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The monk vomits up — and his brethren keep returning to — what he has taken in, the body of Christ. The doctrine of its transubstantiation is implicit cause of an upset stomach, on the annual Catholic feast day reserved for that body. False doctrine leading to corruption, both literal and figurative vomit, the undigested Host, the undigested, i. Having passed out of the body, as Christ warns, through a potentially more significant orifice than the anus, it is an incarnation, so to speak, of the far worse figurative excrement of the parable: what comes out of the mouths de ore of men.
De ore, literal and Catholic, equals the doctrine of the Real Presence. And he uses scatology as trope, vomit as persuasive rhetorical figure, precisely because it so adroitly exploits the semantic playing field of the mass as food, corporeal and spiritual. He expects to make his audience share his vision and react with repugnance, not to his use of such low style but to what such low style allows him to render explicit.
Viret was not alone, of course, in taking on the Roman Missal. Be that as it may, his prose text, much as the closing sonnet below, speak to the ubiquity and believed efficacy of resorting to scatological rhetoric to package reform polemic. Mais si elle leur pue trop fort, Renvoye-la, pour un renfort, En enfer, dont elle est venue. For the world has long accepted The stinking thing as its lover Not realizing her infamy That the world has only now perceived. Thus since she has seduced you Uncover her infamy with delight So that it may be seen by all.
But if she stinks too strongly for you Send her back for help To Hell, whence she came. Notes 1 English translations throughout are my own unless otherwise indicated. Mais achevons ceste belle histoire. Car cest inconvenient leur troubla leur feste. Tametsi enim alii splendide se ingurgitant, alii tenuibus crustulis victitant, omnes tarnen ex eadem vivunt olla, quae sine Ulis fomentis non frigeret modo, sed penitus conglaciaraet.
Ideo, ut quisque eorum pro ventre est maxime sollicitus, ita pro sua fide bellator acerrimus. Denique hue ad unum omnes incumbunt, vel ut regnum incolume, vel ut ventrem confertum retineant Opera 1. Et hoc lavacrum Christus erat, cuius sanguine abluti, cuius livore sanati sumus les. Sacrificia illos suae inequitatis arguebant, simulque docebant necessariam esse aliquam satisfactionem, quae iustitiae Dei solveretur Opera 1. Rather am I interested in explicating his adept exploitation of the rhetorical figure or trope of scatology, whatever its merits, paying close attention to one isolated example.
Since Renaissance honor was inextricably linked to class, the notion of excrement evoked not only the dishonorable, but also the lower classes as Mikhail Bakhtin has so famously demonstrated. It is important, however, not to overstate the pudeur of the upper classes. In order to address one small part of that question, I turn to the nouvelle, a particularly popular French Renaissance genre that uses the mundane as a setting. The image of the sickly narrator in the prologue of the CN reinforces the disordered, unhealthy social body illustrated in the individual scatological tales.
Like the narrator, confined to his bed with a diseased body, the characters, too, are restricted to intimate interior spaces where a conflation of multiple bodily functions occurs. The recurring theme of ingesting fecal matter, for example, provides a temporary relief of social ills through the inversion of top and bottom, but promises no long-term cures. What has been ingested will once again be transformed into excrement suggesting the impossibility of ever escaping from the stink of the human body or of human society. For Marguerite, however, verbal and physical purging remain acts of hope.
The main characters are unavoidably associated with their natural by-products through the narration of the act of defecation. The fecal matter in question thus retains its literal, biological dimension as well as performing as a symbol. The victims in both tales are of noble blood and share several weaknesses, being excessively proud, solitary and rash as well as prone to verbal exaggeration.
Their humbling occurs through their bodily functions, their exaggerated reactions to what is natural, and a humiliating exposure to their perfect Other. The woman waiting outside jumps to the conclusion that Madame de Roncex is being raped by monks an assumption in line with all that she has heard about the Franciscans and seeks help among the noblemen who have accompanied them to the monastery.
Shamed by their presence and their laughter, she drops her skirts, thus completing the contamination of her clothes. The story contains two elements that strike the modern reader as illogical and that suggest the symbolic significance of this tale. Like her contemporaries, Marguerite associated indulgence in wine with defecation. Marguerite was certainly not the only religious writer to use the scatological image. She restricts its meaning, however, to the theme of mortificatio — an initial fall into sin, followed by a shame-induced purification — and finally complete union with God.
The tale illustrates the mortificatio in a very simple allegory. The fall into sin is here quite literally a lowering into the abasing fecal matter. Finally, her ability to see her predicament from the point of view of the others and to adopt their laughter suggests the abandonment of her body and her individuality and a perfect union with what was formerly exterior to her.
This brings me to the second, illogical moment of the story. Madame de Roncex, too, apparently suffers from a metaphorical blindness. The fact that Oisille would have wished to view the humiliated Madame de Roncex herself might at first seem odd. It is not so much sight, but spiritual insight that Oisille would have liked to share with the joyous crowd.
Even the ill-reputed monks seem to be exonerated and allowed into this larger community. Excrement in tale 11 thus reduces the female character to her besmirched body in order to teach her humility and moderation. Once the dirty is cleansed and anger and humiliation are transformed into laughter and forgiveness, communal joy can replace the solitary retreat.
The tale ends, however, without any sign of mirth on the part of the narrator or the characters and without any examples of equity or community. The story contains elements that might also imply spiritual impurity. Like Madame de Roncex before she enters the privy, this character also fails to recognize that he is very much part of this imperfect physical world. Unlike Madame de Roncex, however, the noble protagonist of this tale is never named and thus never nominally or literally exposed.
The narrator instead situates the protagonist in a distinctly social context. As Elias, Muchembled, Berrong, and others have noted, the changing levels of tolerance towards the lower part of the body and all its functions are closely linked to conceptions of class difference in sixteenth-century Europe.
His fastidiousness certainly makes trouble for another class, his servants, who are held to the same impossible hygienic standards, increasing their labor without commensurate gratitude or compensation. After relieving himself, he reaches for some straw or a rag. Less learned in torcheculs than Gargantua, he accidentally sullies one of his fingers.
Again, disgust translates into cries of distress that lead a servant to suspect a far graver emergency. In this case, however, the misunderstanding is immediately clarified. He refuses to let his overall authority suffer an indignation he confines to the contaminated digit, so he demands that his servant cut it off. The latter, once again betrayed by his own body, responds instinctively and trying to calm the pain, puts his finger into his mouth. This added humiliation provokes a murderous rage in the master who only returns to reason once the effects of the wine finally wear off.
