Visible as thou canft to mortals be. Visibly thou corneal — Infinite! The forest bends, the stream recedes, yet I Fall not upon my countenance Before the coming Deity. A later translator 1 adopted rhyme in all cases, much weakening the originals. Lessing; B. Wieland G. Kenwood in Lessing in England 1 covers a good deal of the same ground, but adds information on many points. The two works together treat so exhaustively of the subjeft of Lessing in England, that it is not necessary here to do more than refer the reader to them.
But I have found no reason to question any of their fadls, nor have I come across any new ones of importance.
A few small points may be mentioned. Macray in Stray Leaves 1 , has not been noticed before. Later reprinted separately by the Cambridge University Press. He translates the firft scene — Satan de- manding of the Devils an account of their various performances — as given by J. Otherwise the translation follows the original closely, and is free from any serious inaccuracies. Taylor in the Historic Survey? One might add a few words about his translation of J. As such it is regarded by Taylor in the Monthly Magazine June, , where he gives an account of it with a translation of the interview between Saladin and Nathan Act I.
It is a rare example of interest taken in England in this important work of Lessing, which was praftically unknown there at this time. Wieland C. This statement, though perhaps true of the years immediately before , gives a some- what false impression of the earlier period. In the second half of the eighteenth century no German writer except Gessner was as popular in England as Wieland, and many of his works were translated earlier into Eng- lish than into French.
About began, too, the 1 II. Taylor, 1 whose extravagant admiration of Wie- land is often cited as an example of the want of dis- crimination in his criticism. The older translations were moftly forgotten; few new ones appeared, and these all either by W. Taylor or due to his influence. The writer shows very clearly that Wieland was not one of those original, creative minds which strike out new paths for themselves, but that he was an improver rather than a discoverer, an eclectic philosopher rather than an original thinker.
This judgment is more measured than W. That Wieland was in so many ways not typically German was probably one of the chief reasons of his popularity in England. He imitated English writers, 1 These articles afterwards put together to form chapter on Wieland in Hill. He soon became popular in France, 1 and this also facilitated his introduction to English readers. The Trial of Abraham 3 will have taken its place in Eng- land beside Noah , Abel and the Messiah , and been popular with the same readers. Such are also to be found in Collyer.
Abraham was also noticed in Germany. Herzfeld W. But that it exited is proved by the notices in periodicals, though no copy be now found. There are some miitranslations e. The Critical 3 also commented favourably, but according to W. Taylor 4 the translation was received with utter indifference by the public. The long Preface is of interest, as it shows an understanding of the development of contemporary German literature quite exceptional at that date.
For a long time, he says, they have been noteworthy in the world of science and learning, but the greatest improvement made by them in the present century has been in the cultivation of their own language. Among the writers who have contributed moff largely to this, 1 Firft French, translation, Wieland ; translated from the German original, with a preface by the translator London, Cadell. Taylor, pp. Wieland, he says, has dis- tinguished himself as a satirist, a moral and a dramatic writer, and Agathon is acknowledged as his masterpiece.
In it Richardson discovers much original genius, an extensive reading of modern as well as of ancient writers, and great skill in the delineation of the character of Agathon. But from the moral point of view, Richard- son judges Agathon much less harshly than did mod English critics.
Agathon was considerably revised and altered by Wieland in later editions. This translation represents the fird edition of It is a corred and careful piece of work, and in spite of small imperfedions and a certain stiffness of dyle, decidedly the bed early prose translation from German. Richardson gives a faithful interpretation of the text as he finds it, and yet it is no slavish imitation; long German sentences are broken up into shorter ones, their meaning well understood and made clear.
The following Book I. Agathon alone, who usually arose at break of day, was firft roused from sleep by the rays of the sun gilding horizontally over his forehead. As soon as he had opened his eyes, he perceived a young man before him in the habit of a slave, who viewed him with great attention. Beautiful as Agathon was, this amiable young man seemed to surpass him, both in delicacy of shape and bloom of complexion. Agathon surveyed the young slave with equal attention, till the agreeable surprise he felt was insensibly heightened into ecftasy.
The same emotions displayed themselves in the beautiful features of the young slave. Their souls acknowledged each other at the same inftant, and seemed to intermix through the glances of their eyes, before they could even embrace, or their lips, trembling with rapture, could utter c Psyche! But from the moral point of view this critic notes one very serious defeft — i.
Wieland altered this conclusion in a later edition. The Critical 3 also regrets the evil moral tendency of the work, but praises the picturesque descriptions, juft reasoning, and well-aimed satire, and the inter efting account given of the sophifts of Greece and the Republic of Athens, marred though it is by some violent anachronisms. This English Agathon was also noticed in Germany. JVieland of the same John Richardson.
I have come across only one copy of it, that from which this edition has been printed. The anonymous translator has done his work well, the narrative often attaining a high level of English prose. The modern reprint is easily procured. Taylor , p. A Hiflory in which every marvellous event occurs naturally.
London, Wilkie, Goedeke IV. Kurrelmeyer, who acquired it recently. Vide his article, English translations of Wieland, Mod. Wieland, attempted after the French and revised from the original German printed for the Editor. He adds that he obtained the German version with some difficulty, and too late for a minute revision, but he flatters himself that he has always preserved the sense of the original.
The work is dedicated to the Queen. If the translator was — as he states in the Preface — totally unacquainted with English three years before, and had many other occupations to take up the greater part of his time, it is perhaps quite a creditable piece of work. But judged on its own merits the translation is bad. The Critical 4 speaks of the work as already well known in England which seems to point to an earlier translation, of which, however, I could find no trace.
This critic condemns the translation as following too servilely the French version, which he speaks of as itself very free. The Monthly 6 judges the translation 1 The Brit. Catalogue suggests , which is impossible. Trad, par F. The work can here be judged only from the review in the Monthly , referred to above.
The firft dialogue with its long discussions on myStical philosophy and theology presents much difficulty to a translator, and he may perhaps be pardoned some stiffness and awkwardness in Style. The second dialogue is much simpler. From a short extraCt given in the Monthly , it seems well translated.
The translator is W. To which is prefixed an Essay on Sentiment, by the Author There is no copy in the Brit. Morgan, Biblio. Wieland London, Johnson, On each walk, Wieland will be found to outslride the average progress of public opinion, but to flop short of the ne-plus-ultra men, who would substitute atheism to faith, agamy to matrimony, and anarchy to government. The Dialogue between Jupiter and Juno on the subjedl of monarchy and kings served W. Taylor as a model of his Dialogue between Charles I.
