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Karin Bauer and Jennifer Ruth Hosek. Volume: 51, Issue: 2, pp. Related Articles. Introduction: Scholarly Communication and German Studies. Notes on Opening Access to German Studies. Back to Top. Remember me. However the Explanatory Report sheds light on this provision saying that: ''The purpose of the committee is not to condemn states, but, in a spirit of cooperation and through advice, to seek improvements, if necessary, in the protection of persons deprived of their liberty'' Under the co-operation principle CPT delegations are granted unlimited access to the territory of the state 56 but also access to the places where people are deprived of their liberty During the inspection the delegation's main interest lies in the assessment of intentional ill-treatment by the staff as well as inter- detainee violence.
Moreover the material conditions of detention, e. The expert body also pays particular attention to the crucial issues of health care services, contact with the outside world, use of means of restraint, discipline and isolation, staffing issues and complaints as well as inspection procedures.
This reporting system is meant to give detailed information on the parties internal situation of detainees and outline certain points of concern combined with recommendations for improvement. If ill- treatment is found, the CPT considers appropriate actions to remedy the national situation, which might require administrative reforms or amendments of domestic law but primarily the strengthening of awareness and with this the changes in practice.
In order to provide a constructive dialogue, the member state needs to come up with a response within six months and comments on the Committee's recommendations. Through this 'ongoing dialogue' the CPT attempts to encourage the implementation of its recommendations. As far as the second principle of ''confidentiality'' is concerned, the initial idea was that this obligation of the expert body would be important to the member states in order to gain their co-operation in return and therefore secure the effectiveness of the CPT's manner of working.
Until the state does not authorize publication, the expert body is bound to this obligation and has to keep all findings confidential. However, rather from the beginning the parties were willing to publish many parts of the dialogue between themselves and the CPT and made it available to the public. However this right is rarely used by the Committee. Turkey acts as a good example. In this case the provided information provoked enormous political pressure exercised by the European Union and caused a huge amount of national as well as international attention, and in the end lead to reconsideration.
It can be concluded that in case of a lack of political will or international attention this instrument might not have a high impact on the state. As far as the CPT's manner of working is concerned, its compulsory visit-based system can certainly be seen as unique among Human Rights mechanisms. Its task is a purely preventive one. To summarize it can be said that the ECtHR attempts to find solutions to the conflict on a legal level, whereas the CPT rather tries to avoid them on a practical level.
Therefore in the course of the working process the Committee developed certain standards relating to the treatment of persons deprived of their liberty. These standards have been published in the substantive sections of the General Annual Reports. Every year the CPT publishes a General Report which gives insight into its activity and reveals substantive issues which the Committee pursues and employs during its visits. The CPT Standards are basically a collection of all these substantive issues with the aim to provide a clear advance indication to national authorities of its views regarding the manner in which persons deprived of their liberty should be treated.
Therefore the CPT provided more detailed criteria to monitor prison conditions more objectively. However an important approach to this slightly unsatisfying result is to consider a legal obligation of the ECPT member states to co-operate according to Art. As already mentioned before, the CPT possesses the right to make a public statement in case of the non- implementation of the given recommendations and by doing that is able to react to the state's behavior of non-co-operation.
This raises the question whether there exists an obligation to compliance for the member states that can be derived directly from the Convention. Considering the requirements of soft law, we come to the conclusion that CPT standards do not only enjoy acceptance by the member states as a legal obligation opinio iuris but are also complied with in practice consentudo , which already indicates the legal relevance of the Standards.
While the Court utilizes a hierarchical structure of these terms, it can be observed that within the Committee these terms are used to refer to different types of ill- treatment. The term ''torture'' is almost exclusively used for cases of corporal ill-treatment by the police. Moreover the expert body has a high threshold of the usage ''torture'', most probably because of reasons of evidence. CPT standards exist for various categories of detainees 80 and pay special attention to issues such as accommodation and overcrowding, hygiene, cell facilities, food, outdoor activities, medical care, staffing, privacy and confidentiality and the prisoner's contact with the outside world.
Further the CPT states that this right of appeal should be available against all sanctions that can be imposed and not just the most serious ones, such as segregation in isolation. Especially interesting for this thesis is the CPT' s categorization of prisoners subject to high security measures such as certain forms of isolation. Prisoners facing those high security measures obviously gave reason to this kind of special treatment. The Committee argues that under certain conditions a solitary confinement can be seen as 'inhuman and degrading treatment' and because of its harmfulness this kind of segregation should be kept as short as possible.
