While there are numerous varieties of Fula, it is typically regarded as a single language. Wilson states that "travelers over wide distances never find communication impossible," and Ka concludes that despite its geographic span and dialect variation, Fulfulde is still fundamentally one language. They are listed in the box at the beginning of this article. Double vowel characters indicate that the vowels are elongated. It uses the five vowel system denoting vowel sounds and their lengths.
The letters q , v , x , z are used in some cases for loan words. Fula has also been written in the Arabic script or Ajami since before colonization by many scholars and learned people including Usman dan fodio and the early emirs of the northern Nigeria emirates. This continues to a certain degree and notably in some areas like Guinea and Cameroon. In fact, Fula retains many Arabic loanwords. There were unsuccessful efforts in the 50s and 60s to create a unique script to write Fulfulde. The script is written from right to left and includes 28 letters with 5 vowels and 23 consonants.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Language family. Writing system. Main articles: Maasina Fulfulde , Pular language , and Pulaar language. Main article: Fula alphabets.
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Main article: adlam script. Unicode range. Glottolog 3. Ethnologue 19 ed. Retrieved Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Cyffer, ed. Hamburg: Helmut Buske verlag. Presented on Bisharat. The Randall M. Hasson Blog. Retrieved 4 April Links to related articles. Languages of Burkina Faso. Bambara Mandinka Mossi.
Natioro Paleni Samwe. Languages of Cameroon. French English. See also: General Alphabet of Cameroon Languages. Languages of the Gambia. Gambian Sign Language. Languages of Guinea. Languages of Guinea-Bissau. Languages of Mali. Languages of Niger. Languages of Nigeria. Hausa Igbo Yoruba. Indigenous languages ordered by state. Eggon Igede. Finally, we must step up our combined efforts to help people who need political asylum.
Leaders agreed action in four main areas. Firstly, we will confront the smugglers and traffickers. The people-smugglers in North Africa and elsewhere are cynical, callous and often violent. They take the life savings of the desperate and leave them to drown in the sea. Worse, they deliberately place vessels in dangerous situations. We need to act in accordance with international law, and there are many aspects still to be worked out.
Member States will also step up cooperation against smuggling networks by working through Europol and by deploying immigration officers to third countries. Secondly, we agreed to triple the financial resources available to our border operations in the Mediterranean — Triton and Poseidon — and to massively strengthen their operational capability.
During the European Council, more than 20 leaders pledged significant support, including helicopters and surveillance planes, experts, patrol boats and naval vessels. In fact, all leaders expressed their readiness to help. This means that our operations will carry out their mandates faster and better and save more lives. The best way to protect people from drowning is to ensure that they do not get on the boats in the first place.
Almost none of the migrants are Libyans. Therefore, we will help the countries around Libya — Tunisia, Egypt, Sudan, Mali and Niger among others — to monitor and control the land borders and travel routes. That means building on current CSDP operations in the region to help improve border management. It also means working more intensely within existing regional frameworks and with African partners on issues like development aid, anti-trafficking and refugee protection. Prime Minister Muscat has kindly offered to host a joint summit in Malta between the European Union and the key countries concerned.
The final element was the need to do more on refugee protection. We all know that this is a difficult and sensitive debate.
Still, we made some progress. This includes the full and effective implementation of the Common European Asylum System to ensure the same standards in all Member States, an increase of emergency aid to front-line Member States and the deployment of support teams to help process asylum claims. Leaders also agreed to set up a first voluntary pilot project on resettlement across the EU and to look at mechanisms for emergency relocation within the Union. Leaders had no illusions last week that the current situation can be solved without stability and a working administration in Libya.
We have a neighbour on our border without law and order, or a government with which to work. As long as that is the case, we must continue to respond to the situation and alleviate suffering wherever possible. The Commission, the Council and the High Representative are finalising a roadmap that sets out precise actions, an exact timetable and clear responsibility for what leaders agreed last week. On this basis, leaders will come back to the issue in June to assess progress. Ce n'est pas vrai. Le mandat de la mission est autrement plus large. Je m'explique. Comme M.
C'est essentiel. Je plaiderai, avec le commissaire en charge, M. Il faudra le faire. Ich mag Betroffenheitsrhetorik am Anfang, aber nicht Betroffenheitslyrik und —rhetorik auf Dauer. Das ist unsere gemeinsame Aufgabe! Wir haben die Situation, dass derzeit nur wenige Staaten die Lasten tragen.
