This is a stunning history of Lebanon over five centuries, bringing to life its politics, its people and the crucial role that it has always played in world affairs. Product details Format Paperback pages Dimensions x x The Emirate of Mount Lebanon 2.
A History of Modern Lebanon
Grandeur and Misery of the Mutasarrifiya 4. Dialectics of Attachment and Detachment 6. From Mandate to Independence 7. The Merchant Republic 8.
by Mitchell G. Bard
Shihabism and the Difficult Autonomy of the State Reform by Arms The Longest Coup d'Etat The War Order Review quote 'Traboulsi writes what has eluded us for a long time, a history of modern lebanon that includes the civil war and post civil war periods' -- Maya Mikdashi, Jadaliyya 'This is a unique work. After the establishment of Israel , Lebanon stayed mostly out of the conflict.
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The key factor in Lebanese politics throughout its short history has been the delicate demographic balance between Muslims and Christians and the internal divisions among the Muslim factions. The Muslims were the main proponents of unifying with Syria because that would ensure Muslim dominance of the enlarged entity. Christians opposed the idea, fearing just that outcome. In , the murder of a prominent opposition newspaper editor provoked widespread violence.
Pan-Arabists accused the Christian president and other nationalists of the crime, and soon received backing from the newly formed United Arab Republic.
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The Eisenhower administration was less concerned with Lebanon in particular than the broader threat to pro-Western Arab nations posed by Pan-Arabists. The U. The rebels had hoped to move Lebanon away from the West and closer to the rest of the Arab world, but they failed.
History of Lebanon - Wikipedia
After the civil war, the Christians and Muslims seemed to come to an understanding that their interests had to be balanced and that the country was too weak to remain independent without Western backing, but also that they could not afford to be isolated in the Arab world. As much as many Muslims wanted Lebanon to be part of the greater Arab world, they also knew that they would lose their individual power if that were to happen.
At the same time, an intense political rivalry always remained just below the surface of relations between the factions, and these only grew as it became clear the demographics of the country were changing. According to the agreement they had reached, the proportion of Christian to Muslim representatives in the government was supposed to be 6 to 5. By the s, Muslims believed the population had tilted in their favor, but the Christians refused to allow a new census that might confirm the suspicion that they were now the minority.
This was a source of persistent frustration in the Muslim community.
The delicate ethnic-political balance in Lebanon began to unravel in the early s. One catalyst was Black September and the influx of Palestinians into Southern Lebanon who quickly re-created the state-within-a-state they had lost in Jordan. The intensification of the PLO's terrorist attacks on Israel further undermined central Lebanese authorityIn addition, the Muslim population was demanding a greater share of power that better reflected their majority status.
In general, the Muslims were increasingly dissatisfied with the political arrangement that kept Christians in power.
A History of Modern Lebanon - Second Edition
That arrangement had been based on the s census that counted Christians in the majority in Lebanon. Although no new official count was allowed, no one doubted a demographic shift had occurred, which was why the Christians were determined to keep using the old census. The Christians were led by Pierre Gemayel, whose Phalange party wanted to maintain the country's independence and the minority's political rights.
Christians Versus Muslims and Palestinians. The ethnic, religious, and tribal divisions in Lebanon increasingly took on the appearance of a Hatfields versus McCoys-type feud in which each group accused the other of discrimination, violence, or some slight that provoked a flurry of attacks and counterattacks. The cycle of violence quickly escalated to a civil war with Christians fighting the Palestinian and Muslim forces.
Syria had long considered Lebanon to be part of Greater Syria, and President Hafez Assad saw the fighting there as an opportunity to move toward the goal of swallowing his neighbor. Initially, the Syrians armed the Muslims and Palestinians, but then attempted to mediate a new agreement that changed some of the rules regarding the division between Christians and Muslims in the government.
Thinking that the Christians were on the verge of defeat, however, militant Muslim leaders continued their campaign. In April , Assad ordered Syrian troops into the country. Fawwaz Traboulsi provides a compelling account of Lebanon's emergence as a state, a critical appraisal of its autonomy, a pathbreaking analysis of its social origins in the intimate and ever changing relationship of caste and class' -- Irene Gendzier, Professor of History, Boston University 'Traboulsi writes what has eluded us for a long time, a history of modern lebanon that includes the civil war and post civil war periods' -- Maya Mikdashi, Jadaliyya.
Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist. Ships in 7 to 10 business days. Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Industry Reviews 'Puts Lebanon's long war into a context that makes it comprehensible and, perhaps, inevitable.
List of Maps p. All Rights Reserved.