But to speak honeftly, what may have passed for truth in those rude ages of the early infancy of the world, is so no longer, when we are speaking of a people that has at length, by experience and civilisation, attained to that point, where, mafter of its reason, it is become ftrong enough to shake off the yoke of old prejudices and idle conceits. But as individuals do not always remain children, so neither do nations.
It is a trespass against nature, to endeavour by force or fraud, or as is commonly the case by both, to keep them in perpetual childhood ; but it is folly and wickedness at once, to continue to treat them as children when they have already grown to maturity. Herzfeld 3 gives a full account of both these dialogues, neither of which, in his opinion, can be for a moment compared to their prototypes. Taylor , pp. The firft appeared anonymously, in ; 1 but the translator is known 2 to have been Mr. Tooke , 3 compiler of the Varieties of Literature and historian of Russia.
A review of Peregrinus Proteus in the Analytical 4 with a long analysis of the work and many extracts is probably from the pen of W. The Critical examines the work from the moral point of view, and decides that a few trite moral sentiments clothed in charming language are poor compensation for the mischief which might follow from its direft incitement of the voluptuous passions. Eight years later was made another translation of Peregrinus Proteus , but this time in an abridged form.
Translated from the German. London, Johnson, Taylor names Tooke as the translator. William Tooke , Became English chaplain at St. Petersburg in , and while there made frequent visits to Poland and Germany, and made the acquaintance of Kant at Konigs- berg. In he returned to England and devoted himself to literary pursuits. He contributed largely to Month. In he published his HiSiory of Russia. He also translated from the German the sermons and devotional exercises of a Swiss divine, G.
Wieland, by John Battersby Elring- ton, Esq. London, Sidney, The prefatory discourse between Lucian and Proteus is omitted, and what follows is not a dialogue between the two, as in Wieland, but a plain recital made by Proteus himself. At the end of the first volume Peregrine meets Agathon, who proceeds to recount the Story of his life, so the greater part of the second volume is not Proteus but Agathon.
Here, too, the original is much curtailed and rearranged. In the laSl pages Peregrine speaks again, and tells of his discovery of Psyche as his sifter, and the reunion with Danae, but the conclusion is left to conjecture. Elrington understood German thoroughly and succeeded in making a continuous whole out of the curious amalgamation of the two works. The trans- lation is rather free, but not inaccurate. The Critical 1 this time condemns Proteus even more severely than before. The adventures are said to be scarcely probable, the descriptions neither antique, appropriate, nor quite decent; Agathon , here reintro- duced, ought, in the opinion of this critic, to have inStead been condemned to everlaSting oblivion, and the English reader would have loSt little had both 1 III.
The Confessions were also shortly mentioned in the Monthly Magazine f with the comment that Wieland has here tried to describe Grecian manners and Grecian systems, but without much success. Stanley one of the translators of Lenore. Both took lessons in German from Eschenburg. During one year in Braunschweig Six Studied German literature, prose and poetry with zeal and avidity. Notes , XXII. James Six, Jr. A notice in the Gent. Two beautiful Odes, translated from the German, give no mean idea of his poetical powers.
Eschenburg judged the translation very favourably and showed the ftanzas to Wieland, who, however, while commending the translation as such, expressed very ftrong objections to any translation of the work in a foreign language. His letters to Eschenburg in the subjeft are both curious and interesting, and some passages may be quoted from them here.
Sie sehen also, dass ich meine Stimme nie dazu geben wtirde, noch jemals gegeben hatte, wenn ich von jedem der mir die unverdiente Ehre mich zu iibersetzen erweisen will, oder schon erwiesen hat, zuvor gefragt wiirde und gefragt worden ware. G XIII. Diese und aknlicke Betrachtungen. It would be in- teresting if the manuscript were found. Six died in Rome only two years later, aged twenty-nine. Six translated from the edition in fourteen books.
Von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart
It is very literal, and the meaning is usually well brought out. But there are cases where Six quite misses the point — e. It would be interest- ing to have the two different versions of the poem. Composure sate And homefelt comfort, on his brows sedate ; And like the rock, which nether storms defies.
In ed. Born in London, educated at Harrow, entered the 10th Dragoons at seventeen ; married and retired in , and devoting himself to a literary life, became a prominent figure in London literary society, and knew Scott, Wordsworth, Cole- ridge, Southey, Miss Edgeworth, Byron, Moore, etc. Neither his original verse nor his historical tragedies had much success, but his skill as a translator secured for him a wide literary reputation.
He also translated Homer. In he toured in Italy and returned by Germany in , and published his impressions of tins tour in L Poems, He died in London, The want of some kind of preface or intro- duction to the work is regretted by H. Crabb Robinson in a letter to the Monthly Magazine February, Sotheby chose it for his Oberon , but made a slight change in the rhyme formula, his ninth line rhyming with the fifth and sixth, and not with the sixth and eighth as in Spenser. The English Oberon with its fixed rhymes, definite number of feet in each line and regular caesura in the ninth line reads oft the whole more smoothly than the original.
The translation is faithful, but the sense has often to be much extended to fill out the extra line. Sometimes Sotheby expands the lafh two lines to three, or often adds a completely new line — e. Second edition, , with illustrations by Fuseli ; third edition, ; another edition, Right onward lies our path though hostile hordes infeft. This enforced amplification of the original is the necessary drawback of the nine-line fhanza, and Sotheby, on this account, was a good deal criticised for his choice. Taylor in the Annual Review 1 considers that the superfluous line often gives a trailing charafter to the narrative.
The extra line gives an impressive conclusion to the Ctanza, and it muft be admitted that the added lines are always in the spirit of the original, and fit logically into the whole. The translation is uneven, some parts being much better than others; but taken as a whole it is certainly the beif poetical translation of the time, and one of the finest in English. The descriptive parts are the beft, as for instance that of the whole court madly dancing 1. In dialogue it often misses the force and directness of the original. Reviews of Oberon appeared in all the leading periodicals.
Some have been already quoted. The British Critic 3 says that Oberon will delight all those for whom poetry hath charms, and considers that Sotheby has conferred on his author a new spirit and a new grace, and in some cases even improved on his original. In one case at leaft the critic seems right — i. It gives a short notice of Wieland and a sketch of the poem, and hopes for a good English translation of it. The Critical , 1 on the other hand, considers that the merits of Oberon have been greatly exaggerated, and that it contains little to elevate the mind or amend the heart It will be popular merely because it is lively and licentious.
Oberon was also noticed in the Analytical 2 and the Monthly Magazine? Die Versification sanft und harmomsch; doch ift sein Ausdruck im Ganzen etwas weitschweifig und bisweilen schwach. Southey says in a letter to W. It only diverts, it does not kindle the imagination; it does not agitate and make the heart beat like the wonders of Ariofto and Tasso. He asked if l was not delighted with the poem.