Dort haben wir Staaten und Politiker, die korrupt sind und ihren Menschen keine Perspektive geben. Wir sind uns einig: Wenn wir bei der Blauen Karte, wenn wir bei einzelnen Initiativen, die wir in Europa haben, besser werden, wird es von uns allen getragen. Das Sterben im Mittelmeer muss beendet werden. Deswegen: Nationale Politik sollten Sie im nationalen Parlament machen. Jetzt macht ein Regierungschef diese Beteiligung, dann ist es euch auch wieder nicht recht, offensichtlich nur, weil die falschen Fragen gestellt werden.
Il Parlamento, con la risoluzione che si appresta a votare — spero a grandissima maggioranza oggi — si mostra all'altezza dei suoi doveri, rifiutando la logica dell'emergenza. Il passo successivo per noi socialisti e democratici deve essere la revisione di Dublino III.
La rete consolare dei paesi dell'Unione deve poter rilasciare visti umanitari sulla base dell'attuale legislazione. Presidente Juncker, Lei oggi ha fatto un grande discorso, lo voglio dire pubblicamente e ufficialmente. Noi la sosteniamo e la incoraggiamo ad andare in questa direzione. Il Consiglio europeo, Presidente Tusk, nella scorsa settimana ha marcato alcuni punti positivi. Si parla troppo di sicurezza e poco di accoglienza.
In queste ore, e concludo, giungono notizie di uomini armati che terrorizzano il Burundi, vent'anni dopo riaffiora il male antico del genocidio tra tutsi e hutu. Oggi con questo voto, che va oltre le divisioni tra destra e sinistra, il Parlamento europeo unito mostra di rappresentare non solo il popolo europeo, ma anche la coscienza dell'Europa. L'oratore accetta di rispondere a una domanda "cartellino blu" articolo , paragrafo 8, del regolamento. Invece io ho condiviso il discorso dell'onorevole Weber. Ma io faccio una domanda: Lei pensa che occorra e che sia un elemento importantissimo e prioritario cambiare Dublino?
Cosa ne pensa l'onorevole Pittella? Noi socialisti e democratici abbiamo votato il Presidente Juncker e non ne siamo pentiti. So when I see poverty, or when I see tragedies like this, my heart wishes that we were able to offer that same opportunity to everyone, but my head tells me that we cannot. So to solve this crisis there is no easy answer. To those who say that we should turn everyone away, or those who say that we should let everyone in: you are both wrong. So when listening to the Council and the Commission we have to ask ourselves: can we find a way for those fleeing persecution to seek asylum without having to make this perilous journey, and can we do this without creating massive camps on that side of the Mediterranean?
I very much hope that the Commission and the Council can address those particular questions. But those who seek asylum should be told quickly if they meet the criteria and if they are unsuccessful they should be returned quickly. If they are offered refuge, will it be permanent or will countries be able to ask them to return home when the reason for their asylum is no longer relevant?
But in reality we will not solve this problem in the long term until we stabilise the region and we know, we all know, that this will take time, but our Member States must do all they can with the tools available to them — diplomacy, targeted aid and open trade. But we also need to seek to distinguish between economic migration and helping genuine asylum seekers. The asylum system must not be conflated with a migration system, otherwise we undermine public trust in both. Asylum must be about people running for their lives, not for those who understandably want a better economic life.
So seeking new forms of legal migration will not resolve this problem. People talk about the blue-card system, but that is aimed at attracting skilled migrants, not people fleeing for their lives. Some speak of compulsory shared solidarity, but where is the talk of mutual trust that is sadly lacking between our Member States? And let us not forget that tiny islands like Lampedusa see tens of thousands of people set sail for them. So if we want to stop these tragedies we have to start answering difficult questions. Are we prepared to help process applications swiftly and discourage people from making a journey?
Are we prepared to target and take out the people traffickers? Are we prepared for those EU countries with little immigration to take more of those fleeing persecution, to reduce the pressure, to reduce the suffering, and to reduce the tragic scenes that we see on the borders of EU countries. The speaker agreed to take a blue-card question under Rule 8. Syed Kamall ECR , blue-card answer. I have to say, I am a little bit surprised by what you are saying, because my story is obviously a very personal story, but my parents were seeking a better economic life.
Here we are talking about people fleeing persecution, and part of the problem of this debate is that we are deliberately confusing legal migration and helping those in need, and we have to put an end to that deliberate confusion. At the same time we have to be quite clear, and I was quite clear in my speech: we should not shut our borders and let no one in and turn a blind eye, but neither should we go down the road that you propose, which is to let everyone in. We have to process applicants fairly and let in those who genuinely are seeking refuge on our shores. My group fully supports the joint resolution, and I am glad that we are sending a very strong signal to the Commission — and the Council in particular, which I think needs this message.