Moreover the decision to continuation of segregation should regularly be reviewed 86 , if necessary on the basis of a medical expertise. This very principle was extended by reasoning that restrictions should be balanced with compensating privileges. To the CPT prisoners who are prohibited the contact with other prisoners must therefore be allowed compensating contact with the staff instead. Furthermore the Committee believes that these kinds of regimes require special efforts, for instance especially trained staff, in order to establish a good atmosphere within the prison. The CPT also emphasizes the importance of maintaining ''reasonable good contact with the outside world'' 90 , which means keeping up relationships with the prisoner's family and close friends.
Limitations should only be imposed on this important standard if they become necessary because of security reasons. It was established to create a supervising authority in case of a breach of one of the rights guaranteed in the ECHR, providing that any individual, non-governmental organization or groups of individuals claiming to be a victim of a violation of a Convention provision may bring up a complaint to the ECtHR.
The Plenary Court's responsibility lies in administrative activity, whereas the cases are treated in either committees 98 , chambers 99 or the Grand Chamber Remarkably the former only plays a subordinate role, while the latter enjoys great importance. The Individual Application allows a procedural equality of the complaining individual and the state that is prosecuted.
The ECtHR delivers decisions and judgments. While decisions are made in order to decide on the formal criteria of a complaint, namely the legitimacy, judgments focus on the content itself, in this case the violation of a provision of the Convention. Judgments are concluded through a majority of votes from the judges. However there is the possibility to deliver a 'separate opinion' , either 'dissenting' or 'concurring' , if a judge does not support the unanimous opinion of the others.
A remarkable characteristic of a ECtHR judgment is the standardized structure, which consist of three parts. Firstly in the ''Procedure'' a detailed account is given from what has happened in the former court proceedings followed by a part called ''The Facts'', describing the facts of the case and the state's legal situation. Finally ''The Law'' concludes with the decision on the violations of the Convention. According to Art. However the state concerned has to implement the binding judgment and immediately enforce the termination of the violation that was discovered by the Court.
A crucial factor which should be emphasized in connection with the case law of the Court is the effect of precedence. With its judgments the ECtHR establishes principles and new interpretations in the human rights sector that will be decisive and groundbreaking when facing similar cases in the future. A case that should definitely be mentioned in this context is the case of Ensslin, Baader and Raspe vs. The Federal Republic of Germany in the s during the time of the Red Army Fraction, in which the ECtHR considered the simultaneous use of sensory isolation and complete social isolation of the applicant as unjustifiable.
The Court argued that these two methods of treatment could destroy a person's personality. Furthermore a quite significant case in connection to isolation regimes was the case Ramirez Sanchez vs. France from the year , which was in series referred to the Grand Chamber that delivered judgment in The Venezuelan terrorist Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, also known as ''Carlos, the Jackal'', was held in solitary confinement for eights years and two months facing detention conditions that were doubtfully conform to Art.
His cell for example measured only 6. Moreover Ramirez Sanchez had no contact with other prisoners or prison warders and was only granted two-hours of daily walk. His only recreation was provided by newspapers and a rented television set and the only visits he received were those from his lawyers and once in a month a priest. The reasons for this isolation were his dangerousness, the need to maintain order and security in the prison and the risk of absconding. Ramirez Sanchez's isolation, it found there had been no violation of Art.
The Court held the view that considering the applicant's character and danger, the conditions in which Mr. Ramirez Sanchez was kept during the period under consideration had not reached the minimum level of severity necessary to constitute inhuman or degrading treatment within the meaning of Art. The Kurdish issue can probably be described as one of the most long-lasting and bloodiest resistances against the Turkish Government in the Middle East. The conflict had and still has various levels including geographic, political and historical but also cultural and religious aspects.
The origin of the Kurdish-Turkish conflict reaches back hundreds of years and in order to truly understand the roots of it, it is necessary to dig up ages of history. As a detailed historical review of the Kurdish history would go beyond the scope of this thesis, this chapter will only provide some key data that are important in order to be able to grasp the problems this ethnic minority group has been facing for centuries.
Due to the fact that neither in the past nor in the present there has ever been a Kurdish national state, it is difficult to define who exactly belongs to the Kurds. However we can act on the assumption that the Kurds are a unity with a common sense and awareness of society, language and culture. The Kurdish society is spread over the countries of Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria, and their settlements are often found high up in pathless mountainous areas exposed to harsh climate and difficult conditions.
Already in , long before the Ottoman empire was founded, the Kurds already followed the Islam. At that time the Mongolian invasion did not influence the nomadic life of the Kurds but the end of the Abbasid dynasty left behind a power vacuum out of which several centers developed. Ottoman dynasty, which both tried to get in control of the Kurdish population. As a reward for the Kurdish support in a battle in , the Ottomans allowed the foundation of sixteen Kurdish principalities, the Hukumate Kurd , which were self- governed by the Kurds.
