biomimicry was the study of birds to enable human flight. Palau'amine is a toxic alkaloid compound synthesized naturally by Stylotella agminata, a species of sea sponge found in the southwest Pacific Ocean. The name of the molecule derives from the island nation of Palau, near which the sponges are found.

The substance was first isolated and described in The precise atomic structure was pinned down in ,[3] and two years later the molecule was synthesized in the lab of Phil Baran at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California. Robot behaviour bottom modeled after that of a cockroach top and a gecko middle. Bionics or biologically inspired engineering is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology.

Steele in August , being formed as a portmanteau from biology and electronics. All feature humans given superhuman powers by electromechanical implants.


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The transfer of technology between lifeforms and manufactured objects is, according to proponents of bionic technology, desirable because evolutionary pressure typically forces living organisms, including fauna and flora, to become highly optimized and efficient. A classical example is the development of dirt- and water-repellent paint coating.

Plant-derived polyphenol, tannic acid, formed by esterification of ten equivalents of the phenylpropanoid-derived gallic acid to a monosaccharide glucose core from primary metabolism Phenol-phenolate equilibrium, and resonance structures giving rise to phenol aromatic reactivity Polyphenols[1][2] also known as polyhydroxyphenols are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.

The number and characteristics of these phenol structures underlie the unique physical, chemical, and biological metabolic, toxic, therapeutic, etc. Examples include tannic acid image at right and ellagitannin image below. The historically important chemical class of tannins is a subset of the polyphenols.

Morphine Synthesis of morphine-like alkaloids in chemistry describes the total synthesis of the natural morphinan class of alkaloids that includes codeine, morphine, oripavine, and thebaine and the closely related semisynthetic analogs buprenorphine, hydrocodone, isocodeine, naltrexone, naloxone, nalbuphine, and oxycodone. This "dissonant connectivity" makes bond formation more difficult and therefore significantly complicates any synthetic strategy that is applied to this family of molecules.

Gates, Jr. The hydrocodone synthesis of Kenner C. The electron cycle of porphin, the parent structure of porphyrin, highlighted. Several other choices of atoms, through the pyrrole nitrogens, for example, also give electron cycles. The parent porphyrin is porphine, a rare chemical compound of exclusively theoretical interest. Substituted porphines are called porphyrins. One of the best-known fa. Acetal protection of a ketone with ethylene glycol during reduction of an ester, vs. A protecting group or protective group is introduced into a molecule by chemical modification of a functional group to obtain chemoselectivity in a subsequent chemical reaction.

It plays an important role in multistep organic synthesis. Then, these parts, or groups, must be protected. For example, lithium aluminium hydride is a highly reactive but useful reagent capable of reducing esters to alcohols. It will always react with carbonyl groups, and this cannot be discouraged by any means. When a reduction of an ester is required in the presence of a carbonyl, the attack of the hydride on the carbonyl has to be prevented. For example, the carbonyl is converted into an acetal, which does not react with hydrides.

The acetal is then call. Carpanone is a naturally occurring lignan-type natural product most widely known for the remarkably complex way nature prepares it, and the similarly remarkable success that an early chemistry group, that of Orville L. Chapman, had at mimicking nature's pathway. The route by which this complex structure is achieved through biosynthesis involves a series of reactions that, almost instantly, take a molecule with little three-dimensionality to the complex final structure. Notably, Brophy and coworkers isolated the simpler ca.

In the Sharpless dihydroxylation reaction the chirality of the product can be controlled by the "AD-mix" used. It is defined by IUPAC as: a chemical reaction or reaction sequence in which one or more new elements of chirality are formed in a substrate molecule and which produces the stereoisomeric enantiomeric or diastereoisomeric products in unequal amounts. Enantioselective synthesis is a key process in modern chemistry and is particularly important in the field of pharmaceuticals, as the different enantiomers or diastereomers of a molecule often have different biolo.

Vancomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections. Steroids have two principal biological functions: as important components of cell membranes which alter membrane fluidity; and as signaling molecules. Hundreds of steroids are found in plants, animals and fungi. All steroids are manufactured in cells from the sterols lanosterol opisthokonts or cycloartenol plants. Lanosterol and cycloartenol are derived from the cyclization of the triterpene squalene.

Steroids vary by the functional groups attached to this four-ring core and by the oxidation state of the rings. Artemisinin and its semisynthetic derivatives are a group of drugs used against malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. Artemisinin is isolated from the plant Artemisia annua, sweet wormwood, a herb employed in Chinese traditional medicine. A precursor compound can be produced using a genetically-engineered yeast, which is much more efficient than using the plant. This endoperoxide 1,2,4-trioxane ring is responsible for the drug's mechanism of action.