We welcome the swift convening of the Council, but the outcome of their meeting is totally inadequate; this has been said here before. And we welcome the fact that the budget for rescue operations has been restored to the original levels and not tripled, as has been said. But more funding is necessary, as well as the use of a humanitarian visa. We must fight the ruthless criminals who get rich trading in human lives.
Now, giving asylum to those who have fled war and persecution is a legal as well as a moral duty. But some politicians are shamelessly exploiting this tragedy for their own populist, xenophobic, anti-EU agenda. Some merely call for closing the borders. That is cheap rhetoric; it is not a solution. But he is not interested in the truth; he is only interested in getting elected. The public consultation by Mr Orban has already been mentioned.
Incidentally, these are not media reports; it is on the government website. Europe urgently needs policies for legal immigration. The reality is that our continent is rapidly shrinking as part of the world population. We need immigration in order to maintain our prosperity. Talking about legal migration is controversial and maybe not very popular, but that is what leadership is all about. It is not about finding the lowest common denominator or only taking easy and popular decisions.
And I hope that Parliament will show that leadership today. Are you saying that the statements from ISIS themselves who said they are going to send tens of thousands are all lies? They are EU citizens and, if anything, Europe has been exporting terrorists and jihadists travelling over there. What we are talking about here today is rescuing people who are drowning in the Mediterranean because they are fleeing war and conflict, and exactly the people that you are talking about; it has nothing to do with a flood of jihadists coming to Europe.
Today Father Mussie Zerai is here.
The word 'sun' in all languages of the world
Father Zerai, I thank you for being with us here and for your tireless work to save fellow Eritreans fleeing the dictatorship there. Thank you for being with us. I think it is clear to everyone that words are no longer enough and ultimately, as has been said by earlier speakers, the response to the catastrophes in the Mediterranean is about what kind of societies we are building for the future.
Are we going to turn people against each other — as the PPE just did — or are we going to have politics, economics, social and human rights that actually bring us into the future together? That is the choice we have to make. Instead they focus on keeping people away. Therefore the response of this House is especially important. We cannot accept that Frontex is being boosted when what we need is a Mare Nostrum.
Other colleagues will speak on specific points in the resolutions but it is clear that we, as the Left, will continue to take the lead for a society that we build together and where we do not turn people against each other. Cette attitude est indigne! There was a clamour to go to war. So now we have a failed state of Libya, which is now a conduit being used for criminal trafficking gangs trying to bring people to Europe. We are guilty for this crisis, we are directly guilty for the drownings that are going on, and we are hypocrites in this place when we talk about poverty in Africa, when we pursue a common agricultural policy that puts barriers up to them selling us their agricultural produce, where we have a fisheries policy that rapes and pillages their seas and has caused environmental destruction, and we just assuage our consciences by giving away a bit of foreign aid.
I am not blind to the human suffering that we have caused in many of these countries. I would call on this Parliament, this Commission to end the barriers to trade, to stop the fisheries policy, to ask the United Nations to get involved and to try and help. But the real question we face is: what are we to do? Are we to go down the Australian system in dealing with this crisis and indeed the Australian Premier, Tony Abbott, has offered us his advice and help.
Australia faced this and Australia not only have stopped the boats from coming, they have stopped people from drowning. But no, we are not interested in what the Australians have done; we have decided that we can deal with this on our own. So we decided that people can come and that people will not be sent back. The problem, ladies and gentlemen, is this: the definitions for who qualifies for asylum are so wide, they include not just people coming from war, not just people coming from failed states; Mr Juncker, this morning, seemed to suggest that perhaps he would even include people who were fleeing poverty.
I am sorry, we simply cannot accept countless millions. But there is a real and genuine threat. When ISIS say they want to flood our continent with half a million Islamic extremists, they mean it, and there is nothing in this document that will stop those people from coming. Indeed, I fear we face a direct threat to our civilisation if we allow large numbers of people from that war-torn region into Europe. It is ironic that nine days before a British general election, Mr Cameron and Mr Miliband are not engaged in this debate, and in fact the UK can do nothing.
We are impotent; we have surrendered our ability to get involved. I promise my party will stand up to this impending disaster for all concerned. I would just like to remind you that many of the terrorist attacks that your United Kingdom has suffered were actually acts by your nationals — not imported terrorists, but people who were home-grown. So I am not sure that any of your answers are an answer to that issue.
However, the number of those is mercifully small compared to the number of Islamic extremists committing the most bestial acts on a daily basis right across that region. This policy has no means and no way of filtering out extremists in favour of people fleeing in genuine fear of their lives, and, as such, we are making a massive mistake. Let us follow the example of Australia, let us do everything we can to reverse the hypocrisy of groups like yours that have voted to make Africa poorer.
