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Ethernet connection. This approach gives several advantages: extends the capabilities of embedded system, avoids the cost of a display, simplifies BSP and allows one to build a rich user interface on the PC. A good example of this is the combination of an embedded web server running on an embedded device such as an IP camera or a network router. The user interface is displayed in a web browser on a PC connected to the device, therefore needing no software to be installed.

Examples of properties of typical embedded computers when compared with general-purpose counterparts are low power consumption, small size, rugged operating ranges, and low per-unit cost. This comes at the price of limited processing resources, which make them significantly more difficult to program and to interact with. However, by building intelligence mechanisms on top of the hardware, taking advantage of possible existing sensors and the existence of a network of embedded units, one can both optimally manage available resources at the unit and network levels as well as provide augmented functions, well beyond those available.

Embedded processors can be broken into two broad categories. In contrast to the personal computer market, many different basic CPU architectures are used since software is custom-developed for an application and is not a commodity product installed by the end user. Both Von Neumann as well as various degrees of Harvard architectures are used.

Most architectures come in a large number of different variants and shapes, many of which are also manufactured by several different companies. Numerous microcontrollers have been developed for embedded systems use. General-purpose microprocessors are also used in embedded systems, but generally, require more support circuitry than microcontrollers.

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Sometimes these boards use non-x86 processors. In certain applications, where small size or power efficiency are not primary concerns, the components used may be compatible with those used in general purpose x86 personal computers. Boards such as the VIA EPIA range help to bridge the gap by being PC-compatible but highly integrated, physically smaller or have other attributes making them attractive to embedded engineers.

The advantage of this approach is that low-cost commodity components may be used along with the same software development tools used for general software development. Systems built in this way are still regarded as embedded since they are integrated into larger devices and fulfill a single role. Examples of devices that may adopt this approach are ATMs and arcade machines , which contain code specific to the application.

When a system-on-a-chip processor is involved, there may be little benefit to having a standardized bus connecting discrete components, and the environment for both hardware and software tools may be very different.


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One common design style uses a small system module, perhaps the size of a business card, holding high density BGA chips such as an ARM -based system-on-a-chip processor and peripherals, external flash memory for storage, and DRAM for runtime memory. The module vendor will usually provide boot software and make sure there is a selection of operating systems, usually including Linux and some real time choices. These modules can be manufactured in high volume, by organizations familiar with their specialized testing issues, and combined with much lower volume custom mainboards with application-specific external peripherals.

Implementation of embedded systems has advanced so that they can easily be implemented with already-made boards that are based on worldwide accepted platforms. These platforms include, but are not limited to, Arduino and Raspberry Pi. A common array for very-high-volume embedded systems is the system on a chip SoC that contains a complete system consisting of multiple processors, multipliers, caches and interfaces on a single chip. Embedded systems talk with the outside world via peripherals , such as:.

As with other software, embedded system designers use compilers , assemblers , and debuggers to develop embedded system software. However, they may also use some more specific tools:. As the complexity of embedded systems grows, higher level tools and operating systems are migrating into machinery where it makes sense. For example, cellphones , personal digital assistants and other consumer computers often need significant software that is purchased or provided by a person other than the manufacturer of the electronics.

Embedded systems are commonly found in consumer, cooking, industrial, automotive, medical applications. Household appliances, such as microwave ovens, washing machines and dishwashers, include embedded systems to provide flexibility and efficiency. Embedded debugging may be performed at different levels, depending on the facilities available. The different metrics that characterize the different forms of embedded debugging are: does it slow down the main application, how close is the debugged system or application to the actual system or application, how expressive are the triggers that can be set for debugging e.

Unless restricted to external debugging, the programmer can typically load and run software through the tools, view the code running in the processor, and start or stop its operation. The view of the code may be as HLL source-code , assembly code or mixture of both. Because an embedded system is often composed of a wide variety of elements, the debugging strategy may vary.

For instance, debugging a software- and microprocessor- centric embedded system is different from debugging an embedded system where most of the processing is performed by peripherals DSP, FPGA, and co-processor. An increasing number of embedded systems today use more than one single processor core. A common problem with multi-core development is the proper synchronization of software execution. Real-time operating systems RTOS often supports tracing of operating system events.

A graphical view is presented by a host PC tool, based on a recording of the system behavior. The trace recording can be performed in software, by the RTOS, or by special tracing hardware.