Hahland ; concerning commissioned works, mainly photographs of the firm's facilities in Mainz, including enlargements for an exhibition space in Berlin; and products. With a mention of a photograph by R. Hahland ; concerning photographs for an advertising brochure. Hahland mentions a similar project R. Erich Schott and W. Hahland concerning orders of reprints and enlargements. The portion concerns the purchase of negatives R. Included is a letter by R. Schott's letter from Feb. With a list of the selected photographs. Fritz , 57 items, including 16 by R. The letters concern reprints of R.
Includes a small drawing by the artist. Correspondence with the architect, discussing the artistic relationship between an architect and a photographer, and the aesthetics of the photography of architecture. Schwarz comments on R. The letter by Schwarz from Dec. The typescripts include carbon copies.
Schwarz regarding reprints of photographs by R. Barth in Baukunst und Werkform. Schwarz lists several architectural firms ordering reprints of photographs by R. Included is 1 letter from R. Schwippert and R. Several letters to R. Seiler, owner of a spinning mill; regarding photographs by R. With a mention of the firm Deutsche Spinnereimaschinenbau.
Siepman invites R. Two letters by Smith are undated, including one of which only page 2 is present in the archive.
Smith asks R. Geburtstag , ]. In her letters from Chicago, Smith describes her impressions of the United States and offers observations on the cultural differences between the United States and Europe. Spitmann 13 9 Panofsky-Soergel, Gerda , 1 postcard to R. Verkehrs- und Kulturpflegeamt Soest , 3 letters to R. With a mention of the architect Hans Schwippert. Correspondence concerning reprints of photographs of industrial buildings. Steffen mentions his professional contacts with Siegfried Remann and Dr.
Bonifatius in Dortmund, designed by Steffann. Both discuss aesthetic details of the photographs. Two letters by R. Bonifatius parrish in Dortmund. Steichen's letters are on MOMA letterhead. Steinert's letters to R. With a mention of Hook, Kroll and the firm H.
Several letters include text by Stockmann's wife, Josefa. The letter from Nov.
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Included is an annotated travel expense report, and a two-page carbon copy of R. With a mention of the graphic artist [Hermann] Virl. Karl Thomae GmbH , 16 items, including 5 by R. Included is a letter to R. Boehringer Sohn regarding the commission. The letter to R. Tigges Buch- und Kunsthandlung , 3 letters, including 1 by R. Dickerhoff in Bochum.
Trump mentions the possibility of a joint project with Ingolstadt [Deutscher Spinnereimaschinenbau Ingolstadt? Virl [Hermann Virl's wife? With a mention of the furniture manufacturer Josef Dickerhoff. Camera 14 6 Uhl, Bruno , 3 items, including 1 by R. Uhl invites R. Two letters are addressed to Sabine Renger-Patzsch. Camera Firm , undated [? Thomas, asking R. Discussed is a commission for R. Some letters include sketches by R.
With a mention of an article about the project in Das Fenster July issue, Discussed are several commissioned works, mainly for R. In a letter from , Virl mentions a newly published catalog of Schubert und Salzer in Ingolstadt, and two calenders issued by a bank. Some letters are annotated. Also included is an obituary for Herman Virl and a carbon copy of a text by R. The letters concern photographs R. Vogelsang asks for reprints of photographs of her taken before the war, which she would like to include in an exhibition.
Vogelsang describes details of one of the images and mentions her collaboration with Mary Wigman. Correspondence with the architect. The letter from concerns reprints of photographs of industrial structures designed by Fritz Schupp for an article in Glasforum. Bruckmann in Munich, regarding the printing of Lob des Rheingaus . The artist from Rumbeck [Arnsberg-Rumbeck] asks R. He also mentions recent travel to Ingolstadt, Munich, Augsburg, Breisbach, Reydt and Goch to photograph machines and comments: " Die Mittel sind dem Gegenstand adaequat".
In the context of a commission, Waldthausen recommends to R. The invoice is from the Rheinelbe Bergbau Aktiengesellschaft to R. In the context of R. Both discuss the plan of a lecture by R. Weimann writes about personnel changes at the firm Despag [Deutsche Spinnereimaschinen AG in Ingolstadt] and mentions editing three catalogs of spare parts [Ersatzteilkataloge] produced by Despag which include photographs by R. In the context of the culture prize awarded to R.