In the end, however, he is said to appreciate the servant more for having intervened so wisely. Although his anger dissipates, the nobleman emits no selfless laughter at the end. Et ainsi en preigne a tous ceulx qui le ressemble. And may the same befall all those who resemble him. The master, inferior as he is in common sense and humanity, retains his authority. No symbolic emasculation occurs even though the servant is in a position to assert himself. And although this threat of violence is averted, class tensions are maintained. This general image recurs frequently in the CN.
Besides an obvious allusion to a world turned topsy-turvy, the image of swallowing shit is the ultimate representation of abasement. In a secular context, too, excrement can evoke a violent contempt and a threat of disorder. In these related tales, fecal matter is intentionally used to humiliate an adversary. No laughter occurs on the part of the characters or the narrator despite his own role in the hostile prank. Mistaking it for a rock, she collects it as evidence of their assault. But, since it is late, she decides to go home and to report them to the authorities the following morning.
Ashamed and silenced as the young men intended her to be , she abandons her plans for revenge. Once again a wronged character is in a position to pursue a sort of justice. However, this time it is the victim who is contaminated by the excrement. Rather than inspiring rage, her contact with the melted turd instantly dissolves her anger into shame. Reading the threat implicit in the thawing turd, she realizes that even she has property and a status to lose. This resignation has no parallels with Christian humility, for the lesson is inflicted by a self-serving narrator whose sole concern is maintaining social barriers, not surmounting them.
Gloating in front of a tavern fire with their stolen goods, they begin to notice a stench. Confident that it must come from the tavern itself, they turn to insult the serving maid. In one version, the lawyer is responsible for the initial theft, motivated by his ongoing rivalry with a clever valet. In this account, he also joins the gentleman in belittling the tavern maid and later finds himself publicly ridiculed along with his noble companion. The lawyer and the nobleman do not ever laugh at themselves, but accept the mockery as a temporary defeat in an ongoing rivalry.
This communal laughter has a decidedly social timbre to it, and the nobleman is as implicated as his lower class companions in an economy of exchange: of tricks, laughter, money and fecal matter. No one laughs at him, because it is not the victory of a clever valet or a sharp-tongued tavern maid, but a personal victory of self- understanding. Even the lawyer is uncharacteristically left speechless. The discussion following both versions remains the same, once again evoking the theme of laughter.
The men accuse them of hypocrisy for laughing at words they would never stoop to utter. Parlamente claims that women laugh, as they would at any other harmless blunder, when these words are used unintentionally. Even though they recognize the mortal risks involved in disguising shortcomings, they nonetheless agree to protect the transgressor in the following tale by suppressing her name. As in the case of tale 11, it is Oisille who legitimizes the dirty story. The difference lies in the uncovering of the impure gentleman. Like her devisants, Marguerite hesitates between recognizing a need to protect the nobleman with some degree of social hypocrisy and the desire to turn the soiled coat inside out.
These characters recognize their vulnerability to the implicit threat of ordure — violence and chaos — but this only reinforces the social, gender and age categories that structure their secular world and to which they cling. But the two versions of her tale 52 suggest the difficulty of producing a laughter devoid of gender and class significance. As long as Marguerite imagines the transcendence of human society, excrement remains a sign of worthlessness. Within a secular context though, she, too, recognizes its corruptive potential: excrement not just as a symbol of worthlessness but as an agent that diminishes social worth in relation to others.
Even in fecal matters, then, Marguerite and Vigneulles ultimately concur that ladies and chambermaids are not interchangeable. The lady must indeed go to the latrine by herself. And the question remains as to who will eventually emerge from this intimate space: a lady or a chambermaid? Notes 1 All translations in the essay are my own unless otherwise noted.
But, in this case, urine takes precedence over excrement as a means of humiliation because of the narrative necessity for a substance that could be confused with white wine. The values are frequently reversed, however. In other tales and social contexts, the surface or appearance becomes the negative terms while the soul and the individual conscience assume a positive significance.
See tale 21, for example. Consequently, this part of his work merits serious consideration in terms of the personal and poetic if not occasionally political statement it represents. However, human waste also includes various bodily emanations such as mucous, genital discharge, and sweat. Comme quoy passes-tu la vie? As what do you spend your life? Unlike some of his darker lyric offerings, the poet deals only with the pleasurable aspects of sexuality in this work.
There is no lamenting of a fallen state, nor is there mourning of past escapades. If indeed the Marquis experiences unfortunate consequences because of his behavior, there is every likelihood he will recover. As the poet remarks in the next strophe: Es-tu gaillard? Es-tu dispos? Ce couillon est-il plus si gros?
Sens-tu du mal lorsque tu pisses? Are you in good form? Is your nut still as big? Does it hurt when you piss? The painful urination associated with syphilis becomes only a minor setback, as the scatological reference carries only humorous, rather than lethal, connotations. Figuratively speaking, what occurs over the course of the poem is that the erotic symbol of healthy masculinity, i. As Martine Debaisieux has shown in her work on Jean Auvray c. On one level, the idea that an erotic narrative will emanate from the grave itself can be seen merely as a satirical device meant to introduce blasphemous discourse into an already obscene text.
Visits to the whorehouse become the stuff of epitaphs because God himself wants humanity to view sex not as diseased, i. Conversely, humankind establishes barriers to this natural merriment through the Church, and its endless efforts to impose restrictions on human sexuality. A more sympathetic vision of God changes the role of the scatological and the venereal. Certainly, the illness signified by burning urine reminds humankind of its fallibility.
God and nature may conjoin sexuality and disease, but the combination is not necessarily destructive. The scatological enhances the libertine component of the text by evoking surprise if not shock , sensuality, and a considerable measure of the grotesque. As a result, the body that inspires and writes this text is unmatched in its wretchedness. Upon which the Devil saw her, And fearing a sore cock from the clap, Dared not touch the blessed water. Clearly, if Satan can experience this malady, then it is not something that can be cured quickly and thus allow the victim to resume his playful lifestyle.
The idea of a cavorting marquis who goes from one conquest to the other is demolished. Venereal sickness is no longer to be brushed aside. Rather, its consequences have become grave, if not lethal. For the poet, the wizened prostitute has no essence other than her scato-sexual existence. If the metonymy of substituting the woman for the fart is temporarily cast aside in favor of a more literal interpretation, then what the poet screws is the fart itself.
Of course, the stanza represents a sadistic mocking of the woman by the poet. Because this poem essentially describes a perverse attraction, it inverts the thematic and structural elements of the blason rather than subverts them. Here, disease and hideousness excite rather than repel, thus upending social, literary, and psychological norms. The narrator has reached the nadir of crudity by distastefully inverting poetic convention, and by personally entering into a liaison with a woman whose repugnance reaches supernatural proportions.