Few other natural compounds with such a peroxide bridge are known. Papain, also known as papaya proteinase I, is a cysteine protease EC 3. Papain family Papain belongs to a family of related proteins with a wide variety of activities, including endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, dipeptidyl peptidases and enzymes with both exo- and endopeptidase activity. The activation process of these enzymes includes the removal of propeptide regions, which serve a variety of functions in vivo and in vitro.

Total Synthesis of Plakortide E and Biomimetic Synthesis of Plakortone B

The pro-region is. Moroidin is a biologically active compound found in the plants Dendrocnide moroides and Celosia argentea. Moroidin has been shown to be at least one of several bioactive compounds responsible for the painful sting of the Dendrocnide moroides plant. It also has demonstrated anti-mitotic properties, specifically by inhibition of tubulin polymerization. Anti-mitotic activity gives moroidin potential as a chemotherapy drug, and this property combined with its unusual chemical structure has made it a target for organic synthesis.

Structure Moroidin, a bicyclic octapeptide, has been isolated from Dendrocnide moroides also called Laportea moroides and Celosia argentea. The structure of moroidin was confirmed in by X-ray crystallography. These lin. Rubicordifolin is a natural product that is produced by Rubia cordifolia, a plant that is a member of the Rubiaceae family. However, it has been hypothesized that the dimerization of the two naphthoquinone units yields rubicordifolin. Naphthoquinones can be traced back to the shikimate pathway in plants. Shikimate is converted into chorismic acid, which is further converted into 2-succinylbenzoic acid through a TPP-dependent reaction.

Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. Erysodienone is a key precursor in the biosynthesis of many Erythrina-produced alkaloids. Starting with S-norprotosinomenine precursor A, cyclization via oxidative phenol coupling forms intermediate B, which in turn can be rearranged to form intermediate C. Hydrogenation of C forms the diphenoquinone intermediate E. An intramolecular Michael addition reaction converts E to the final product, erysodienone. Gmelanone is a lignan found in the heartwood of Gmelina arborea.

Chemical synthesis

Madhusudhana; Rao, V. Kameswara; Row, L. Ramachandra Row, L. Tetrahedron Letters. Endiandric acid C, isolated from the tree Endiandra introrsa, is a well characterized chemical compound. Endiadric acid C is reported to have better antibiotic activity than ampicillin.

This genus of trees is in the family Lauraceae. These trees are found in the north-eastern Australian rainforests and other tropical and subtropical regions. However, they are also found in southern Canada and in Chile. Endiandric acid C is also isolated from the species E. Endiandric acids are also found in Beilschmiedia trees, which were categorized under the genus Endiandra, but moved to their own genus as they found in cold, high latitude areas, and even in New Zealand.

Other endiandric acids are found in B. Bioactivity This compound has the best antibacterial activity of Endiandrianic acid A-G compounds. Endiandric acid C was tested towards five strains of bacteria, which included Bacillus subtilis, Micococcus luteus, Stre. Parthenocissus laetevirens is a climbing plant species in the genus Parthenocissus found in China.

Parthenocissus laetevirens contains the stilbene oligomers laetevirenol A, B, C, D and E,[2] the stilbene tetramers laetevirenol F and G[3] as well as the dimers of resveratrol parthenocissin A, quadrangularin A, pallidol and amurensin A. Tropinone is an alkaloid, famously synthesised in by Robert Robinson as a synthetic precursor to atropine, a scarce commodity during World War I. Its corresponding conjugate acid at pH 7. It started from the seemingly related cycloheptanone, but required many steps to introduce the nitrogen bridge; the overall yield for the synthesis path is only 0.

Tropinone is a bicyclic molecule, but the reactants used in its preparation are fairly simp. Eugene Earle van Tamelen July 20, — December 12, was an organic chemist who is especially recognized for his contributions to bioorganic chemistry. He began his academic career at the University of Wisconsin, later joining the faculty of Stanford University, where he spent the majority of his career. Among his many students was Nobelist K. Barry Sharpless. He led a team who were the first persons to achieve the total synthesis of yohimbine.

He was the first to identify squalene oxide as a precursor in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. He developed a system for nitrogen fixation using titanocene. Gnetum cleistostachyum is a liana species in the Sessiles subsection of the genus Gnetum described from South East Yunnan. The name is still invalid and efloras states it is advisable to postpone validating it until more complete collections, particularly with seeds, can be studied. References Gnetum at efloras.

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