I answered that 1 thought the iftory began to flag about the seventh or eighth book, and observed that it was unworthy of a man of genius to make the interest of a! I thought the passion of Love as well suited to the pur- poses of poetry as any other passion, but it was a cheap way of pleasing to fix the attention of the reader through a long poem on mere animal enjoyment. It is the province of a great poet to raise people up to his own level, not to descend to theirs. Klopftock agreed and confessed that on no account whatsoever would he have written a work like the Oberon.
I said I did not perceive any very striking passages in the poem, but that I made allowance for the imperfections of a trans- lation. The translation is rather carelessly done. He has shown a good deal of ingenuity in moulding them into a dramatic form, and his language, specially in the fairy-songs, is harmonious and poetical. It was afterwards printed. There was a disturbance the firSt night, but it was favourably received on four other occasions. This seems to have been the moSt successful of the dramatisations, and ran to thirty-one performances. Taylor refers to another translation of the poem begun some years before, but never published.
Some specimens were circulated in private correspondence, and from one of these Taylor gives a few Stanzas I. The unknown trans- lator used the Chaucerian Stanza of seven lines, with no fixed scheme of rhymes.
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This shorter Stanza had many advantages, as it is always easier to condense than to extend the sense, and this translation is there- fore sometimes simpler and more diredt in expression 1 Genes. And what for the firSt time invades his ear. Oberon was the laft important work of Wieland's translated before , After this there are only a couple of minor works, and some fragments in periodicals, etc. In Taylor's Tales of Tore there are two from Wieland. The work is copiously annotated, the notes giving explanations of the mythological allusions, and also parallels from Greek, Latin and 1 XLIX.
In she married John Austin, the jurist, and went to live in London, where she made many literary friends, among them J. In she published Characteristics of Goethe , translated from the German of F. In she went to Germany with her husband and settled at Bonn. They remained many years abroad, living in Germany, Malta and France. In connection with Book IV. These notes show a very wide knowledge of general literature. The translation is usually corre , but the yle is sometimes heavy and the verse translations especially often lack the lightness and grace of the originals; while a change of metre often alters their character.
Sifters, hither, tripping light, Come, and view this beauteous sprite! Maiden none, yet ftill as fair As our fair eft maidens are. Sifters, did you ever see Such matchless form and symmetry? Taylor reviewed The Graces in the Monthly , 2 praising the skill of the translator. The Graces was not noticed in the other reviews, and does not seem to have become popular in England. Hardly anyone today could read this mixture of allegory, mythology and pastoral; and even in the time of popularity of such works was already past.
See Goedeke, IV. Coke, a native of Norwich, afterwards for many years an assistant at the British Museum. The Monthly 3 praises the simplicity and fidelity of the translation, and speaks of Wieland as more popular in England than any other German writer except Goethe. After this there only remain to be noted some frag- ments of translations in periodicals, and some pieces in the Historic Survey. The charafter of Aristippus, founder of the Cyreniac seft, was exactly suited to be a vehicle of his new tones.
Of all his works it is perhaps the beSl written. The characters are drawn with con- summate art, every trait is minutely marked and yet, like a highly finished engraving, the minuteness and 1 Crates and Hipparchia, a tale in a series of letters. Translated from the German of Christopher M. Robinson once intended translating Aristippus, but gave up the idea on hearing that Mellish also was planning a translation see letter of May 11, A fragment from Der goldne Spiegel was once trans- lated in the Lady s Magazine, another in the interesting article already mentioned in the Foreign Quarterly , and the episode from Chapter IV.
In a letter to Southey, July 6th, , W. The transla- tion keeps the same metre, and though often free gives a good idea of the original. Taylor often adds a few lines of his own. I now shall have my guerdon ; My luck is turned, my chance is coming. How my poor brats, and my good woman, Will jump for joy, and laugh and cry.
Before leaving the Historic Survey , there remains a mistake of Taylor's to be corrected. He sent MSS. In spite of Bodmer's approbation, Wieland himself was not satisfied with his work, and the fragment remained in MS. He had evidently heard of the translation of Sch5naich's Arminius and mistook it for Wieland's. Of the Aristippus there are only the few extracts. Taylor in expressed a hope in the Critical that Sotheby would add Musarion to his admirable Oberon , and that Die Abderiten would soon find a translator.
But his hopes were not fulfilled. A later edition Jones, in the Bodleian is entered under J. In the Preface it is announced that the author is now known to be S. Herder became known in England but slowly. The Monthly " noticed Vom Geifl der Ebraischen Poesie in , recommending it warmly to all lovers of Hebrew literature, and gave a longer and very favourable account of it in 1 7 8 9. German American Annals, II. After this, for many years, nothing new appeared, and Herder seemed forgotten. But about we note a revival of interest in him. An anonymous poem.
Lines to the memory of Herder , the German Philosopher , appeared in the Gentleman' s Magazine 5 of the following year. Tubingen, Memoir of Herder. G xcix. Churchhill London, Johnson, Second edition in The work was done in collaboration with a friend, whose name is not mentioned. High praise and well deserved. The long piece of work is carried out with the greatest care and thoroughness, showing clear understanding of the original text, with power of expressing the ideas in good English. Indeed if it were exclusively true with regard to the generation of terreilrial beings and all our hope rested upon this, it would oppose insuperable doubts to this hope.
A feeling man views not the writhing of a bruised worm with indifference. Even good German scholars today find it moCt difficult. He has often picturesque and telling expressions, not to be translated literally; and yet much is lot: by putting his idea in a form more commonplace. All that man has ever thought, willed, done, or will do, of human, upon Earth, has depended on the movement of a breath of air; for if this divine breath had not inspired us and floated like a charm on our lips, we should all have fldll been wanderers in the woods.
A review in the Critical 2 gives the outline of each book with long extracts, recommending specially Book X. Von einem bewegten Liiftchen hangt alles ab, was Menschen je auf der Erde Menschliches dacliten, wollten, thaten oder thun werden ; denn alle liefen wir noch in den Waldern, umher, wenn nicht dieser gottliche Odem uns angehaucht hatte und wie ein Zauberton auf unsern Lippen schwebte. T ; I 10 Herder and diCtaCte and laid it down with feeling of despair of ever meeting with satisfaction from the fashionable philosophy or metaphysics of Germany.
The Monthly 1 speaks in a more moderate and friendly tone. We have already mentioned the two notices of the original in the Monthly. The translator refers to the later of these, taking it to have been written on what he thought was the firSf publication of the work Leipzig, , not aware that this is the second edition, the firSt dating Dessau. The firft translation of the complete work was made in America in : The Spirit of Hebrew Poetry, translated by J.