References to Satan suggest an obsession with mortality, as well as a desire for suffering and punishment in this world, and potentially in the next. In effect, the coupling the poet depicts inverts the traditional purpose and representation of heterosexual union in that the bonding engenders not human generation but degeneration.
The result of the mating is not an infant, but rather two sickened, and eventually dead bodies. A thousand crabs, lined up on the edges, All flat, with big claws, and half-dead, Hold their general council To gnaw away at the slimy clap-ridden man Who four times stole them From their bushy refuge. As a result, the trollop might be nameless, but her personality is not entirely invisible. But the notion that she is capable of villainy and shrewdness indicates that she sadistically enjoys delivering her services to masochists such as the poet.
Logically, the final chapter of the bodily text is of course death. With this type of closure, the Church is again satirized, but at the same time one of its most hallowed practices is ironically respected in that he poet confesses that he has slept with the whore four times. While the poet does not become penitent in his admission, he does nonetheless make a point affirming this relationship a second time.
His existence, like that of the prostitute, is reduced to scatological functions. Now he will have to deal with the burnt piss, the chancres, and the viscous discharge. While the poet may indeed pathologically wish this lot upon himself, his manner of self-representation is unflattering by any objective standard. The text thus represents a self- portrait as much as it does a depiction of the weather-beaten prostitute.
Not only does he recount personal experience, but also personal destruction in a genre where verbal annihilation of the other is the norm. That our days meet a sorry end; That my planet is misaligned; That fortune is so enraged To persecute me so harshly. The world is now screwing the poet, not the other way around.
La gravelle me tient aux reins; Je ne trouve plus qui je foute, Et la saincte ampoule de Rheims Tariroit plutost que ma goutte. I have the clap! Instead, the poet alludes to the deterioration of the genital area caused by the disease. If anything, they enhance it by increasing his exhilaration. Evacuation, rather than relieving the torment, only exacerbates it.
To come is to expel, nothing more. Sexual dysfunction corresponds to mental dysfunction in verse Here, God is no better that Satan in terms of his response to human suffering. In the present poem, God stifles human sexuality, preventing erotic interaction between his Creatures: Dans le commun lict des humains Un Dieu veut que toujours on dorme. That these beautiful cocks and hands Have neither movement nor form. Clearly, the image of the motionless, sexless lot that is humanity suggests that humankind is doomed, if not dead, from the start.
Divine nature thus runs contrary to human nature, as God, who is in essence asexual, destroys humankind whose very existence is defined by its sexuality. As can be imagined, devotional poets, who often sought Church approval for their verse, were limited in the kind of language they could deploy to describe human physical and mental degeneration. Que mes sens corrompus sont devenus infectes…. That my corrupt senses have become diseased. In this case, the incorporation of the grotesque tradition, or that which seeks to evoke horror or disgust, has a didactic function in that Christ, in one of his most divine moments, commits one of the most human of acts.
However, in both instances, the scatological can be traced to the suffering and decay which are an intractable part of the human condition. The very fact that the body produces waste indicates that humanity is incapable of mastering the physical dimension of its being. From a philosophical standpoint, the inability to master the body becomes indicative of the incapacity to master the self.
Montaigne argues for the submission of the body to the mind — a sentiment later echoed by Descartes. Human capacity is thus decidedly curtailed by physical and metaphysical constraints. If humanity is able to recognize itself as filth, then it can purge itself of sin and hope to attain grace. At first glance, seemingly not. Sexual relief offers no hope, and even poetry itself appears to bring little solace. Neither sex, God, nor poetry provides the opportunity for catharsis. Much of his cabaret poetry reveals a sarcastic tone that calls to mind not so much hope or solace as it does the idea that human wit can survive even in the most exasperating of circumstances.
Phylis, le mal me vient de vous avoir foutue! Mon Dieu! My most intimate friends dare not approach me; Even myself in this state I dare not touch. Phylis, evil has come to me from fucking you! My God! I repent for such foul living, And if your anger at this time does not kill me, I hereby swear to fuck only in the ass! Not only is he incapable of sex with another, he is, according to verse 10, powerless even to masturbate.
The narrator is alone, abandoned by his friends and beyond consolation 8. But for a moment at least, he preserves the caustic attitude at the heart of many of his satirical works. Spirituality, ifit is to be considered at all, should be looked upon with derision or incredulity. As far as the relationship between the Baroque and the scatological is concerned, attention to human refuse allows the poet to concentrate on the reality of the body in order to subvert the illusions of the soul.
Baroque detail and excess stay at a human level, putting man in his place not with respect to God, but with respect to himself. Western thought has often opposed Thanatos and Eros. Unlike other forms of portraiture, the physical permanence of the medal conferred immortality upon its subject, while being far less expensive to produce than a statue, and reproducible in large quantity. This article will study how the medals of Louis XIV, an obvious form of propaganda, provided inspiration for a clever form of counter-propaganda, one work artfully concealed inside another, and thus playing a double trick upon the hapless reader.
While commemorative medals of princes and kings had been prolifically produced since the Renaissance, a distinguishing aspect of the medals of Louis XIV was the fact that engraved images of them were printed in catalogs, between and , thus allowing a much wider audience to have access to them. I have subsequently pursued research on the two catalogs of medals produced by the Academy of Inscriptions and Medals in and , exploring a number of ways in which the truthfulness of those catalogs may be challenged.
For example, the printed catalogs provided a relatively inexpensive means of refining or improving upon a medal that had already been cast. In addition, the catalogs indicate the date of the event, but not the date when the medal was actually issued, which in some cases may have been decades after the fact or not at all. It is also interesting to note that this medal does not appear in either of the two catalogs of the Academy of Inscriptions and Medals, perhaps because it celebrates an action of the Queen, not an action of Louis himself.
The five added pages are 38 to The numbering of these pages follows consecutively from the preceding ones, so it is probable that five real pages were removed in order to make space for the false ones, to prevent the reader from suspecting that the book has been altered. The subsequent pages present engravings of fourteen apocryphal medals, in the same format used by Menestrier, including imaginary legends in Latin, with French translations and a paragraph describing the event. All of the medals refer to events taking place between and , from the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes to the Battle of Beveland, a group of former islands in the Netherlands now joined to the mainland.
The images are closely imitative of the others in the volume, and only a close inspection reveals such shocking details as a dog feasting on a corpse. A medal of the religious persecution of the inhabitants of Vaud, a city in the Piedmont valley that is now in Switzerland, shows a kneeling female captive, not unlike other images representing defeated cities; but in this image, she is being burned at the stake, while a figure in vaguely ecclesiastical dress waves a misshapen wooden cross.
