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The reason for this reduction is that the stalks are separated from the leaves which are burned and whose ashes are left in the field as fertilizer , and from the roots that remain in the ground to sprout for the next crop. Since the lower heating value of sucrose is Per hectare per year, the biomass produced corresponds to 0. This is equivalent to 0. Assuming an average insolation of W per square meter, the photosynthetic efficiency of sugar cane is 0. One hectare of sugar cane yields 4, litres of ethanol per year without any additional energy input, because the bagasse produced exceeds the amount needed to distill the final product.

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This, however, does not include the energy used in tilling, transportation, and so on. Thus, the solar energy-to-ethanol conversion efficiency is 0. Sugarcane is a major crop in many countries. It is one of the plants with the highest bioconversion efficiency. Sugarcane crop is able to efficiently fix solar energy, yielding some 55 tonnes of dry matter per hectare of land annually.

After harvest, the crop produces sugar juice and bagasse, the fibrous dry matter. This dry matter is biomass with potential as fuel for energy production. Bagasse can also be used as an alternative source of pulp for paper production. Sugarcane bagasse is a potentially abundant source of energy for large producers of sugarcane, such as Brazil, India and China.

A number of countries, in particular those devoid of any fossil fuel, have implemented energy conservation and efficiency measures to minimize energy used in cane processing and furthermore export any excess electricity to the grid. Bagasse is usually burned to produce steam, which in turn creates electricity. Current technologies, such as those in use in Mauritius , produce over kWh of electricity per tonne of bagasse.

With a total world harvest of over 1 billion tonnes of sugar cane per year, the global energy potential from bagasse is over , GWh. Recent cogeneration technology plants are being designed to produce from to over kWh of electricity per tonne of bagasse. A greener alternative to burning bagasse for the production of electricity is to convert bagasse into biogas.

Technologies are being developed to use enzymes to transform bagasse into advanced biofuel and biogas. In most countries where sugarcane is cultivated, there are several foods and popular dishes derived directly from it, such as:. Many parts of the sugarcane are commonly used as animal feeds where the plants are cultivated. The leaves make a good forage for ruminants. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Group of cultivated plants. See also: History of sugar. Main article: List of sugarcane diseases. Play media. Main article: Sugar cane mill.

Brown top and white sugar crystals. Further information: Ethanol fuel.

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See also: Biofuel. Evaporator with baffled pan and foam dipper for making ribbon cane syrup. Genome Biology and Evolution. World Agroforestry Centre. Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations. Feeding pigs in the tropics. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Archived from the original on 21 February Retrieved 2 September Archaeology in Oceania. In Paterson, Andrew H. Genomics of the Saccharinae. Needham, Joseph ed. Cambridge University Press. Asian Perspectives. In El-Gewely, M. Raafat ed. Biotechnology Annual Review.

Sugarcane Farming's Toll on the Environment

Elsevier Science B. Agricultural innovation in the early Islamic world. The Cambridge survey of world migration. New System of Slavery.

Sugar cane

Hansib Publishing, London. St Martin's Press. Lucia's Indian Arrival Day". Caribbean Repeating Islands. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on Concepts in Photobiology: Photosynthesis and Photomorphogenesis. University of Illinois. Retrieved Something about sugar: its history, growth, manufacture and distribution. San Francisco, J. Popular Mechanics Monthly. Hearst Magazines. July International Journal of Tropical Insect Science.

Gluconoacetobacter [ sic ]. Int J Syst Bacteriol — Dong et al. Boddey, S. Urquiaga, V. Reis and j. The Guardian. In Hogarth, DM, Eds. Environmental Protection Agency, United States. Vegetarian Journal. Brer Rabbit. Retrieved 6 October Cowser Jan—Mar The Kentucky Folklore Record.

Retrieved 20 May Longman Group Far East , Limited. International Energy Agency. Connect with SEI. SEI Publications. You might be interested in Agricultural investment and rural transformation: a case study on the Makeni bioenergy project in Sierra Leone. Bio-Resources, Climate and Development. Sugarcane processing also creates effluents that flow into water and damage important ecological areas.

Water quality concerns have prompted a reduction in production in certain areas, with production consequently intensified and expanded onto sandy soils. Because such soils are easily leached, production can only be maintained over time with increasing applications of fertilizer.

Sugarcane Farming's Toll on the Environment | Magazine Articles | WWF

Sugar mills produce wastewater, emissions and solid waste that impact the environment. The massive quantities of plant matter and sludge washed from mills decompose in freshwater bodies, absorbing all the available oxygen and leading to massive fish kills. In addition, mills release flue gases, soot, ash, ammonia and other substances during processing. Land laid bare in preparation for cane planting is stripped of any protective cover, allowing the soils to dry out.

This impacts overall microorganism diversity and mass, both of which are essential to fertility. Additionally, exposed topsoil is easily washed off of sloping land, with nutrients leached from the topsoil. Further, the continual removal of cane from the fields gradually reduces fertility and forces growers to rely increasingly on fertilizers. WWF helped establish the Better Sugar Cane Initiative BSI six years ago in cooperation with retailers, investors, traders, producers and other non-governmental organizations.

Now known as Bonsucro, the initiative seeks to reduce the social and environmental impact of sugarcane production by establishing global standards to certify sustainable production.