Marsh, Burlington, Vt. Supphan, XII. The translation is clear and accurate, though the translator treats his text rather freely, evidently with the intention of making it more comprehensible to English readers. In the passages taken from the Bible, he has used the text of the Authorised Version. The Monthly 1 was the only important review which noticed the work. There is a gap of twenty-six years between the Oriental Dialogues and the next translation from Herder: Uher den Unsprung der Sprache The Germans, he says, have effected much in the sphere of the speculative life, the English in the sphere of the practical life.
Translated from the German of J. But it is not idiomatic English; the sentences being often long and obscure and conStrufted on German models. Judging from this and from the tone of the preface it seems probable that the translator was a German resident in England. This treatise on language — a subject of interest to very few — seems to have been little noticed in England.
The following year gives another anonymous trans- lation of a very different work — the lyrical epopee: Der Cid , nach spanischen Romanzen gesungen. The poem is written in trochaic rhythm, for the greatest part in four-accent, unrhymed lines grouped into Stanzas of unequal length. This metre is reproduced exaCtly in the translation, generally even with the feminine rhymes. The metre, too, is one often used in English poems. It is wonder- ful how, in such a literal translation, the versification 1 VI.
Yet one feels that a little more care could have made it ftill better, and avoided some metrical imperfeftions. The sense is sometimes too much broken by the division of the lines. The opening verses show the translation at its best — e. Steps not forth beyond his threshold. When they come to soothe his sorrow, For the breath of one dishonoured Mud, he thinks, disgrace his friend. Again, in Canto XIV. In the gloomy midnight hour When my deeped grief awakes Who comes to me? II 4 Herder Rodrigue. Perhaps some hostile ear May listen to us here.
So open me. To one unnamed. To one unknown At midnight hour no door — Can be unclosed — Declare thyself — Who art thou, speak? An example has been given of each kind of metre used, and stress laid on the translator reproducing the original metres so exaCtly, because in this poem so much of characteristic charm depends on the metre, and it would have been completely loSt had the trans- lator foolishly chosen a metre of his own. As it is, her version, retaining much of the poetical verve of the original, makes pleasant reading.
But it was apparently little read at the time. The only other poetical translations from Herder are those by W. From Bilder und Trdume 6 he gives one pretty little poem — To a dragon-fly. From the pieces translated from Persian poetry, Blumen aus morgenlandischen THchtern gesammeltfl and the imitations of Eastern poetry, Gedanken einiger Brahmen , Taylor also gives a few examples.
Therefore it cannot be taken as showing the development of interest in Herder in England. The trans- 1 The firft of these, Sleep , had already appeared in the Monthly Mag. In the same volume appeared also a Fragment on Shakespeare , from Herder, translated by W. Taylor I 16 Herder lator, Anthony Aufrere, 1 was in Germany at the time he wrote, and a passage in his Preface Stuttgart, June ioth, shows that the mistake of attributing the work to Goethe was already being made in Germany.
That he could write English is apparent from the ftyle of the preface, but moft of the translation is execrable. The longer sentences are often so unwieldy and cumbersome that it is almoft impossible to get at the meaning. He can write : u When a young, honourable and ardent man, already in those years which others wile away like plants, becomes a man for his country and early quits the lazy mode of life of the monks there are monks in 1 Anthony Aufrere, born From early life he showed an aptitude for foreign languages.
Besides the work men- tioned here, he translated a book of Travels in Naples from the German of Salis A small work which excited much attention was a political pamphlet entitled Warning to Britons again ft French perfidy and cruelty Aufrere lived much abroad and died at Pisa, I 17 Qerman Literature every condition , even because perhaps his genius has whispered him that he will not be enabled long to do so, he strives to do what he can, freely prefers to suffer adversity with the good, and for the general welfare, and to sacrifice rank, fortune, repose, life, and honour, nor suffers himself to be intimidated by any fresh peril, until the close of his short and tempestuous life.
He muft surely have pronounced this judgment upon insufficient acquaintance! It is not quite as bad all through as the sentence quoted above; but could any translation be called good, with even one such sentence? A couple of reviews noticed the Tribute. Of the lesser writers representing the movement, little or nothing was known. Klinger was the only one whose works appeared a couple of times in translation, but these apparently did not make his name much known in England.
Die neue Arria , was translated into English; it was never afted. The firft scene firsT appeared in a periodical, the Philosophical Herald , and according to the anonymous translator was so well received that it induced him to present the whole as The Modern Arria? He expresses in the Preface the moft extravagant admiration for Klinger, and surprise that his extraordinary abilities should have attracted so little attention in his own country, where Schiller is actually held in higher estimation [sic]. The translation often seems flat and prosaic beside the original.
About thirty years elapse before we come to the next translation from Klinger — his Faufh novel: FauSlus ; Lebeti , Thaten und Hollenfahrt ; 3 chiefly interesting as being the firSt work by George Borrow. Translated from the Arabic London, Robinson, The acquisition of languages was his favourite pursuit. At seventeen he had already itudied seven — Latin, Greek, Irish, French, Italian and Gipsy, and soon began seven more, including German. Taylor, who intruded him in German and encouraged him in philological and literary studies. But Mr. Clement Shorter in George Borrow and his Circle 2 holds the work to have been done in London, This is a small point; but Mr.
Shorter suggests, which is much more important, that Borrow translated not from the German, but from the French version, Les Aventures du Dr. Fault, Amsterdam, He thinks that Borrow may have come across this in his wanderings after old volumes on crime, for his collection of Celebrated Trials, and may have made his translation from this without having seen the German original, and without knowing who was the author. The fact that Borrow refers specially in his preface to the engravings of the French version, one of which he reproduced, whereas the engravings are in the German version as well , appears to Mr.
Shorter strong evidence for his case. It is true that the name of Klinger is nowhere mentioned by Borrow; and Mr. Shorter may be right. Made many translations of German lyrics about this time ; they are of no literary merit and moft were never printed. The Fauflus was his only big piece of translation from German. In later years he occupied himself less with German than with Danish and other languages. He admired Goethe, but often referred to him as being over-eftimated.
Possibly he may have seen a copy of the original, which had no engravings. Further, in these years at Norwich under W. However, if one acknowledges that biological processes and automatic responses are at the core of an emotion, then a description would, in a narrow sense, involve the description of these physiological processes and this is probably not what most readers expect when they are reading an emotional narrative like a love story. A straightforward representation of such physiological processes can be illustrated by a scene in Ian McEwan s novel Saturday In this novel, the main focalizer, Henry Perowne, is a neuroscientist whose approach to the world is shaped by his scientific beliefs; he sees the world through the lens of the neurosciences.