Let us do those things, but if the message is that anybody that comes will be accepted, we are headed for disaster. Ich hatte den Eindruck, dass Sie mir gerade einen Vogel gezeigt haben. Vielleicht sagen Sie mal, was Sie dazu bewegt, mich hier zu beleidigen? Agora o que eu queria perguntar ao Sr. Setzen Sie sich bitte wieder hin, so geht das hier nicht. Ich habe zu Beginn dieser Aussprache gesagt, dass wir hier Tausende Wortmeldungen haben und ich nach Eingang der blauen Karten jeweils eine nehme. Sie waren nicht der Erste, der sich hier gemeldet hat.
Das ist der Grund. Das berechtigt Sie nicht, mich hier zu beleidigen! Matteo Salvini NI.
- Von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart.
- Rochester Labor and Leisure (Images of America).
- Leasing nach IFRS (German Edition).
Ho sentito le stesse cose che hanno detto un anno e mezzo fa dopo i morti di Lampedusa: mancavano i cartellini, aiutiamoli, soccorriamoli. Vi chiedo: quanti scafisti volete ancora finanziare? Lo chiedo al Presidente Juncker. Quanti morti volete ancora contare sul fondo del mare? Chi le paga lo stipendio? Lei pensa di sradicare un miliardo di cittadini africani aprendo le porte di un continente che conta decine di milioni di disoccupati? Sono imbarazzato dal livello di questo dibattito che cerca di trovare dei colpevoli politici quando i colpevoli politici sono qua dentro.
L'avete confermato due anni fa. Spero di non dover aspettare altri morti prima di sentire altrettanta retorica razzista di sinistra. Devo dire che le parole che ho sentito dall'onorevole Salvini non sono ipocrite ma sono ugualmente disgustose. Matteo Salvini NI , Risposta a una domanda "cartellino blu". Lei lo pensa veramente, ma ci crede a quello che dice o le hanno passato un bigliettino? Io penso che Mare Nostrum e Triton siano operazioni razziste che finanziano gli scafisti e finanziano il terrorismo islamico.
Penso che l'unica via di uscita sia finanziare questi paesi, aiutare questi paesi a non dover scappare. Monika Hohlmeier PPE. Und nur, weil wir sie nicht sehen, existieren die Toten dort trotzdem. Aus dem Grund muss es zweitens auch endlich eine Afrikapolitik geben, die umgesetzt wird. Wir haben seit angeblich eine Afrikapolitik. In Wirklichkeit haben wir 28 bzw. Das ist das Thema der sogenannten legalen Migration. Wir haben Instrumente wie die Neuansiedlung, die muss man ausbauen. Aber es ist immer nur ein Beitrag gegen die Katastrophe.
V evropski blagajni imamo sredstva, le porazdeliti bi jih morali.
Vem, da to seveda ni dovolj. Vrata, poti, Evrope morajo ostati odprta. In, predsednik Juncker, to je prava smer. Mario Borghezio NI , Domanda "cartellino blu". Suggerisco all'onorevole di chiedere al Commissario Juncker se non intenda dar vita finalmente ad un'azione di recupero dei miliardi di euro che i favori fatti da lui alle multinazionali hanno consentito di evasione fiscale. Sono d'accordo se utilizziamo questi miliardi di euro regalati alle multinazionali a favore dei poveri del mondo.
Zdaj imamo konkretne ideje. Bojim pa se, da ne bomo dovolj ambiciozni, medtem ko bodo ljudje umirali v Sredozemlju. Helga Stevens ECR. Het antwoord is dat die welwillendheid heel ver te zoeken is, nu bepaalde lidstaten amper de irreguliere instroom van vluchtelingen kunnen overzien. Dit omdat bepaalde Zuid-Europese lidstaten het niet al te nauw nemen met de toepassing van het gemeenschappelijk Europees asielsysteem. Er doet zich momenteel een feitelijk systeem van gedwongen herlocatie binnen de EU voor. Vluchtelingen die langs Zuid-Europa binnenkomen, trekken immers massaal naar het noorden.
Ik ben enorm verheugd dat de Europese Raad dit vorige donderdag als eerste punt aanhaalde bij het thema 'versterken van de interne solidariteit en de verantwoordelijkheid'. Voorts ben ik ook zeer blij te vernemen dat de EU de mensensmokkelaars harder zal aanpakken. Dit is absoluut nodig, want ze hebben de dood van honderden mensen op hun geweten. Daarnaast moeten zeer zeker de armoede en het geweld in de herkomstlanden worden aangepakt.