The text accompanying these medals is unambiguously propagandistic against the French. The Persecution for the sake of religion against the Vaudois, in the valleys of the Piedmont, by the Troops of the king of France, is the subject of this Medal, in which one sees a city in flames, which indicates the destruction of the valleys, and a battleship on the sea.
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This will seem to Posterity to be a Marvel that will be hard to believe. A description of the page follows here, with a complete citation of the text printed to the left of each image Figures 7. First Medal detail, figure 7. His head is facing toward the central figure of Louis XIV, who is crouching over the pot. In his right hand, Louis holds the handle of a sword which points towards the right, crossing at knee-level in front of a standing male figure in Turkish costume, with pointed, curved shoes and a turban.
The male figure holds in his left hand a pot, into which Louis vomits. On the ground, to the far right of the image, is an unidentified orb. Latin inscriptions appear in the legend and exergue.
Histoire De France
This Medal is scandalous. One sees on one side the king, who is vomiting into a Pot held by an Algerian, and on the other side the Pope, who is holding a syringe in one hand, and with the other presents a Basin to the rear end of His Majesty. Translation of French text: The huge Bomb which the king had had carried to Algiers, but which scandalously returns to France and blows itself up. On the ground, one sees a cross, a sword, and bags spilling open to reveal coins.
Translation of French text: The king asks the Algerians for Peace. I love the Algerians. I love the Barbarians. But I hate the Christians, and I am their sworn enemy. The posture of the French envoy in the second medal is revealing, as his rear end is higher than his head in a demeaning pose of submission.
What historical events may have prompted this virulent criticism? The bombardment of Algiers was intended to discourage acts of piracy which interfered with French commerce. The connection between the Pope and these events is ambiguous. It is therefore possible that this medal was inspired by outrage over the military action against Avignon, and the Algerian connection is exploited in order to present Louis as having committed a dual capitulation, both to the Catholic Pope and to the heretic Turks. This concept of capitulation may explain the positioning of the three figures in the medal.
The dominant figure, standing on the right, is the Algerian, who holds the basin into which the king vomits, as though rendering a kind of demeaning homage. The figure of the Pope, kneeling on the left, is subordinate to Louis in that he is holding the long-handled chamber pot into which the king defecates. The discreet insertion of scatology into a work otherwise glorifying the king was an inspired act of propaganda, guaranteeing that the reader will be caught unawares, and thus affected even more strongly by the negativity of these images.
If readers of the present day are still shocked and revolted by this image, we are merely fulfilling the intentions of the Protestant artists whose anger was so profound that it still has the power to shake us after more than three hundred years. No similar expression appears to exist in Dutch, however, in either the contemporary language or historical dictionaries, according to native speakers consulted by the author. Whereas the Book of Trades by lost Amman and Hans Sachs was content to enumerate the four types of Narren found above natural fools, jesters, money fools, and gluttonous fools , Sebastian Brant distinguished over a hundred varieties in the first edition of The Ship of Fools from However, folly was not merely a literary phenomenon.
Nor is the cause far to seek.. Want of method, fan- tastic raptures about trifles, indiscriminate emphasis, innattention to minute accuracy, petty but provoking affectations in style, and wearisome repetitions of pointless anecdotes, are drawbacks which need very eminent merits to countervail them. That Dibdin had eminent merits is certain. But his works bring high prices chiefly because they are very decorative, and of small im- pressions. The author's acquaintance with books was large, and his love for them real. As a writer, he had powers which under due restraint might have become considerable.
He had a highly cultivated taste in the arts of design. He had much industry. He had seen a good deal of the world, under varied aspects. But his mind seems always to have lacked the power of graduation. Ralph Thomas , excellent so far as it goes, can certainly not be qualified as an adequate performance. The petty, the conventional, and the merely external qualities of both, so ingrossed his attention, that the vital and intrinsic qualities usually escaped him.
When he had to catalogue a library, magnificent in condition and bindings, abounding in rarities, and affording ample means for artistic illustration, he did his work to the delight of the book-loving reader as well as to his own. When he attempted to guide other men, not in collecting fine books, but in choosing instructive and elevating ones, he showed plainly that he had been so busy about type and colophon, uncropped margins and morocco bindings, copies with proof plates and copies on vellum, as to allow the spirit of the author and the essence of the book to evaporate under his manipu- lations.
In like manner, when you read his Reminiscences of the men with whom he had mixed in life, you are left in considerable doubt whether or not he quite understood the difference between two men, both of whom were f Rox- burghians,' and editors of black-letter rarities—Walter Scott and Joseph Haslewood. This work embraces the fictitious names of the present century only, although a few literary impostors of all times are included. The late Samuel Halkett, keeper of the Advocate's library, Edinburgh, de- voted much time and labour to this subject, and at his death, left a rich store of MS.
The premature death of Mr. Jamieson, at the early age of 32 years, will, it is to be feared, further retard the publication of Halkett's work. Thomas Hill Jamieson was born according to the Scotsman of January 10, in August, , arld died January 9, Ralph Thomas 3 from it are extracted the above facts concerning him. Hart, F. For a list of works on condemned books see Peignot's 28k. The Marquis du Roture bears similar testimony.
Speaking of works analo- gous to his own, the Stoalectafctbltoit, he remarks at vol. Jules Gay. It purposes to embrace the erotic books, not only of the French, but of all European languages, ancient and modern. As far as French and Italian literature is concerned, it is useful and necessary, but for English books it is little better than worthless. The fact is M. Gay has collected his materials and in- formation from the four corners of the globe, from imperfectly informed contributors, from booksellers' catalogues, indeed from any and every available source, and has passed these varied gleanings into his pages without thorough verification or digesting.
The work is however unique, and although not perfectly reliable, is indispensable for the student of foreign literature. That English erotic literature should never have had its biblio- grapher is not difficult to understand. For while in France, in Italy, and even in Germany, some of the most esteemed authors have not hesitated to write licentious books, with us the veriest grubbians only have, as a rule, put their pens at the disposal of Venus and Priapus.
The greatest name of which England can boast is John Cleland, and he is, after all, but a star of very inferior magnitude. These remarks apply equally to artists. Bohn's classical series might have been a most splendid introduction to the pursuit of Latin and Greek Literature, but unfortunately when an obscene passage occurs, it is either omitted without asterisks or simply and purposely mistranslated. This is not absolutely true, for in the JBarttal the obscene passages are sometimes given, but in Italian.