This perspective also guides his understanding of the emotions of other characters, which he sees in terms of physiological processes. The following quote shows how he perceives the aggression of a thug, Baxter, who is about to beat him. Perowne thinks that this man suffers from an incurable illness, Korea-Huntingdon-Syndrome, which is accompanied by extreme swings of emotions, and he hopes to escape a fight by offering medical help to the criminal. However, it turns out differently: 16 Cf. Sarbin Just as there are some narrative texts which have a higher degree of narrativity than others, some emotions are more intricately tied to narrative than others.
This in turn is bound to imply the diminished presence of two enzymes in the striatum and lateral pallidum glutamic acid decarboxylase and choline acetyltransferase. On the other hand, readers have to be very attentive or to have some background knowledge in order to make the correct inferences and recognise that this is the description of an emotion.
Interestingly, this focus on the physical symptoms at the core of an emotion was already present in eighteenth century novels. At the time, handbooks of medicine spread the beliefs that finer emotions were due to finer nerves, that a humane and tender personality was connected to a particular physical constitution. In this vein, Yorick, the narrator of Laurence Sterne s novel Sentimental Journey, emphasises right at the beginning of the novel that he is disposed to give alms and expresses his tender disposition by remarking that he is in a state of mind in which a man pulls out his purse, and holding it airily and uncompressed, looks round him, as if he sought for an object to share it with In doing this, I felt every vessel in my frame dilate the arteries beat all chearily together.
Whereas McEwan and Sterne in these examples concentrate on the automatic physical response to a stimulus, other authors focus on the expression of emotions by means of behaviour or action. My next example is informed by a scientific understanding of emotion, but it also nods towards the importance of an awareness of and cognitive reflection on an emotion. In a dystopia by the renowned neuroscientist Susan Greenfield, one of the characters, who belongs to a class of people who act purely on account of conscious deliberations and logic, at one point finds himself in a situation where he experiences something unusual: 17 McEwan Cf.
Mullan ; Rousseau Sterne This is the second page of the text. But today was different. Today my palms were wet, my breathing difficult and shallow, my heartbeat banging through my ribcage. I had to admit that this unpleasant though obvious sensation could only be called anxiety. In addition, there is a precise naming a description 21 of that unpleasant sensation, which is called anxiety.
Providing a name for an emotion is the most obvious and more usual way of presenting feelings in fiction. I do not think, however, that this is the most common or interesting mode of presenting emotions. Even if one looks at British eighteenth century sentimental novels, which focus on feelings and which are meant to evoke the feelings of readers, it seems that such explicit naming of emotions is less frequent than one might assume, and soon gives way to a description of the physical expressions of emotions, particularly with regard to body language.
The description of seemingly involuntary facial expressions and body language is a mode of representation that became very popular in the second half of the eighteenth century, in the British novel of sensibility. Such novels often refer to emotions by presenting the expression of these emotions, particularly in two modes: They describe the body language of the characters, their blushes, their tears, and their falling down on their knees on the one hand, and their verbal exclamations of surprise or joy on the other.
The following examples, excerpts from one of the letters of the young servant girl Pamela to her parents, serve to illustrate the focus on the allegedly involuntary expression of emotions: I screamed, ran to the bed, and Mrs. Jervis screamed too [ ]. I found his hand in my bosom, and when my fright let me know it, I was ready to die; I sighed, screamed and fainted away.
And still he had his arms about my neck; [ ] I knew nothing more of the matter, one fit followed another, till about three hours after, I found myself in bed, and Mrs. Jervis sitting up on one side [ ] Greenfield For the difference between words describing emotions and words expressing them i. Such implicit descriptions of emotions become more intricate in later novels.
In Henry Mackenzie s The Man of Feeling , or in Sterne s novels, the focus is often on the description of the stimulus, such as a beautiful woman or a strange face, and on the effects this stimulus has on the character in question. This can be exemplified by the way Yorick, the narrator of Laurence Sterne s Sentimental Journey and a typical and capricious man of feeling, reacts to an imagined blush of a woman: I thought she blushed the idea of it made me blush myself we were quite alone; and that super-induced a second blush, before the first could get off. The sensitive nerves, which were held to be the precondition of refined and tender feelings, and the blood that causes the blush seem to be more interesting to the narrator than any description or analysis of his emotions.
This shying away from analysis is more pronounced in a second quote from this novel: The poor monk blushed as red as scarlet [ ]. I blushed in my turn; but from what movements, I leave to the few who feel to analyse. A preliminary word count of the three exemplary novels mentioned above seems to indicate that in later novels, such as The Sentimental Journey and The Man of Feeling, there is a surprising rise in the use of the word emotion or feeling, the exact meaning of which has to be gauged by the reader: Sterne Ibid.
The numbers for the key words include all derivations such as sad, sadly, sadness. I occurrence per words Sentimental Journey occurrence per words Man of Feeling occurrence per words Emotion 0,11 0,73 1,91 Feeling 0,32 10,73 9,81 Tear 4,84 0,49 3,82 Blush 0,63 3,17 1,64 Tremble 2,63 0,98 0,55 Anger 5,16 0,24 0,55 Sadness 8,32 1,22 1,91 Joy 2,42 2,2 2,18 There is no overall tendency with regard to the number of occurrences describing bodily expressions of emotions that there are more blushes than tears in The Sentimental Journey, in contrast to the situation in Pamela, might well be due to the particularities of the story in the latter: the incarcerated Pamela, who is in danger of being raped by Mr.
In contrast, there is a significant rise in frequency of the terms emotion and feeling, which do not refer to a particular state; instead, they are open to readers inferences. A rather typical example of such a use of the term emotion can be found when Yorick commiserates with the weeping Maria: I sat down close by her; and Maria let me wipe [her tears] away as they fell, with my handkerchief. I then steep d it in my own, and then in hers, and then in mine, and 26 These are, however, just preliminary observations, which would have to be checked and analysed more thoroughly.
The novels of sensibility also employ many other indirect modes of presenting emotions in fiction, such as interjections, exclamations, or the use of emotively valent words, images or symbols. There are, moreover, intertextual references to emotions of fictional characters or narrators; indeed, the name Yorick is, as the narrator stresses, taken from Hamlet and the grave-diggers scene. Even tears can, after all, be tears of joy as well as of misery.
Even before psychological empirical studies were conducted, authors such as Virginia Woolf asserted that, when dealing with novels, the book itself is not form which you see, but emotion which you feel. This example also shows that a mere word count can only provide a very tentative impression of the expression of emotions. The tears are referred to six times, but the word tears is not explicitly mentioned in this quote. Since the novel encompasses roughly words, the counting of these six times would raise the word count from 2,2 to 3,7. A similar use of emotion can be found in Sterne Sterne For possible ways of implicitly referring to emotions see Winko and the overview of several typologies including that of Winko in Hillebrand Woolf Cf.