Embedded Systems Circuits and Programming - Julio Sánchez - Google книги

RTOS tracing allows developers to understand timing and performance issues of the software system and gives a good understanding of the high-level system behaviors. Embedded systems often reside in machines that are expected to run continuously for years without errors, and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs. Therefore, the software is usually developed and tested more carefully than that for personal computers, and unreliable mechanical moving parts such as disk drives, switches or buttons are avoided.

A variety of techniques are used, sometimes in combination, to recover from errors—both software bugs such as memory leaks , and also soft errors in the hardware:.

Embedded systems basics

For high volume systems such as portable music players or mobile phones , minimizing cost is usually the primary design consideration. For low-volume or prototype embedded systems, general purpose computers may be adapted by limiting the programs or by replacing the operating system with a real-time operating system. In this design, the software simply has a loop. The loop calls subroutines , each of which manages a part of the hardware or software. Hence it is called a simple control loop or control loop. Some embedded systems are predominantly controlled by interrupts. This means that tasks performed by the system are triggered by different kinds of events; an interrupt could be generated, for example, by a timer in a predefined frequency, or by a serial port controller receiving a byte.

These kinds of systems are used if event handlers need low latency, and the event handlers are short and simple. Usually, these kinds of systems run a simple task in a main loop also, but this task is not very sensitive to unexpected delays.


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  4. Sometimes the interrupt handler will add longer tasks to a queue structure. Later, after the interrupt handler has finished, these tasks are executed by the main loop. This method brings the system close to a multitasking kernel with discrete processes. A nonpreemptive multitasking system is very similar to the simple control loop scheme, except that the loop is hidden in an API.

    The advantages and disadvantages are similar to that of the control loop, except that adding new software is easier, by simply writing a new task, or adding to the queue. In this type of system, a low-level piece of code switches between tasks or threads based on a timer connected to an interrupt. This is the level at which the system is generally considered to have an "operating system" kernel.

    Depending on how much functionality is required, it introduces more or less of the complexities of managing multiple tasks running conceptually in parallel. As any code can potentially damage the data of another task except in larger systems using an MMU programs must be carefully designed and tested, and access to shared data must be controlled by some synchronization strategy, such as message queues , semaphores or a non-blocking synchronization scheme.

    Because of these complexities, it is common for organizations to use a real-time operating system RTOS , allowing the application programmers to concentrate on device functionality rather than operating system services, at least for large systems; smaller systems often cannot afford the overhead associated with a generic real-time system, due to limitations regarding memory size, performance, or battery life. The choice that an RTOS is required brings in its own issues, however, as the selection must be done prior to starting to the application development process.

    This timing forces developers to choose the embedded operating system for their device based upon current requirements and so restricts future options to a large extent. These trends are leading to the uptake of embedded middleware in addition to a real-time operating system. A microkernel is a logical step up from a real-time OS. The usual arrangement is that the operating system kernel allocates memory and switches the CPU to different threads of execution.

    User mode processes implement major functions such as file systems, network interfaces, etc. In general, microkernels succeed when the task switching and intertask communication is fast and fail when they are slow. Exokernels communicate efficiently by normal subroutine calls. The hardware and all the software in the system are available to and extensible by application programmers.

    In this case, a relatively large kernel with sophisticated capabilities is adapted to suit an embedded environment. This gives programmers an environment similar to a desktop operating system like Linux or Microsoft Windows , and is therefore very productive for development; on the downside, it requires considerably more hardware resources, is often more expensive, and, because of the complexity of these kernels, can be less predictable and reliable.

    Common examples of embedded monolithic kernels are embedded Linux and Windows CE. Despite the increased cost in hardware, this type of embedded system is increasing in popularity, especially on the more powerful embedded devices such as wireless routers and GPS navigation systems.

    Here are some of the reasons:. In addition to the core operating system, many embedded systems have additional upper-layer software components. If the embedded device has audio and video capabilities, then the appropriate drivers and codecs will be present in the system. In the case of the monolithic kernels, many of these software layers are included.

    In the RTOS category, the availability of the additional software components depends upon the commercial offering. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Embedded software. Electronics portal. Neutrino Technical Library. Retrieved Embedded systems design. EDN series for design engineers 2 ed. An embedded system is a microprocessor based system that is built to control a function or a range of functions. Massa For critical circuits, the authors provide tested PCB files. Julio Sanchez is a professor emeritus of computer science at Minnesota State University.

    He is the author of over twenty-five books, with many translated into Chinese, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, and Polish. Maria P. Canton is the co-author of over twenty books, with many translated into Chinese, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean, and Polish. She earned a Ph. It may serve as self-contained design compendium giving suitable technical background, technical documentation of Microchip bit microcontrollers and plenty of design examples.

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    Components of Embedded System

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