Both mention mutual friends Herman Virl, [Henner? Funke mentions R. With a mention of Josef Dickerhoff. Winde mentions a commission to photograph his wooden sculptures in Essen. Both mention Paul Pieper and Carl Heise. Wolf's letters provide insight into his preservation of historic sites in Westphalia. Wolf asks R. Wolf mentions R. Discussed also is the plan of a lecture by R. Woltze compares photographs by R. Zink, in which R. Also included are 2 letters to the Chamber of Commerce in Arnsberg. With a mention of an [R. With a newspaper clipping attached. Thoma, in which R.
Kurt [? Juni ", 1 caricature drawing annotated by R. Series II. Family and other personal correspondence, ca. Agnes Renger-Patzsch and Ernst Renger-Patzsch, items The first subseries comprises the business correspondence of Renger-Patzsch's widow Agnes Renger-Patzsch and his son Ernst Renger-Patzsch with various organizations, industrial firms, editors, and friends. The letters provide information about the range of professional activities relating to Albert Renger-Patzsch which took place after his death, mainly the reprinting of his photographs, several exhibitions of his work, lectures, and press articles.
Correspondence filed under Carl Georg Heise ca. Abrams - Harder, - 15 7 Harry N. Abrams, Inc. Callisen addressed to Albert R. In German. Annotated by Agnes R. Also 1 personal letter to Ernst R. Included are 2 letters from Dr. Schmoll gen. Eisenwerth published by Foto Prisma in March , which was illustrated with photographs by R.
German Writers and Politics 1918–39
Agnes R. With a mention of Otto Steinert. Ernst R. Henze mentions Rudolf Grossmann. Correspondence with the photographer Hubertus Hierl concerning Hierl's portrait photographs of Pablo Picasso. Hierl comments on R. Correspondence with the art editor Roberta Guerette, regarding the copyright for R. Included is an illustration of the Zwinger in Dresden. The American-based photographer Jacobi mentions that an exhibition of R. Edwards, will be held in at the Art Institute in Chicago. Jacobi also asks for a copy of a lecture R. In his letter to Agnes R.
In his letter to Ernst R. Kerff provides some details about R. Correspondence with the architect and his firm Hermann Enders regarding reprints of a photograph of a winter landscape by R. With a caricature drawing. Signature illegible. Adolf , 2 items: envelope and letter to Agnes R. Eisenwerth thanks her for a copy of Gestein , mentions his lecture about R. Fritz , 1 personal letter to Agnes R.
Tigges Buch- und Kunsthandlung , 2 items, including 1 by Agnes R. Correspondence with the editor Goldstein; regarding photographs by R. The photograph was previously published in the magazine Camera , no. The author writes about the light in the exhibition space in the castle in Arnsberg where R. With a mention of Korkmann and Krenz. Personal correspondence of Albert Renger-Patzsch, ca. Johanna Fredericke to Albert 28 letters and his wife Agnes 20 letters. Sackett writes about her relationship to R. One of the letters by R.
Series III. Correspondence by topic, ca. The first group consists of ca. The second group comprises ca. Boehringer Sohn, Siegfried Bene, concerning the estate of Renger-Patzsch, including copyright issues. On letterhead of Ford-Werke AG. The letters provide insight into the conflict between Agnes R. Included are 5 copies of a letter by Gernsheim and 2 copies of a letter by Agnes R.
Included is a copy of a letter from Albert R. He corresponds with several city and regional officials and institutions, mainly Gustav Wolf and F. Runge, the association Ruhrtalsperrenverein, and several mainly local newspapers. Also included are typescripts and offprints containing articles by R. Arranged chronologically by date.
Writings by Albert Renger-Patzsch, , undated circa 30 manuscripts Typescripts of mostly unpublished lectures and articles by Albert Renger-Patzsch. Most have proofreading corrections; some are annotated; several are present in more then one version. The writings are listed in alphabetical order. If the title is not stated by the author, the text is quoted with its first words. Also included are 6 leaves marked by R. All versions signed.
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An autobiographical text detailing R. An article protesting against the tree removal on local streets. An article protesting the artificial beautification of landscape in photography. An article about the photography of hands. One version is titled by hand "Ersatzteilkatalog" and includes numerous editing corrections. An article about photography as an independent visual art form. One is extensively annotated by R. A critical text accusing contemporary photography of sensationalism, indiscretion and inhumanity.
Leaf 2 has a drawing in red crayon on verso. A biting critical review of a photography exhibition held in Stuttgart: " An article on landscape photography. An article about photography of plants; with detailed technical suggestions. An attempt to define the word "photogenic". An article on photography of architecture. A speech given by R. Kann die Photographie den Typus wiedergeben? He argues that "type' is an abstract idea. All versions are substantially annotated. One is dated Also included are 2 leaves with a fragment of the lecture.