Mar Oatley ; cf. The degree of empathy is also a salient feature of perspective taking, which is crucial for fostering affective abilities, since it enables readers not only to learn about the emotions of others but also to share them, too. In the following I will try to point out a few aspects on the affective potential of literature, the functions of perceived realism, and its relation to empathy, perspective taking and persuasion. Readers emotions are also evoked by reading works in which there is no explicit depiction of the characters emotions.
Empirical studies have demonstrated that readers supply the emotions implied in a story, irrespective of whether these are thematised or not. Some of the short stories of Ernest Hemingway famously do not make any reference to the characters emotions, but nonetheless succeed in evoking an atmosphere of danger and threat by focussing on the setting and the action. Hemingway himself apparently was aware of this: If a writer of prose knows enough about what he is writing about, he may omit things that he knows and the reader, if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things as strongly as though the writer had stated them.
Altmann et al. Mar et al. These emotions can be regarded as narrative since they are intimately connected to the features of narrative, such as plot, conflict, the characters attitudes and their experiences. Narrative emotions can also be new emotions which readers did not feel in that way before. Another group of emotions which can be evoked by fiction is characterised by readers reliving of former biographical emotions, a process which can be therapeutically important and improve subsequent coping with these emotions. A third group consists of aesthetic emotions, i.
These aesthetic feelings are unique to the reading of literature and include fascination, interest, or intrigue [as a response] to the formal components of literary texts narrative, stylistic, or generic. In addition, readers emotions can be stimulated by linguistic and narrative devices on the surface structure of literary texts, by formal features and the choice of words. Moreover, nonconventional metaphors and innovations of generic conventions can evoke aesthetic feelings.
Such metaphors require an increased cognitive effort from readers, which is evaluated positively by readers, who feel emotional-aesthetic pleasure which is the intended satisfactory result of the interpretation process. The study of empathy and the means of inducing readers to feel empathy for or even identify with a protagonist is at the foreground of many literary studies. Narratological studies focussing on techniques likely to evoke empathy usually concentrate on two aspects: The first mode of inducing readers to feel empathy includes narrative strategies which prompt readers to take the characters perspective, for instance by presenting their thoughts, impressions, beliefs, feelings and opinions by means of techniques like free indirect discourse, interior monologue or psycho-narration, or the use of homodiegetic narrators.
For Ekman s initial conceptualisation of six universal emotions, cf. Cohen For narrative empathy see, for instance, Keen and However,. Cognitive literary studies also stress the importance of situational empathy, which involves an openness to putting oneself in the place of the other person. Characters have to be in situations which allow for multiple endings, since the resulting uncertainty is believed to engage not only the cognitive, but also the affective responses of readers.
As Richard Gerrig concludes: To a large extent, a theory of suspense must include within it a theory of empathy: Under what circumstances do we care sufficiently about other people to engage in active thought about their fates? One means of evoking readers empathy and pity involves the presentation of stimuli that are believed to raise these emotions.
Some of these responses to particular images and narratives may be universal, such as automatic reactions to seeing sad or happy faces. In the eighteenth century, tender feelings and pity and their results, virtuous actions such as giving alms were held to be very important, and sentimental novels not only present the physiological expressions of such emotions, they also show a host of stimuli for the feeling of those highly appreciated emotions.
Both in Sentimental Journey and in Henry Mackenzie s The Man of Feeling, there are long descriptions of, for instance, the outward appearance of people who are to be pitied and who deserve charity and help, such as beggars or virtuous persons asking for contributions to worthy causes. On the third page of the Sentimental Journey, a poor monk enters the scene, only a few sentences after Yorick has claimed that his arteries and frame are disposed to give alms: The monk [had a] break in his tonsure, a few scattered white hairs upon his temples [ ]. It was one of those heads, which Guido has often painted mild, pale penetrating, free one should not forget other narrative emotions, such as suspense or surprise, anger at the behaviour of villains or dumbness of the protagonists, and satisfaction if desired results seem within reach or villains are punished.
The phrase engage in active thought about their fates indicates that Gerrig works with a broad definition of empathy, which encompasses analytical cognitive processes. The rest of his outline may be given in a few strokes [ ]: it was a thin, spare form, [ ] it was the attitude of Entreaty; and as it now stands presented to my imagination, it gained more than it lost by it [ ].
Passages such as these can encourage readers to feel the tender and refined emotions that were held in high esteem at the time. A similar, but more moving description of a stimulus for encouraging readers emotions can be found in The Man of Feeling, in which Harley incidentally meets an old man, who from his dress seemed to have been a soldier [ ]. He was one of those figures which Salvator would have drawn [ His face had the marks of manly comeliness impaired by time; his forehead was not altogether bald, but its hairs might have been numbered; while a few white locks behind crossed the brown of his neck [ ].
Signs of age and poverty, attributed to respectable, dignified people, are present in both quotes and should, according to feeling rules of the late eighteenth century, evoke empathy and pity. In the latter quote, as in many others, readers are even shown how they should react to the description of such a figure. Harley, the protagonist, serves as a model recipient of the stimulus; he appraises the situation of the man correctly and in an exemplary way: Thou art old, said [Harley] to himself, but age has not brought thee rest for its infirmities; I fear those silver hairs have not found shelter from thy country, though that neck has been bronzed in its service Sterne Mackenzie Ibid.
Later on the old man turns out to be an honest and upright victim of many villainous machinations and an object worthy of pity. Although Yorick himself does not always react in a model fashion, The Sentimental Journey contains many examples of such reactions, for instance with regard to Santo s lamentation for the death of his ass cf. Sterne: Moreover, modes of evoking emotions can strengthen readers feelings that the story corresponds to their own experiences and rings true.
If a reader is invited to make his or her own inferences and to supply his or her own emotions and experiences, he or she gets the feeling that the story is convincing and lifelike. Marisa Bortolussi and Peter Dixon have shown that readers identify with a character when they are able to make their own inferences about him or her.
Bortolussi and Dixon stress that readers tend to relate to characters which leave enough room for readers to use their own knowledge and experience. This in turn makes them feel that they comprehend the characters on a more than just superficial basis. Such a feeling of really understanding the characters, which can heighten empathic sharing of their emotions, is accompanied by a reduction of distance between reader and characters. This feeling is rather rare in real life; it is more partial, selective, and, consequently, less wide ranging than sympathy proper [i.
By presenting likeable and attractive characters, fiction often provides stimuli for feeling this positive counterpart to pity. Fictional works thus serve to generate a feeling which is arguably ethically valuable and may make it easier for readers to generate it in everyday situations. Although recent studies often highlight situations or narrative conventions which can initiate the reader s empathic feeling with the characters 48 and stress the positive aspects of empathy, the sharing of characters thoughts and feelings involves rather complex and ambivalent processes.