A notable instance of this is Mr. Henry Hayler, whose photographic studies from life enjoy an European reputation. The officious Mr. Collette however has succeeded in putting an end to his career. On the 31 March , a raid was made upon his houses, No. Letters were found in reference to the supply of the pictures to the trade all over Europe and America. These propositions granted, it naturally follows that all books which throw light upon crime must be valuable to the historian.
J9 Mr. It is natural that every man should select such books as he fancies, but it is only fair that he should leave the same right to others. We all know that in books, what is trash to one person is nuggets to another, and that the tastes of mankind in this respect are as varied as in every- thing else. Our notion is that every book, big and little, that is published, like every child that is bora, should be registered, without inquiry into its merits or character. We are no Malthusian [either in population or books. Who shall prononce on the progeny of a mother or an author, and declare that this or that should not have been?
Certainly not the registrar or the cataloguer. A human soul that is once in existence, or a book that is once in print and published, you cannot well put out of existence. You may kill it, or cut it up in a review, but it exists nevertheless, and should be 'provided for. If villainous, watch and impound it. Ask a hundred men who read as they run, to each exclude a hundred of the worthless volumes from a library of ten thousand, and the chances are that no single book would receive five black balls. You have a perfect right to turn up your nose at my poems and pronounce them trash, while I may if I please indulge in the like luxury of calling your sermons.
Not every one is robust enough to relish Bacon, or indulge pleasantly or profitably in the Novum Organum, for his mind may be better adapted to enjoy Peter WUkins or Mother Gooses Melodies. Indeed it is amusing, looking up and down our streets and markets, to see how light is the mental pabulum that best nourishes some minds, and what dry and hard meat others require. The lighter a balloon the higher it will rise, even so sometimes the thinner the matter of a book the higher it goes in the estimation of some of our neighbours, whose tastes and opinions are to be respected.
No man or person ever wrote a book, probably, so weak and wishywashy but that some mental stomach might be found just strong enough to thrive upon it. We therefore, in view of the general fitness of things, vote for the cataloguing of every book printed as it turns up, leaving the selection to the selectors. There is no fear of being papered up if we arrange, sort and systematise our stores. Such writers undoubtedly reflected the times in which they lived, if they were not, as some historians maintain, the actual necessities and complements of their respective epochs.
Quetelet Sur l'homme , Paris, , vol. This I take to be the meaning of Mr. If we err in this matter, we err with the gravest men and bodies of men in the empire, and especially with the Church of England, and with the greatest schools of learning which are connected with her. The whole liberal education of our countrymen is conducted on the principle, that no book which is valuable, either by reason of the excellence of its style, or by reason of the light which it throws on the history, polity, and manners of nations, should be withheld from the student on account of its im- purity.
The Athenian Comedies, in which there are scarcely a hundred lines together without some passage of which Rochester would have. Every year the most distinguished young men in the kingdom are examined by bishops and professors of divinity in such works as the Lysistrata of Aristophanes and the Sixth Satire of Juvenal. There is certainly something a little ludicrous in the idea of a conclave of venerable fathers of the church praising and rewarding a lad on account of his intimate acquaintance with writings compared with which the loosest tale in Prior is modest.
But, for our own part, we have no doubt that the great societies which direct the education of the English gentry have herein judged wisely. It is unquestionable that an extensive aquaintance with ancient literature enlarges and enriches the mind. It is unquestionable that a man whose mind has been thus enlarged and enriched is likely to be far more useful to the state and to the church than one who is unskilled, or little skilled, in classical learning.
On the other hand, we find it difficult to believe that, in a world so full of temptation as this, any gentleman whose life would have been virtuous if he had not read Aristophanes and Juvenal will be made vicious by reading them. A man who, exposed to all the influences of such a state of society as that in which we live, is yet afraid of exposing himself to the influences of a few Greek or Latin verses, acts, we think, much like the felon who begged the sheriffs to let him have an umbrella held over his head from the door of Newgate to the gallows, because it was a drizzling morning, and he was apt to take cold.
It would be indeed absurd to attempt to keep men from acquiring those qualifications which fit them to play their part in life with honour to themselves and advantage to their country, for the sake of preserving a delicacy which cannot be preserved, a delicacy which a walk from Westminster to the Temple is sufficient to destroy. Let me not be misunderstood. I do not mean to say that books either blasphemous, immoral, indecent, or written to inflame the passions should be put into the hands of young people, far from it, but I do assert that it is as necessary and profitable for the student to know such books, 26 as it is for the naturalist to be acquainted with the less known and less lovely members of the animal kingdom, or for the astronomer to watch the obscurer and minor celestial bodies—the wood-louse being in my opinion as worthy of study as the elephant, or the transit of Venus as the daily rising and setting of the sun.
Lalanne, p. That copy, he adds, was to his own knowledge very far indeed from being the only copy which owed both its acquisition and its circulation to the anxious care of the magistrates. I have, how- ever, been able to unveil the names of some modern authors at least, which cannot, I think, fail to be interesting. To trace the booksellers who have set the law at defiance, who have sometimes made large profits, and at others succeeded only in getting into prison, is a pursuit equally interesting, but quite as difficult.
Some information, however, concerning them will be found in the following pages, from the sanctimonious, hypocri- tical, stingy Griffiths, to the industrious, clever, but not always reliable John Camden Hotten, 33 who, in spite of his numerous. In France the trade has also greatly declined, the present laws against it being very stringent. M It may not be out of place to note here the last prosecution for vending obscene books which occurred in London j it was that of Mr.
Molini, grand nephew of the well-known Florence publisher of that name, who, under the auspices of Mr, C. Molini occupied part of the shop of Messrs. Dulau and Co. In Germany a few years back, erotic books were produced in large quantities, not only in the language of the country, but also in French, by Fischaber, and by J. Such books, it is true, still continue to appear, but they are generally badly printed, on the commonest paper, and are altogether worth- less publications.
Of Austrian production two or three books only are known to me, and these are works of minor importance. Cour, vol.
Shirley / Charlotte Bronte
Barraud, who had expended, it is said, , fres, upon the un- dertaking. Barr and was fined, and the plates destroyed. A short account of the matter was given in the September-October No. D'Ablaing van Giessenburg of Amsterdam, has done much good work in the field of free thought, but his able publications, always well done, hardly come within the scope of the present work.
Of Spain little can be expected. In Portugal, on the other hand, many books of this class have been produced, and if not always original compositions, are at any rate curious, as I trust, some of my articles will show. America, as in other branches of industry, has made of late years great progress in the production of books, and not the least in those of an improper character.
