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The Body Language of Liars

Get A Copy. A region with these characteristics would be crucial for the recognition and processing of affective action content but not the goals of actions. Notably, our previous experiments investigating the comprehension of non-affective goal directed behavior did not implicate this region [22] — [24] , which suggests that the specific role of this area is related to the processing of affective cues conveyed by body language. The early anterior N was partly paralleled and followed by a centroparietal N that peaked between and ms in response to incongruent EBL and by a posterior LP over right visual areas that was larger in response to congruent EBL.

The topographic distribution of the N was similar to that of typical central-parietal N responses that have been reported in verbal [44] and nonverbal language studies [18].


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The centroparietal N is a supramodal multisensory component that is thought to reflect difficulty in integrating incoming inputs with previous information at a conceptual level that is independent of sensory modality. Interestingly, the scalp distribution of the N effects for action-related body parts the words eye and mouth for meaningful actions was different than that of the effects of action-unrelated body parts. More specifically, a classical N effect with a posterior distribution was found for the comparison between action-unrelated and action-related body parts, whereas an anterior N effect was found for object-incongruent compared to object-congruent words.

It has been noted that the N tends to have a more anterior distribution when elicited by pictures or actions than when elicited by words [22] , [49] — [51]. These anterior negativities in the range of the N are assumed to reflect image- or action-specific semantic processing that is functionally similar to the processing of amodal semantic information that is indexed by the linguistic centro parietal N According to Amoruso and coworkers [48] the activation of motor and premotor regions during action comprehension could partially explain the frontal distribution of N responses to incongruent body patterns or movements actions that have been observed in action processing studies.

More specifically, previous source localization data indicated premotor, motor, inferior parietal cortices, and orbito-frontal cortex as possible neural generators of these effects [23]. In the present sudy, in which observers had to process the emotional state of the acting person, LORETA solution explaining N difference-wave cong.

Although speed of response was the same, uncertainty was higher for congruent than incongruent trials. However, findings from other studies are not consistent with this pattern, it depending on task requirements. Indeed, in their case the match decision was based on a choice between 6 possibilities anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, sadness , whereas in our experiment the number of possibilities was unknown and unpredictable. Ultimately, it is not rare to find a better performance for mismatch than match decisions. Importantly, the activity of CA 1 region of hippocampus was significantly greater for correct mismatch correct rejections than match hits trials.

Indeed, activation of CA 1 was greater when participants encountered house-probes that violated their mnemonic predictions correct mismatch relative to probes that confirmed these predictions correct match , thus providing the neural explanation of the increased behavioral performance for incongruent trials, as in our study.

In conclusion, the present results support previous findings regarding non-affective action processing [22] — [24] , [28] , [55] — [58] and report an activation of the frontoparietal system.

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Additionally, these results provide new evidence for the crucial role of the limbic and ventromedial orbitofrontal cortices in the recognition of emotional body language EBL. The ERP results indicate that face and body mimics undergo a prioritized processing as early as ms that heavily involves the affective brain and that the output of this processing is rapidly compared with verbal information, which allows for regulation of communicative and social behavior that takes into account both linguistic and non-verbal cues.

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. PLoS One. Published online Mar 7. Alessio Avenanti, Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Oct 11; Accepted Feb This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Introduction Social interactions are based on the transmission of both verbal and non-verbal information, which are automatically processed in parallel. Methods Participants Thirty healthy right-handed Italian University students 15 males and 15 females were recruited for this experiment. Stimuli and Materials Stimulus validation Stimulus materials were generated by taking ecological pictures of emotional body postures.

Table 1 List of the 40 emotional or mental stated portrayed by the actors and examples of the verbal labels used. Go in disgrace! Open in a separate window. Notice that, in the incongruent condition right column , the verbal descriptions provided below were not compatible with the emotional states displayed.

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Accuracy was Table 2 Average number of words and verbs along with standard deviations contained in verbal descriptions preceding pictorial stimuli. Verbal complexity was matched across classes, as well as the number of positive, negative or neutral body language categories assigned to congruent vs.

Final stimuli for ERP experiment At the end of this process, we selected pictures half were congruent, and half were incongruent. Figure 1.

Figure 2. Procedure The task consisted of responding as accurately and quickly as possible to the pictures judged to be congruent by pressing a response key with the index finger of the left or right hand and to the pictures judged to be incongruent by pressing a response key with the middle finger of the left or right hand. Electrophysiological Data Figure 3 shows grand-average ERP waveforms recorded at various anterior and posterior sites as a function of the congruence of the actions and verbal description.

Figure 3. Figure 4. Isocolor topographical voltage maps obtained by plotting the N amplitudes recorded over the left left column and right right column hemispheres at a ms latency. Figure 5. Axial views of the active N sources for congruent left and incongruent right brain waves according to swLORETA analysis during the — ms time window. Figure 6. Coronal, axial and sagittal views of the N active sources relative to the difference wave Incongruent — congruent according to a swLORETA analysis that was applied to the — ms time window.

Power: Table 4 Talairach coordinates of the intracranial generators that explained the N surface difference-voltage i. Discussion The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the human ability to understand emotional body language EBL. References 1. Front Psychol 4, Cognition : — Top Cogn Sci 1 : — J Lang Soc Psychol 8 3—4. Curr Biol 13 : — De Gelder B Towards the neurobiology of emotional body language. Nat Rev Neurosci 7 : — Neuroimage 35 : — Social Neurosci 4 2 : — Neuron 30 : — Science : — J Neurophysiol 93 : — Soc Cogn Aff Neurosci 2 4 : — Front Hum Neurosci 1 5 : PloS One 7 6 : e Neurosci Lett 30 1—2 : 52—6.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 7 4 : — Stanislavski C An Actor Prepares. London: Methuen, Soc Neurosci 4 3 : — Neurosci Lett 14 3 : —6. Neuropsychologia 48 5 : — Sci Reports 2 : Int J Psychophysiol 18 : 49— Shibata H, Gyoba J, Suzuki Y Event-related potentials during the evaluation of the appropriateness of cooperative actions. Neurosci Lett 13 2 : — Phys Med Biol 52 : — Science 16 : — Cereb Cortex 2 3 : — Whether you are a student or just want to learn more about human behaviour, there is something in this book for everyone.

It is for anyone interested in what our bodies reveal, dispelling some of the myths about nonverbals that many have come to believe but are totally false. Worth the read and well worth your time. I especially enjoyed the section on body language myths. You may think you are "reading" someone correctly but if you don't have this information, you could be making a mistake. Craig writes in an easy-to-understand manner and most importantly he gives excellent examples so you can apply what you learn right away. Pinterest Twitter Facebook.