The FDA has contracted with Aetion and the Brigham to try to duplicate the results of 30 completed randomized trials. The agency has also challenged Aetion to duplicate seven randomized trials that are currently underway. The new data, however, come from a separate attempt by Aetion researchers — one in which they initiated a pilot attempt to replicate the CAROLINA study, which was being run by Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly to compare their diabetes drug, Tradjenta, to an older treatment, glimepiride.
The pilot was funded by the FDA and the Brigham. Results of the clinical trial have not been published, but they were presented at the annual scientific meeting of the American Diabetes Association on June But there was also a difference. But Dr.
Full stop. A top diabetes expert with similar views, Dr. David Nathan, said real-world evidence simply cannot supplant traditional clinical trials. In his view, real-world evidence can only correct for biases that researchers already understand. By randomly assigning patients to one treatment or another, clinical trials rely on chance to cancel out any biases, whether researchers are aware of them or not.
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How many times would Aetion have to replicate a clinical trial before Nathan believed the results? How often have we been misled by observational research over the years? After a firestorm of controversy erupted around the diabetes drug Avandia, the FDA mandated that drug makers had to conduct large clinical trials to tell if their medicines might cause heart attacks.
It took six weeks to complete, but required four years of insurance claim data on the two drugs. Harlan Krumholz, director of the Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation at Yale New Haven Hospital, said he worried that using insurance claims, as Aetion does, faces substantial challenges. He pointed to numerous examples, over the years, where his own observational studies have replicated the results from clinical trials.
There is so much conflict-of-interest with this study. Why is Aetion being paid by the FDA to do this analysis that could be done by non-conflicted academic institutions or the FDA themselves? Similar things can be said about the deeply conflicted Flatiron-Roche-Abernathy connection. Luddites rarely move mountains. CAROLINA presents an important insights as to how RWD, properly validated, allows the drug development, regulatory and patient communities to bring new medicines to market better, faster and less expensively.
Randomized Controlled Trials may be golden, but they are not perfect. Alas, there is no approved therapy for fear of change. Survival is not mandatory. Sonar-based real-world mapping and navigation Abstract: A sonar-based mapping and navigation system developed for an autonomous mobile robot operating in unknown and unstructured environments is described. The system uses sonar range data to build a multileveled description of the robot's surroundings. Sonar readings are interpreted using probability profiles to determine empty and occupied areas.
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Range measurements from multiple points of view are integrated into a sensor-level sonar map, using a robust method that combines the sensor information in such a way as to cope with uncertainties and errors in the data. The resulting two-dimensional maps are used for path planning and navigation. From these sonar maps, multiple representations are developed for various kinds of problem-solving activities. Several dimensions of representation are defined: the abstraction axis, the geographical axis, and the resolution axis.
The theory of everything is also called the final theory.
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The primary problem in producing a TOE is that general relativity and quantum mechanics are hard to unify. This is one of the unsolved problems in physics. Initially, the term "theory of everything" was used with an ironic connotation to refer to various overgeneralized theories. Physicist John Ellis  claims to have introduced the term into the technical literature in an article in Nature in Current candidates for a theory of everything include string theory , M theory , and loop quantum gravity.
Virtual reality VR is a computer-simulated environment that can simulate physical presence in places in the real world, as well as in imaginary worlds. The Virtuality Continuum is a continuous scale ranging between the completely virtual, a Virtuality , and the completely real: Reality. The reality-virtuality continuum therefore encompasses all possible variations and compositions of real and virtual objects. It has been described as a concept in new media and computer science , but in fact it could be considered a matter of anthropology. The concept was first introduced by Paul Milgram.
The area between the two extremes, where both the real and the virtual are mixed, is the so-called Mixed reality. This in turn is said to consist of both Augmented Reality , where the virtual augments the real, and Augmented virtuality , where the real augments the virtual. Cyberspace , the world's computer systems considered as an interconnected whole, can be thought of as a virtual reality; for instance, it is portrayed as such in the cyberpunk fiction of William Gibson and others. Second life and MMORPGs such as World of Warcraft are examples of artificial environments or virtual worlds falling some way short of full virtual reality in cyberspace.
On the Internet, " real life " refers to life in the real world. It generally references life or consensus reality , in contrast to an environment seen as fiction or fantasy , such as virtual reality , lifelike experience , dreams , novels , or movies. Online, the acronym "IRL" stands for "in real life", with the meaning "not on the Internet". For example, one can speak of "meeting in RL" someone whom one has met in a chat or on an Internet forum. It may also be used to express an inability to use the Internet for a time due to "RL problems". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent. For other uses, see Reality disambiguation.
Not to be confused with Realty. See also: Truth and Fact. Further information: World view. Main article: Problem of universals. Main article: Philosophy of space and time. Main article: Theory of everything philosophy. Main article: Tattva Jainism. See also: Quantum decoherence. Oxford Dictionaries English. Retrieved International Studies in the Philosophy of Science.
Foundations of Physics. Bibcode : FoPh Edmund Husserl's phenomenology 2 ed.
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Purdue University Press. Husserl, Heidegger, and the space of meaning: paths toward transcendental phenomenology. Northwestern University Press. Jain , p. European Journal of Physics. Bibcode : EJPh Ethics 6 10 Visible nature is all plasticity and indifference, a multiverse, as one might call it, and not a universe.
Bibcode : Natur. Takemura; A. Utsumi; F. Kishino Proceedings of Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies. Archived from the original PDF on In Leah, Sonia, Lievrouw, and Livingstone eds. Sage Publications Inc. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link. Reality at Wikipedia's sister projects. Schools of thought. Mazdakism Zoroastrianism Zurvanism. Christian Scholasticism Thomism Renaissance humanism. Kyoto School Objectivism Postcritique Russian cosmism more Formalism Institutionalism Aesthetic response. Consequentialism Deontology Virtue.
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Real-world evidence trial generates real-world criticism, too
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