Until the Americans produced nothing, but merely imported such books; when an Irishman, W. Haines, began to publish, and soon became a rich man. But America has also its Mr. Collette in a Mr. Comstock, who " has succeeded, in the course of a few years, in con- fiscating and destroying over thirteen tons of this class of pubiications. Not only however are French books there published, but English ones also, and the Belgians even print at present books in English for London booksellers.
Although the laws against this industry are in Belgium much the same as in France, yet they appear seldom to be en- forced, and booksellers with open shops, issue catalogues, and vend their publications to any and every customer. The reason of this impunity may perhaps be partly explained by the peculiar and marked state of the two political parties, the liberals caring not to meddle in such matters, and the conser- vatives, or Roman Catholics, fearing by so doing to raise the cry of intolerance, and, true to their old traditions, they prefer a little immorality rather than loss of power.
The most prominent publishers are Ch. Sodomy, so prevalent among the ancient Greeks, and brought into modern Europe by the Bulgarians, 4i has found, accord- ing to popular belief, a permanent home in Turkey and Italy. The name appears to have lasted into the thirteenth century, but the name of Bulgarians became more permanent, and, in its French form of Bolgres, Bougresj or Bogresy became the popular name for heretics in general.
One of the first acts of his reign was to force upon the sacred college his bastard son and mignon, Bertuccino with whom he con- tinued to live. The result was that New York anuses looked like gimlet-holes in a piece of pork. London mdcccxxxio. The following lines I ex- tract from the latter work vol. Paris press, not the least remarkable of which is " Mademoiselle Giraud Ma Femme. Adolphe Belot. These books, it may be urged, are mere fictions—granted—they express notwithstanding the feelings and tendencies of the times.
The same thing occurred on two separate occa- sions when she attended. They were chiefly ballet girls, or females connected with the theatres. John Todd for parents to be leading round a solitary, lonely child, or possibly two, it being well un- derstood, talked about, and boasted of, that they are to have no more. The means to prevent it are well understood instrumentalities shamelessly sold and bought, and it is a glory that they are to have no more children. Napheys remarks that the native American population is actually dying out, and that year by year the births from couples born in this country are less in proportion than those from couples one or both of whom.
Corpse profanation, a crime so strange and so utterly con- trary to nature that its very existence will possibly be unknown. The same opinion but without abortion is entertained by nearly the whole French nation. Buck the old- fashioned womb will cease to exist, except in history. The Transactions of the National Medical Association for has figured one hundred and twenty-three different kinds of pessaries, embracing every variety, from a simple plug to a patent threshing machine, which can only be worn with the largest hoops.
They look like the drawings of turbine water-wheels, or a leaf from a work on entomology. Pessaries, I suppose, are sometimes useful, but there are more than there is any necessity for. I do think that this filling the vagina with such traps, making a Chinese toy-shop of it, is outrageous. Hippocrates said that he would never recommend a pessary to procure abortion—nay, he swore he never would.
Were he alive now he would never recommend one at all. If there were fewer abortions there would be fewer pessaries, and if there were fewer pessaries there would be fewer abortions. Bestiality, so dear to the Romans, is undoubtedly yet per- petrated in Italy, especially among the rural population. Instances of the commission of this crime in France are also adduced. The Italian soldiers, who in , laid siege to Lyons under the Duke of Nemours, brought with them goats to satisfy their brutal lust. In several brothels of Paris, and even in the provinces, specimens of these coloured beauties may be constantly found.
Nor is this penchant of recent date. At the commencement of the republic we read -4 of a " Bordel de Negresses. Chez madem-. The propensity which the English most cherish is undoubtedly Flagellation. M Two cases only need be mentioned here, viz. The former will be treated fully in the course of this work. Francofurti, cb be lxx. That the topic has not lost its interest with the present generation may be estimated by the rapidity with which the first edition of Hotten's " History of the Rod " was sold; and at the present moment a. Lack- ington. London: See also post p, An Opera.
London mdccxxxiii. By Charles Coffey. Price Two Shillings. These letters were written during the months of April to December, Although their productions have not been printed, it is well known that some of our most eminent poets and novelists of the present day have employed their pens on the subject. It would be easy to form a very lengthy list of these female flagellants, but I shall restrict myself to the mention of a few only.
She brought up her niece in the same line, who, as Mrs. Mitchell, carried on a successful business in various places, among others at No. Mary's Square, Kennington, where she died. Then came Mrs. Emma Lee, real name Richardson, of No. Phillips, of No. Shepherd, of No. But the queen of her profession was un- doubtedly Mrs.
Theresa Berkley, of No. Her instruments of torture were more numerous than those of any other governess. Holly brushes,. Thus, at her shop, whoever went with plenty of money, could be birched, whipped, fustigated, scourged, needle-pricked, half-hung, holly-brushed, furse-brushed, butcher-brushed, sting- ing-nettled, curry-combed, phlebotomized, and tortured till he had a belly full. Berkley to flog gentlemen upon, in the spring of It is capable of being opened to a considerable extent, so as to bring the body to any angle that might be desirable.
There is a print in Mrs. Berkley's memoirs, repre- senting a man upon it quite naked. Berkley is birching his posteriors. She died in September, , having funded ten thousand pounds during the eight years she had been a governess. The original horse is among the models of the Society of Arts at the Adelphi, and was presented by Dr.
Vance, her executor. Berkley had also in her second floor, a hook and pulley attached to the ceiling, by which she could draw a man up by the hands. This operation is also represented in her memoirs. Many persons feel disappointed at her promised me- moirs being so long delayed, but the publication was suspended at the request of Dr.
Vance, of Cork Street, her executor. His recent death, however, will enable the firm, who hold the copy- right of her autobiography, speedily to put it to press. This account of Mrs. Berkley is, it must be acknowledged, curious, and, being substantially true, I have ventured to give it in full. Shortly after her death, her brother, who had been a. In default, the property was be- queathed to Dr. The whole was eventually destroyed. Many of these women, there can be little doubt, took an interest, if not a pleasure, in their vocation.
I knew too the wife of a clergyman, young and pretty, who carried the taste to excess. I have known one only who liked receiving it, and she was quite of the lowest order j when excited by drink, she would allow herself to be birched until her bottom was utterly raw, and the rod saturated with blood, she crying out during the operation f harder! At the establishment I have named existing at present in London, but of which I suppress the name there come twenty young girls who go through all the phases of schoolmistress, and whip fearfully severely.
The programmes sent by the pupils are extraordinary—some like to be whipped as children on the knee,, some on the back of a servant, others to be strapped down. Let us now return to the bibliographical 68 phasis of our study, and give a moment's consideration to the way in which it is proposed to carry out the present work. His standard, like that of Buckle for a historian, is much higher than is likely to be attained.