Maar meer ontwikkelingshulp is geen oplossing, zolang corruptie en mensenrechtenschendingen blijven voortduren. In Afrika verdwijnt bijna evenveel geld door corruptie als er binnenkomt via ontwikkelingshulp. Hoe zal dat aangepakt worden? Tacka vet jag Australien. Je vous remercie, Monsieur Juncker, pour vos mots, mais la porte n'est pas ouverte. Comme les trafiquants, vous violez les lois, le droit de la mer et du non-refoulement. Ho parlato di tutti i governi dell'Unione e pensavo soprattutto al governo socialdemocratico, come lo chiama Lei in Italia.
Mr Tusk has explained what the priorities of the Heads of State are: fighting smugglers with the military and, secondly, stopping refugees even from reaching European shores. You cannot be serious. Where is the humanitarian rescue mission that we need? Italy started it, but the other Member States refused and even said that it helps smugglers. Where are the safe and legal access points for refugees? These are people in dire need of international protection.
Where are the real answers from the Heads of State? I think what was decided at the Council was a disgrace. It was unfortunately a waste of time. Even though it was good that you sat together, nothing came out of it. He is your Commission President and you should listen to him more often. Lei e gli altri capi di Stato vi siete riuniti ancora una volta per decidere di non risolvere.
Voi, signori, non l'avete mai attivato. L'Europa se ne lava le mani. L'oratrice accetta di rispondere a una domanda "cartellino blu" articolo , paragrafo 8, del regolamento.
Ci sono dei meccanismi che devono essere comunque tutelati. Nosotros no podemos repetir esos tres errores. Y nosotros no podemos pagar a los jefes de los extranjeros para que les impidan venir a nuestras costas. Pagan por subir a la patera porque ellos quieren venir. Tenemos que intentar que las mafias se acaben.
Dieses Signal hat der Rat nicht gegeben. Das kann so nicht weitergehen. Deswegen werde ich keine Frage beantworten, die sich nur auf einen einzigen Staat bezieht. Timothy Kirkhope ECR. Every effort should be made to save lives, create stability in conflict regions and assist Member States overwhelmed by the challenges they face.
But many in this Parliament believe that the solution lies in more forms of legal migration and binding quotas. My group did not sign the joint resolution, because such actions merely address the symptoms rather than the causes. Member States need to commit more resources and offer more humanitarian resettlement and aid. We need efficient asylum processing and an expedient return system. Lives can be saved by not allowing trafficking vessels to depart in the first place and by cutting off the fortunes that are being made by human traffickers.
This needs urgent cooperation with third countries to be achieved. True and meaningful solidarity is gained through trust, a moral imperative and a sense of responsibility which can never be created through compulsion. I would say to Mr Farage who, for the moment, seems to have emigrated or sought asylum elsewhere in this country : of course it is wrong to confuse immigration and asylum.
But to deliberately confuse immigration and terrorism is disgraceful and unacceptable. Vicky Ford ECR , blue-card question. How important is international development aid? What more can we do to encourage Member States to live up to those vital millennium development goals? And Mr Kirkhope, happy birthday! Timothy Kirkhope ECR , blue-card answer. All over the world there are, of course, different approaches. The Australia system was also referred to and it is an Australian system that suits Australia for migration.
Laugher helps, but it does not cure our problems, so we continue with the very serious debate and I give the floor now for one minute to Mr Michel. J'aimerais apporter un petit rectificatif.
L'Europe n'est pas la cause de ce drame. Je plains M. Ensuite, je ne crois pas que l'Europe forteresse soit la solution. Gianluca Buonanno NI , Domanda "cartellino blu". La rivolgo al collega che mi ha preceduto e la rivolgo a tutti voi. Chi di voi vuole portarsi a casa e adottare tre clandestini ciascuno? Segnatevi alla Presidenza e noi ve li manderemo.
Je vous le dis. I will announce at this point and give a warning that we will take no more blue cards. That is the ruling for now because the debate is quite tight on time. Sie sind die Schuldigen. Nicht mehr und nicht weniger. Safe routes are crucial for those fleeing persecution or who are at risk of serious harm. We should also remember that millions actually do stay in the region — just ask the governments of Lebanon and Jordan, for example. Those countries will need our long—term support. I think some Members in this House would do well to remember that in certain Member States it would actually be a criminal offence to offer shelter to somebody in an irregular situation.
That is another situation we should be changing in terms of European law. The European Union can do more. We can use the Common European Asylum System that we have much better. For example, the Dublin Regulation does not mean that you have to return people to the country of entry. Member States can offer solidarity and deal with those claims in their own countries without return.