Otherwise we would be dead. Island leaders tried to act as a buffer between the Germans and the islanders and called for little resistance towards the invaders because, defenceless as they were, they feared swingeing reprisals. However, the fact the administrators often did the Germans' bidding - dutifully drawing up lists of the places of birth of all residents, for example - had tragically fatal consequences. Although the island leaders did not know why the lists were required they ultimately allowed the Germans to round up thousands of people who they then sent to concentration and death camps.
It also allowed the Nazis to identify Jewish residents. They were there to be killed and they were deserving, therefore, of the protection of the civil authorities. Nettles makes mention of informants and of girls guilty of "collaboration horizontale", who were nicknamed Jerrybags. But he also highlights inspiring cases of resistance, countering claims that there was no "fighting spirit" on the islands. The Germans brought over hundreds of Russian slave workers to build fortifications and they were regarded as "Untermenschen" - lower than animals.
Louisa took the escaped worker in without hesitation because she had lost a son in the war and was determined to do an act of kindness "for another mother's son". She lost her life for it. After two-and-a-half years Louisa was betrayed by a neighbour and while the Russian escaped she was sent to a concentration camp along with her brother Harold Le Druillenec. Louisa died in Ravensbruck concentration camp and Harold was the only British survivor of the horrendous Bergen-Belsen camp. On November 1st, , the Calgary Highlanders launch a diversionary attack against a heavily defended causeway.
With the Germans distracted, Allied Commandos carry out an amphibious assault on Walcheren Island, the final Nazi stronghold guarding the port. September After liberating much of France, Luxembourg and Belgium Allied forces launch General Bernard Montgomery's ambitious plan to end the war in Operation Market Garden is the largest airborne operation ever, but over confidence and miscalculations trap Allied soldiers behind Nazi lines in desperate attempts to capture bridgeheads.
When they fail, the fight for survival begins. December Determined to recapture the port of Antwerp, Hitler mobilizes a massive surprise offensive into the Ardennes Forest against undermanned American lines. The plan relies on speed and paved roads to advance tanks to Bastogne, then Antwerp before the Allies can mobilize a response. US forces fight to extinction to slow the Nazi advance allowing for the legendary defense of Bastogne.
January Since the state of affairs in the islands had been largely unknown and there had been uncertainty as to the extent of resistance by the German forces, the Defence Channel Islands Regulations of had vested sweeping administrative powers in the military governor. As it turned out that the German surrender was entirely peaceful and orderly and civil order had been maintained, these regulations were used only for technical purposes such as reverting to Greenwich Mean Time. Each bailiwick was left to make its own regulations as necessary.
The situation of retrospectively regularising legislation passed without Royal Assent had to be dealt with. Brigadier Snow signed regulations on 13 June promulgated 16 June to renew orders in Jersey and ordinances in Guernsey as though there had been no interruption in their technical validity. The period of military government lasted until 25 August when new Lieutenant Governors in each bailiwick were appointed. Following the liberation of , allegations of collaboration with the occupying authorities were investigated.
By November , the UK Home Secretary was in a position to inform the House of Commons  that most of the allegations lacked substance and only 12 cases of collaboration were considered for prosecution, but the Director of Public Prosecutions had ruled out prosecutions on insufficient grounds.
John Nettles: 'Telling the truth about Channel Islands cost me my friends'
In particular, it was decided that there were no legal grounds for proceeding against those alleged to have informed to the occupying authorities against their fellow citizens. These included conscientious objectors associated with the Peace Pledge Union and people of Irish extraction. In Jersey and Guernsey, laws   were passed to confiscate retrospectively the financial gains made by war profiteers and black marketeers, although these measures also affected those who had made legitimate profits during the years of military occupation.
This had aroused indignation among some citizens. In the hours following the liberation, members of the British liberating forces were obliged to intervene to prevent revenge attacks. For two years after the liberation, Alderney was operated as a communal farm. Craftsmen were paid by their employers, whilst others were paid by the local government out of the profit from the sales of farm produce. Remaining profits were put aside to repay the British government for repairing and rebuilding the island.