However, his strictures are well worth attention. I cannot refrain from specially mentioning here the worthy bibliomaniac with whom Dibdin begins his list, Richard de Bury, nor from recommending to my readers the pleasant translation, by J. Inglis, of his 3ftf tlobtblon. In it occur many passages, the most eloquent and curious specimens of book madness with which I am acquainted. You give to all who ask, and enfranchise all who serve you assiduously. You, O Books, are the golden vessels of the temple, the arms of the clerical militia with which the missiles of the most wicked are destroyed, fruitful olives, vines of Engaddi, fig-trees knowing no sterility j burning lamps to be ever held in hand.
And, if it please us to speak figuratively, we shall be able to adapt the best sayings of every writing what- ever to books. It is high time to separate it from mere catalogue making. It is becoming a necessity to both the scholar and the collector they are not always identical. He calls their unmeaning verbosity ' anemone-words 'j for anemonies are flowers, which, however brilliant, only please the eye, leaving no fragrance.
Much of their pleasure depends on the guides. It is very important to obtain the assistance of those only who are familiar with the beauties they show, and able, from feeling and practice, to appreciate lights and shades and colours. The object of the present work is to catalogue, as thoroughly, and at the same time, as tersely as possible, books which, as a rule, have not been mentioned, or mentioned but superficially by former bibliographers, and to notice them in such a way that the student or collector may be able to form a pretty just estimate of their value or purport, without having recourse to the books themselves.
Boyes, who, in the pre- face p. There has been, in the case of the present work, a desire to avoid verbiage, even to the degree of hazarding the charge of abruptness. The reader, too, can quit me at any moment j at least the longest call made upon his patience, on any one subject, will not exceed five or ten minutes at the utmost. Stevens justly points out that students exhaust their energies in mastering the materials of their subjects, before they put pens to paper.
Not every historian has the pluck, persistence and toughness of Gibbon. My object is to collect into a common fold the stray sheep, to find a home for the pariahs of every nation. I do not then hesitate to notice the catchpennies " hawked in the public streets, as well as the sumptuous volumes got up for the select few, and whose price is counted in guineas.
I embrace indeed that. W " The most worthless book of a bygone day exclaims Pr of essor De Morgan is a record worthy of preservation. In this work will be found books in every branch of literature, and I have purposely selected works as various as possible, in order to show through what widely spread ramifica- tions erotic literature extends, and what a vast field has to be traversed. The field indeed, even in this restricted portion of bibliography, is so extended, and the books so numerous, that I have no hope of ever exhausting my subject.
The real labour, the exhausting of each branch, each subject, or the writings of every author, has yet to be done, and,. Five hundred years however have vastly altered the book trade, and were the good bishop of Durham to direct us to day he would modify his instructions. It is scarcely conceivable that the high prices, which spurious editions of unimportant works not unfrequently fetch at present, would be given, did the purchasers really know what they were buying. See post, pp.
Laianne has pointed out many curious errors in classification. Some judicious remarks as to catalogue making, and some amusing blunders in that of the British Museum will be found in a small tract, now scarce, by Mr. A Literary Expostulation, by Stefan Poles. The unfortunate author, a Polish refugee, did not long survive his intemperate attack, but expired early in November, , at tne Middlesex Hospital, without a friend to close his eyes, or even to claim his body.
Those who are interested in our noble institution and what Englishman is not? Payne Collier in the preface, p. I have nevertheless endeavoured to collect the opinions of pre- vious critics and bibliographers, so that the reader may estimate the books rather from their remarks than from my own. C'est ce que n'ignorent pas nos petits Auteurs, dont les Productions ont un si grand besoin de ces Titres favorables.
Further I have sought to cluster together, taking each several book as a stand point, such information connected with its subject as I may have deemed relevant and illustrative. Of the books noticed I could have wished to have used the original or at any rate the best editions, but such were not always procurable, and I have preferred to describe only such books and editions as I have actually had in hands, rather than accept the ipse dixit of any other writer however accurate.
Payne Collier,. For any information which is not from my own knowledge and experience I always give my authority. Were all bibliographers to adopt the same scheme, oft repeated blunders would soon be wiped away, and bibliography would ere long attain a degree of precision, certainty and correctness, which it does not, especially with the books I am about to consider, at present possess.
I would further suggest to gentlemen having fine libraries, and possessing, in addition to the books themselves, the faculty of understanding and appreciating them, the boon they would confer upon the book-loving world were they to de- vote a part of the time they spend in their libraries to the description of their rare and remarkable volumes.
Such an occupation would soon ripen into an absorb- ing enjoyment, and could not fail to prove of inestimable bibliographical value. In no instance have I made an attempt at translation, but have invariably reproduced all citations in the language in which the authors wrote them. The very best rendering into another tongue can but weaken the original. Willmottaptly remarks: "The first duty of a reader is to study the genius of his own country. But whosoever has leisure and opportunity may profit by the speech of other lands, since it en- larges the Pleasure of Literature, and because translations imperfectly reflect the original.
They are landscapes or portraits transferred to the wood. Out- line, and grouping, and features may be preserved, but colour and life escape. By what process of skill can the copyist produce, in their full splendour, the epithets of St. Paul, the silvery lights of Livy, or the picture-words of Aeschylus. The weather-stains of Dante disappear in the modern fabric. The bloom of Petrarch melts under the touch.
The polish rubs off from Massi lion and Racine, and the crowded thoughtfulness of Pascal is scattered. Besides, this work is, as before stated, not intended for the general public, but for students, who, if they will know their authors properly, must be masters of the language in which they wrote. Gross blunders,. But there is no simple interest in knowledge. Whatever funds you have in that Bank go on increasing by interest upon interest,—till the Bank fails. He who has the widest knowledge may be said to possess the amplest capacity of enjoyment.
He is a traveller over the world. And yet M. This system I have adopted with titles as well as with quota- tions, f93 Its utility, I think, cannot be questioned, for by a peculiarity of diction, a special manner of punctuation, the omission or improper use of an accent, an author may be detected, the genuineness of an edition determined, or even in some instances the place and date of the publication fixed.
A word may not be out of place here as to the way in which I have noted the sizes of books. The nomenclature of this subdivision appears to be uncertain and confused even among. Ordinary errata would not be con- clusive: for these might be reprinted for want of perceiving the error. In the folio the sheet of paper makes two leaves or four pages, in the quarto four leaves, in the octavo eight, in the duodecimo twelve, and so on.