Leaf 17 has a technical drawing in pen in verso. A lecture on aesthetics of photography, including landscape photography. A critical review of an exhibition organized by Karl Pawek [ Weltausstellung der Photographie , held in in Hamburg]. Lichtbildvortrag von Albert Renger-Patzsch gehalten am Among others, R. Also included are 3 annotated leaves of an earlier version. The lecture was held at the Staatliche Landesbildstelle Hamburg. A text about the future goals of photography as an art form.
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An expert opinion of R. A text about photography as a profession. Includes a quote from Kant. Series V. Ephemera, circa items This series contains ephemeral publications predominantly related to Albert Renger-Patzsch. It is organized in three subseries: Press clippings, Offprints and other printed ephemera, and Lists of photographs and books. Press clippings, ca. The notebooks were compiled by Renger-Patzsch before the war, possibly during the early s. Each notebook contains a large number of pasted-in press clippings of reviews and illustrations dating from ca.
A large part of Renger-Patzsch's archive at the Museum Folkwang in Essen was destroyed during an air raid in , so many of the press illustrations in the note books are the only remaining reproductions of Renger-Patzsch's pre-war photographs. The reviews provide information about the reception of his pre-war work, book projects, exhibitions, and other professional activities.
The loose press clippings date from to and are arranged by topic: the Photokina , the Culture Prize awarded to Renger-Patzsch, his obituaries, and commemorative exhibitions. Miscellaneous press clippings, some unrelated to Renger-Patzsch, are filed in Box 19, F. German translation; two typescripts; ink captions.
The offprint includes Iris Baum's article "Photokina - neue Impulse? Eisenwerth, filed in Box 20, F. Also included is a press clipping in English about an engineering project called "Wind Tunnel" [related to Ernst Renger-Patzsch? Offprints and other printed ephemera, circa 50 items The subseries includes 9 offprints with texts by Renger-Patzsch, containing illustrations of his photographs, or texts by other authors.
Other printed ephemera in this subseries are arranged chronologically. Two groups are arranged by topic: the Photokina , and the Culture Prize awarded to Renger-Patzsch. Includes R. An article by R. Source and date unknown. Includes 2 photographs by R. The collage possibly by Samuel Adler. With a label of [Adolf Schustermann clipping service. Photocopy made on acid free paper. P's lecture Wo steht die Fotografie heute? Lists of photographs and books, ? Series VI. Personal papers, circa 86 items This series contains documents related to the personal life of Albert Renger-Patzsch, his wife and children, parents, grandparents and great-grandparents; portrait photographs of Albert Renger-Patzsch, and poetry by two unidentified authors.
Also a telegraph from regarding "Herr von Braunschweig" Agnes R. Three have Sabine Renger's firm stamp on verso. Many are undated, all are unsigned. Series VII. Manuscripts related to Albert Renger-Patzsch, , undated ca. The container list indicates annotations or proofreading corrections. Series VIII. Manuscripts about Albert Renger-Patzsch, , undated circa 7 typescripts Typescripts of writings about Renger-Patzsch. With a list of 50 illustrations of works by R. Some proofreading corrections.
The longer version is annotated. Draft with proofreading corrections. Texts for books by Albert Renger-Patzsch, 5 items Typescripts of texts, by others, that appeared in Renger-Patzsch photography books. Schloss Cappenberg , ? Botzenhart for Schloss Cappenberg. Unsigned draft with proofreading corrections. Die Halligen , ? Gestein , 1 typescript draft 10 leaves of Max Richter's text for Gestein. Unidentified text, ? Series IX. Texts unrelated to Albert Renger-Patzsch, , undated 17 items This series contains typescripts of texts unrelated to Albert Renger-Patzsch which are part of his archive, inluding 9 unpublished texts by the ecologist Hugo Hertwig.
Several of the texts by Hugo Hertwig include proofreading corrections. Hugo Hertwig, , undated 9 typescripts Writings by Hugo Hertwig. Berlin , undated 1 typescript 16 leaves ; with proofreading corrections. Der Drang nach unten, 2. Teil , undated 1 typescript , 75 p. Bound in plain paper boards and tied up with blue string. Title in ink on front cover. Architectural plans or sketches are drawn in pencil on both covers. Mein Pariser Tagebuch , ? Bound in plain paper boards with a geometrical gouache in black and red. Habby III. Bound in green paper boards with color gouche of "Pre-Columbian" figures and motifs on front cover.
August , ? Typescript with caption title: " August Some of the sentences on the front cover are: "Technik die vierte Dimension!