Second, empathic sharing is linked to the readers own appraisal of the situation in question. This is influenced by their knowledge about the whole of the text they have read so far and can include information about events that is not available to the focalizer. It is also based on readers general knowledge and their wishes for the further development of the story. This discrepant awareness can lead to a heightening of suspense, if readers see the hero unwittingly running into danger. The second process is intricately connected with an overall assessment of the situation, which involves questions of ethics.
As James Phelan has pointed out with regard to the ethical positioning of readers, [o]ur emotions and desires about both fictional and nonfictional characters are intimately tied to our judgments of them, 50 and according to recent psychological studies, inducing readers moral reasoning is one of the aspects that heighten their fascination with a given text. This evaluation of lifelike characters is influenced by readers attitudes, values and wishes for preferred outcomes. It is also informed by readers superior knowledge or their own interpretations of the event, which can differ widely from that of the character whose perceptions and thoughts they follow.
The affective value of fiction thus goes beyond the empathic sharing of characters feelings. Raney The plasticity of the human brain makes it possible for the emotions evoked by reading to leave their trace and modify and refine emotional skills: The emotions evoked by literary fiction also have an influence on our cognitive processing after the reading experience has ended. Novels can act as a powerful emotional prime, and once an emotional state has been induced we would expect to see differences in cognitive processing associated with this new emotional state.
Effects on cognition, perception, and action would be expected [ ]. There are several reasons for the potential of fictional stories to shed light on emotions and to serve as a privileged tool for feeling. The first is based on the specificity of the reading process. In a state of immersion and transportation, readers tend to temporarily forget their immediate surroundings and their own real-life concerns, goals and aims. Since the vicarious experiences offered by fiction do not pose any immediate threat to their goals or self-images, readers can come to know feelings, thoughts and experiences that they would be inclined to block off in real-life encounters.
Readers feel safe, they pay attention, spend time and cognitive effort, feel interest and even enthusiasm for what they encounter and discover in a work of fiction. See also Robinson The first to use it were, to my knowledge, Batson et al Cf. As Thomas Fuchs stresses, dispositions are only accessible to change by new and repeated subjective experiences, i. Thirdly, the affective value of fiction is enhanced by the fact that the feelings evoked by fictional narratives are relatively intense and pure.
Several scholars have hypothesised that fiction can evoke a higher intensity of emotions than reallife situations, because the emotional experiences generated by reading fiction take place in safety. Readers do not have to worry about the potential impact of their emotions either with regard to themselves for instance by feeling obliged to help victims in distress or with regard to potentially negative consequences for others.
While there seems to be no final answer concerning the differences in intensity between emotions evoked by fiction or by facts, Thalia Goldstein demonstrated that personal memories recalling very sad, or even traumatic events were no greater than the levels felt when watching [fictional film] clips depicting sad events. Fourth, fiction can enable readers to make experiences which are beyond their reach in ordinary life. A life span is too short to make all the experiences that can broaden the mental horizon of readers even disregarding the fact that many readers might not survive some of the more dangerous situations.
In addition, fictional stories can allow readers to become aware of, observe, and share nuances of the feelings of narrators and characters. This exceeds the observation of body lan- 55 Fuchs Goldstein See also ibid. For the phrase unadulterated by anxiety, see ibid. As the novelist Ian McEwan stressed in an interview, the resilience [of the novel] has precisely to do with the fact that we have not yet invented another art form that allows us such access to the minds of others and to the nature of consciousness.
More often than not, readers get the chance to recognise feelings the respective characters are not even aware of. Fictional stories can shed light on feelings which, in daily life, remain obscure. Fifth, reading fiction encourages perspective taking, which is similar to what the psychologist Daniel Batson calls sensitive understanding, 59 i. Particularly valuable is the imagine-other perspective, i.
This kind of perspective taking has been linked to pro-social action. The imagine-other perspective has been shown to reduce stereotyping and prejudice and to enable readers to know the other s thoughts, desires, and intentions and even to understand and evaluate even to create the self.
Reading fiction is valuable because it requires spontaneous perspective taking. In daily situations, the necessity, the impetus or even the time for taking the perspectives of others is often conspicuous by its absence. In many cases, we do not need it in order to act. In other cases, we might need it, but we do not know enough about the other in order to be able to accomplish it.
And even if we could accomplish it, if we did know just how bad or hopeless the other feels at the moment, it might put us in an uncomfortable position: we might think that we should try to do something about it and that is difficult and often impossible. There are many reasons why it is often easier not to invest too much cognitive effort in taking the perspectives of others. In fiction, the situation is different: The pleasure of reading, the interest in stories, and the necessity to take the perspectives of characters in order to understand their actions provide incentives for readers to make this cognitive effort.
This is important, since interest and attention are among the conditions which are of crucial importance for learning, for building new synapses and neural pathways.
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Moreover, there is no danger involved in immersing oneself in the minds and views of fictional characters; readers can try out new roles without having to fear negative consequences. In addition, fictional stories usually provide the knowledge that is needed to understand the major characters; even though the information may remain sketchy, salient facts are given or at least expected to be given by readers.
Possible barriers against perspective taking particularly the lack of interest and the lack of knowledge are therefore removed. Fictional stories which present unfamiliar, complex or extreme characters can thus serve to broaden readers mental horizon, to refine their implicit knowledge about how the human mind works, and to practice perspective taking in a particular, safe situation.
Sixth, since fictional stories frequently stage the interconnections and conflicts between the respective emotions of several characters, they require a balanced and complex emotional response. In many novels, the stimulus evoking emotions is not the state of mind of an isolated individual; rather, it consists of the personal interactions between several characters.
The shift between focalizers often implies a shift between empathically following the characters thoughts and actions on the one hand, and a critical distance to the character on the other. Especially in multiperspective novels which show the events from the point of view of several characters, readers are induced to alternately take several often contradictory perspectives on the same situation. Reading fiction practices the ability to recognise affiliations and contrasts between different perspectives and to relate them to each other.
To make sense of mutually exclusive perspectives on the same situation often requires the modulation and modification of empathy. If a narrator compares and weighs the perspectives of others, ethically positions him- or herself towards others, and comes up with his or her own interpretation, readers can simulate these cognitive processes. If they do not get such guidance, they are encouraged to arrive at their own conclusions. Readers have to position themselves to the heterogeneous characters and to decide which traits, opinions, and attitudes they like best and which ones correspond to the requirements of the particular situation.