From a very early period it has heen universal to distinguish the sheets by different letters called signatures. But in former times the signatures were generally carried on through half the sheet, and sometimes through the whole. But in the sixteenth century, and even later in Italy, it was common enough to print in quire-fashion. It would then have sixteen pages, the separate double leaves containing several pages i, 2, 15, 16; 3, 4, 13, 14; 5, 6, 11, 7, 8, 9, A book with 4 leaves not pages from signature to signature, I call 4to.
If I use, in rare instances, any special technicality, I quote it from a pub- lisher's or bookseller's catalogue for a purpose. In a few instances I facsimile by photo-lithography title pages or even pages of the text, in which beauties or peculiari- ties occur which it would be impossible to reproduce in type. I should indeed be pleased to see photography applied in a thorough and complete manner to bibliography. It would be an absolute guarantee of correctness, and would surely be an adornment as well. Stevens claims to be the originator of this application, and in his " Bibliotheca Geographica" gires a long and minute description of it under the title " Photobibliography.
Nothing need be said about abbreviations. I have employed none that cannot be at once understood, without any special explanation, by every reader, whether English or Foreign. As economy has not been considered in getting up this work, so space was no material object, and I have preferred to employ a few more lines, or even pages, rather than subject my readers to the necessity of consulting a table of contractions. The scarcity of books is so much a question of guess-work and of comparison, based for the most part on individual ex- perience, or personal opinion, 9V that I have preferred to remain silent on that point when I have no certain and precise infor- mation to offer.
For instance, one collector may have been vainly seeking, during several years, to possess a work, which may have been offered more than once to another collector in the same town, known as an amateur of the class of litera- ture to which the work in question belongs, I have known such instances. The one would pronounce the book very scarce, while the other would con- sider it moderately common.
Granting however what he propounds, viz. The greater part of the books which I notice have been printed, either privately or surreptitiously, in small issues, for special classes of readers or collectors, and may, as a rule, be designated as scarce or uncommon. Je mets de ce nombre, Les Livres qui traitent des Arts superstitieux. The reader can then form his own opinion as to their rarity. Should I have been in any way useful in preparing for a future historian matter difficult to meet with, or which, from its nature, he would possibly prefer that another rather than himself should collect, or should I have thrown out any suggestion which may lead to the more liberal and thorough treatment of bibliography, al!
The title may perhaps not seem altogether well chosen. The volume may then be considered rare in Europe and plentiful in India. Of the " Curiositates Eroticae " noticed at p. The work is then commoner in America than in England. The few English words with which I qualify the Latin heading will, I trust, obviate any confusion or ambiguity.
I cannot hope, nor do I for one moment expect that my work will pass uncensured. Many will justly proclaim it in- complete. I04 But what bibliographical work is there which is. Should the student desire to pursue the subject further, he will do well to glance through a i6mo.
- Refine your results.
- Justine ou les Malheurs de la vertu/Première partie?
- Derniers numéros.
- Related titles.
I04 Let me here borrow the observations of Dr. Oui osera le dire? Ce ne sera pas moi. Say, jkttt 'Fotumf, p. My book is not intended for you. Boyes who would not only destroy all wickedness in the world, but almost all goodness, when it does not make its appearance under the form, or with the sanction of their own particular opinions. It is, in my humble judgement, one of the most just, liberal and forcible strictures [ever written—clear, terse, to the point, exhaustive, com- parable for the closeness of its reasoning and the conclusiveness of its argu- ments to nothing less than a proposition of Euclid, It should be read from the first to the last word and attentively considered by e very student.
In treating of obscene books it is self evident that obscenities cannot be avoided. Nevertheless, although I do not hesitate to call things by their right names, no and to. Mais cela fasches les oreilles. Un estron in- commode-t-il le soleil, bien que ses rayons s'y jettent? Vous seriez un bel homme sans cul! Vroiment il est beau j il le faut mestre en paste. Comment a-t-il nom? Bien donc, mada- moiselle, il a nom comme cela avec quoy on fout. Bayle has also touched this point with some humour. I do not commend the authors I notice, nor laud their lewdness, immorality, or irreligion.
John Davenport, in the preface to his Curiotfttatetf tottcae, quoted post, p. The passions are not excited. This could only be accomplished by the perusal of the books in their en- tirety, by the reader giving himself up in fact to the author. My extracts on the contrary will, I trust and believe, have a totally opposite effect, and as a rule will inspire so hearty a disgust for the books they are taken from, that the reader will have learned enough about them from, my pages, and will be more than satisfied to have nothing further to do with them. I recapitulate the foregoing remarks, in so far as they have special reference to the present work, and condense them into a succint plan.
In such instances the first word of the title proper regulates the alphabetical position of the book, and the matter which forms no actual part of it is given in the description of the book. I have preferedto interpolate nothing, except an occasional sic , after a blunder or a peculiarity, to point out that they are not mine, which sic cannot possibly be confounded with the words of the author's title. Any in- formation as to the size, paging, place of publication, date, author or publisher, I give in my notice of the book, and keep entirely distinct from the title.
Ralph Thomas has justly remarked that " nothing whatever must be interpolated between the first word of the title and the last. The title of each book noticed is printed in red, the essential part of it in blcitk Ittttt and the names of the author, artist and publisher in small capitals, the more readily to strike the eye. The various editions, or if these are very numerous, and have been already noted, then references to the best authorities. A concise biographical notice of the author, artist, pub- lisher or any other person connected with the book, or, when these are well known men, the dates of their births and deaths only, with references to the best authorities.
Any very rare or curious book consulted will be found noticed in its proper place in the body of the work. Should he succeed in mastering all the new works of any particular branch, he will, as a rule, have achieved a great labour. It is absolutely necessary then that every historical or scientific work, indeed every work of reference what- ever, be furnished with an index, and the student's first question, when pur- chasing a book of reference, whether modern or a reprint of an old book, should be has it an index?
I am willing to own that it would be more artistic had I made several rather than one index. What is wanted however in an index is the readiest and surest means of getting at the contents. Among my notices will be found some criticisms in the French language, enclosed in brackets, thus [ ]. These have been communicated to me by one of the most ardent of living bibliophiles, and esteemed of modern philologists and bibliographers, to whom I would here offer, together with the expression of my admiration for his talents and learning, my hearty thanks for the assistance he has afforded me.
I desire further to express my obligation to another gen- tleman, who has furnished me with many particulars con-. Paroles de Longin, Chap. Ce qui est de certain, c'est que nous ne saurions trop consulter nos Amis. His rich and extensive collection of erotic books has been most liberally placed at my disposal.