As a result of resentment by the local population about not being allowed to control their own land, the Home Office set up an enquiry that led to the "Government of Alderney Law ", which came into force on 1 January The law provided for an elected States of Alderney , a justice system and, for the first time in Alderney, the imposition of taxes. Due to the small population of Alderney, it was believed that the island could not be self-sufficient in running the airport and the harbour, as well as in providing an acceptable level of services.
The taxes were therefore collected into the general Bailiwick of Guernsey revenue funds at the same rate as Guernsey and administered by the States of Guernsey. Guernsey became responsible for many governmental functions and services. Particularly in Guernsey, which evacuated the majority of school-age children ahead of the occupation, the occupation weakened the indigenous culture of the island. Many felt that the children "left as Guerns and returned as English". This was particularly felt in the loss of the local dialect — children who were fluent in Guernesiais when they left, found that after five years of non-use they had lost much of the language.
The abandoned German equipment and fortifications posed a serious safety risk and there were many accidents after the occupation resulting in several deaths. Many of the bunkers, batteries and tunnels can still be seen today. Some have been restored, such as Battery Lothringen and Ho8 , and are open for the general public to visit. After the occupation, the islanders used some of the fortifications for other purposes, but most were stripped out in scrap drives and by souvenir hunters and left abandoned.
One bunker was transformed into a fish hatchery and a large tunnel complex was made into a mushroom farm. Taxation receipts had fallen dramatically during the war period. Finally, the now worthless Occupation Reichsmarks and RM bank deposits were converted back to Sterling at the rate of 9. Helier to mark the 60th anniversary of the Liberation in An underground command bunker, built at La Hougue Bie in Jersey, now houses an exhibition commemorating the workers from across Europe forced to build defences during the occupation.
Assisted by local residents and in particular Deputy W. On the night of 19 January they removed a small boat from this harbour and 15 hours later after an arduous crossing in bad weather, landed near Carteret on the French Cotentin Peninsula. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Evacuation of civilians from the Channel Islands in Main article: Civilian life under the German occupation of the Channel Islands.
Confiscation of: weapons  boats  radios then  motor vehicles forced sale  : cameras  : 92 fuel houses — furniture — Restrictions on: fishing drinking spirits exporting goods changing prices of goods  patriotic songs and signs  more than three people meeting together  : 25 access to beaches  : fuel  freedom of speech access to medicines some clubs and associations.
Main article: Alderney camps. Main article: Deportations from the German-occupied Channel Islands.
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Sidney Ashcroft: convicted of serious theft and resistance to officials in Marianne Grunfeld: Jewish adult sent to Auschwitz concentration camp John Ingrouille: aged 15, found guilty of treason and espionage and sentenced to five years hard labour. Percy Miller: sentenced to 15 months for wireless offences. Marie Ozanne: refused to accept the ban placed on the Salvation Army. Auguste Spitz: Jewish adult sent to Auschwitz concentration camp Therese Steiner: Jewish adult sent to Auschwitz concentration camp Louis Symes: sheltered his son 2nd Lt James Symes, who was on a commando mission to the island.
Main article: Resistance in the German-occupied Channel Islands. Further information: SS Vega Main article: Liberation of the German-occupied Channel Islands. George VI. London: I.
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The History Press; New edition 30 Jun. Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 10 February Channel Island Publishing. Contemporary European History. Retrieved 6 June The History Press. Pen and Sword June Research Projects. Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge. Retrieved 6 September The Times.
Retrieved 9 March Jersey Evening Post. World War 2 at Sea. Retrieved 3 August The New York Times. Retrieved 2 March The Fortifications of Alderney. Alderney Publishers.
Hitler envaded Sark. University Press of Kentucky, The Guernsey Press Co, Ltd. The Government and Law of Guernsey. States of Guernsey. Retrieved 13 May History of the Channel Islands. Robert Hale Ltd. Guernsey Museum and Art Gallery.
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Retrieved 17 March Gwyneth Herbert". London Jazz News. London Jazz. Retrieved 6 October Archived from the original on 20 December Bell, William M. London: Bloomsbury.
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