Seventh, complex fictional stories often highlight what Jerome Bruner calls breaches of the canonical expectations, 62 and such breaches with regard to culturally condoned ways of dealing with emotions may be helpful in a variety of ways. Since norms become more explicit when the consequences of their violations are 62 Bruner What may be even more important is that they can also highlight the characters struggles during such breaches of the canonical, delineating the problems of individuals who find themselves unable to conform to the rules and have to face the gap between what they should feel and want to feel on the one hand, and those annoying or frightening feelings they actually experience on the other hand.
Eighth, in stories, readers are not given propositional knowledge which can be learned in an abstract way; instead, they experience the characters emotions, their origins, and the way they are regulated. This kind of learning can be of crucial importance as far as the understanding of emotions is concerned.
Martha Nussbaum, for instance, claims that emotions, unlike many of our beliefs, are not taught to us directly through propositional claims about the world, either abstract or concrete. They are taught, above all, through stories. By presenting a wide range of emotions and possible stories in which these can be embedded, fiction can enlarge readers knowledge of ways of narrativising and coping with emotions.
Fictional stories provide patterns of how to deal with unstoried emotions and can then help readers to create stories that provide meaning to such feelings. They can enable readers to identify the emotion they feel and to integrate such feelings in a meaningful narrative. They can enable readers to empathically share feelings they have not experienced in their own lives and would not be able to identify in interactive encounters.
By enlarging their feeling repertoire, fiction can also enhance readers understanding of their own emotions and of possible means to regulate their emotions. As Marcel Proust explained, his readers would be the readers of their own selves, my book being merely a 63 Nussbaum For the link between emotion and narrative see Goldie who stresses that, while trying to understand an emotion, we seek to locate the person s episodes of thought and feeling, which go to form part of his emotional experience, in the overall narrative which makes best sense of this part of his life ; Goldie 69; see also ibid.
At the basis of these opportunities that reading fictions may offer is a process which one could call a meta-affective value of fiction. If we need to have words which allow us to identify and narrativise an emotion in order to be able to deal with it, an important part of the value of fiction lies in providing a nuanced language for understanding emotions and the complex scenarios in which they are embedded.
Though many questions concerning the relation between emotions and the reading of particular literary genres and texts still remain open, there is overwhelming evidence that reading fiction can be a tool for feeling and important to our lives. Anz, Thomas : Emotional Turn? Batson, Charles D. See also Felski 24, Goldie, Peter : The Emotions. A Philosophical Exploration, Oxford. Goldstein, Thalia R. Hogan, Patrick Colm, : Affective Narratology. The Emotional Structure of Stories, Lincoln. Hogan, Patrick Colm The Mind and Its Stories.
Narrative Universals and Human Emotion, Cambridge et al. Holland, Norman N. Mar, Raymond A. McEwan, Ian : Saturday, London.
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Nussbaum, Martha : Narrative Emotions. The Psychology of Fiction, Oxford. Oatley, Keith : Two Movements in Emotions. Raney, Arthur A. Or, Virtue Rewarded, Harmondsworth. One short answer may be that, as the main focus of this volume lies on the relationship between human emotions and the writing process, the position of the author deserves our special attention. Whether the writing process is fun, and how deep this connection to having fun is, is not covered in this article. What is, in sum, the objective of this paper? As the ten central questions raised as a basis for this volume are of great general interest and deserve to be studied intensively, and because a number of these questions closely touch on the process of literary writing, it seems reasonable to discuss them with an author.
The Chamisso award winner and lecturer on poetry at the International Research Center of Chamisso-Literature of the Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich considers the role of emotions in his lectures and agreed to be interviewed on these questions. I have therefore conducted two detailed interviews with him on the subject of writing emotions.
In the interviews, we managed to cover some selected aspects of the ten questions mentioned. In the second part of this paper, I shall provide an overview of some contemporary theories of emotion. Which roles do emotions play within writing as an aesthetic process? MS: As an author one has an emotional connection to the work as something which has been created. An author has no emotional connection to a commissioned task such as reviews etc. The decisive aspect is how much of autobiography is involved. Autobiographical aspects are often linked to emotionality and this may be stronger than in the case of pure fiction, also within the writing process.
For example, personal childhood memories play an important role in the novel Brenntage. The reason is that personal autobiography is emotionally experienced. This is different from the situation when, for example, a poem has been successfully created. Therefore, it is necessary to look for the autobiographical connections within literary works. GLS: An author s first work, especially, is often very autobiographical. Is there a decline of emotional involvement in later works?
MS: Yes, but renewed emotional involvement may occur through the catalyst of new formal possibilities which engender a kind of extended personal speech. Literary writing is often born when attempting to process emotions, and the first creative steps often take the form of therapeutic writing as with a diary. Emotions which are processed in literature often cause the birth of literary writing.
Later, this impact is reduced. Selfdevelopment takes place during the process of growing up and getting older, for example at the age of twenty years, forty years, and later. The degree of emotional involvement also differs when one is writing autobiographically. Emotion as an aesthetic process is important, especially when one is just becoming an author.
For example, Jaroslav Seifert becomes once again especially emotional in his later works like a life summary. The question of which sort of language I can preserve becomes a highly emotional matter in old age. What do I know? Which principles do I have? Is there any. MS: Yes, there is; for example, in the case of my new novel, which talks about faith. Where relevant social issues are concerned, one should take a clear position, show an attitude.
Vital topics, which are important in the world, are also linked with emotional attitudes, although they must not necessarily have autobiographical involvement. Also, literary composition is emotional for example, how the dialogues of the characters are structurally integrated in the scene. As an author, I am not an indifferent observer who designs characters like puppets. Even when the characters are passive as in Kafka , an author should not behave in an indifferent manner.
I can imagine that you have various connections to your characters at various working stages? MS: Yes, that is so. When an author has written several books, he or she has different attitudes to the characters. An emotional connection with the character depends on how successful the production of the whole text is. MS: Perhaps there are only few literary characters created by an author that appear again and again in different manners. Certainly, there is an emotional connection to such characters.
In such cases, they could be part of an authorial identity. GLS: Characters can then function as carriers of emotional connection through several texts, even though they bear different names, etc. MS: That is right. Where and how do a writer s emotional moments of writing leave their traces within the text? MS: When connected with real emotions, autobiographical features leave their traces. Successful text passages are one hint of such traces. Emotional components can also be recognized by the conceptualization of literary characters for example, the choice of occupation. Deposit your masters paper, project or other capstone work.
Deposit a peer-reviewed article or book chapter. Deposit a complete issue of a scholarly journal, newsletter or book. Deposit scholarly works such as posters, presentations, conference papers or white papers. Skip to Content. Toggle navigation Carolina Digital Repository. Help Contact Us Login. You do not have access to any existing collections. You may create a new collection. MLA Kent, Tayler.