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Poetic text, as a literary genre, is distinct from non-literary text because of the special effect it can have on the reader and this special effect in literature-text, as a whole, has been argued to be a function of the special literary forms imposed upon the ordinary language patterns in the literaturetext. Among these special forms, this paper will focus on phonological patterns in poetic texts.

Phonological patterns rhyming, alliteration, assonance, etc. The paper will then discuss the implications for the un- translatability of poetic texts. Translating poetry does not merely mean producing a text, in TL, which carries rhyming patterns. The TL text should also be equal to SL in terms of the type and degree of special literary effect.

For this purpose, the rhyming patterns, due to the special textual function they assume in poetry, should be placed upon the same lexical locality in both SL and TL, a requirement which can hardly be achieved due to the non-isomorphism of sound-meaning relationship across languages. Parallel corpora have long been awaited in simultaneous interpreting studies in order to validate existing theories and models.

The aim of the project is to study recurrent lexical patterns and morphosyntactical structures across all the possible language combinations and directions, and verify empirically whether different strategies can be detected when interpreting from a Germanic language into a Romance one and vice-versa, or between two Romance languages. EPIC is freely available on-line for the research community to use and contribute to.

The aim of this paper is to describe the issues and trends facing the next generation of Bible translations. In the second part of the twentieth century a primary concern for meaning and readability has influenced the trend to produce translations which are more reflective of dynamic equivalence than formal equivalence. A new trend in Bible translation will take into consideration the requirements of the hearer, as well as those of the reader the translation has to be read out aloud, heard and listened to.

A shift away from the typical language usage of the Bible translations in the second half of the 20 th century is the offing i. Une nouvelle tendance dans la traduction de la Bible devra tenir compte des besoins de ceux qui entendent et de ceux qui lisent. A semiolinguistic analysis is prerequisite to all process of translation. It is a creation of an intermediary though not subordinate version between two languages, a third text mentioned by Ricoeur.

The analysis of a text lays the foundations for a conceptual grammar which makes a translation possible. In this respect, the analysis is a proactive approach guiding the translator through a jumble of priorities. It allows him to identify the reference marks necessary to establish a certain hierarchy of values, or in other words, to realise what is more and what is less important for the semiosis of the text and, by consequence, for carrying out its translation.

These phenomena underpinning the conceptual structure are often difficult to interpret and translate. Many researchers have already observed that the difficulties of translation derive from the peculiarity of the language itself. The coincidence of semiotic importance of these phenomena and their "odd" character is due to the research of literary or poetic expression as it frequently explores the areas far behind linguistic habits.

These particularities convey a message of the subject and build up the characteristics of its identity as well as the identity of the text itself since precisely because of their peculiarity and oddity they are easily spotted and singled out. The term particularity or peculiarity powers its way spontaneously. It is used by Paul Ricoeur, George Steiner and Jean-Claude Coquet and it expresses well the specific, concise, compact, and sometimes symbolic character of the form-sense units which depict our reality in metaphors through a process of artistic creation.

These units need to be understood, rendered and reconstructed in another idiom in order to offer an equivalent structure with the same linguistic, semiotic and sensorial pattern. What is different draws attention. It is valid for all human activity given that there is an observer, an eye that records that difference. In my translatological reflections, these difficult units, transgressions of linguistic habits are called transemes.

The quoted examples come from Polish romantic poems analysed, conceptualised and translated into French. The aim of the article is to evaluate to what extent the recent advances in phraseology may contribute positively to the research in traductology. Despite the significant increase of research works devoted to the field of phraseology, up until now most of the findings do not seem to have found their use in the domain of traductology, specifically from a theoretical point of view.

Phraseology is indeed often presented as a domain of applied research rather than of fundamental research. The article shows that nevertheless phraseology is not only capable of resolving some specific problems of translation but that it owes this capacity to its underlying assumptions which stand behind every phraseological approach of language. The article thus offers an overall view of theoretical premises in phraseology by examining a number of fundamental concepts common to both disciplines, phraseology and traductology.

The first part of this paper is a historical sketch of MT and MAT in the Chinese context, highlighting some important stages in its development which have laid the foundation for later achievements. It is shown that the research of MT in this region is similar to that in other parts of the world, with the attention gradually turning to MAT.

Then popular commercial software dedicated to the translation from Chinese into other foreign languages, and vice versa, are introduced, with an appraisal of both their merits and demerits. It is suggested that, for mutual benefits, MT and MAT research in the Chinese context should cooperate with the outside world more closely. Envisioned in ethical Berman and political terms Venuti , translation was never successfully considered in erotic terms. Indeed, when translatologists attempted to do so, they emphasized either the viewpoint of the translator brutalizing the source-text or that of the translator subjugated to the Original.

The relationship to the textual body is never as sterile as theoreticians posit or as crude as practitioners believe. Following Levinas, the notion of caress could be considered as a paradigmatic gesture touching lightly the textual body, a gesture whose aim is neither to possess this body nor to betray it. This essay examines the ideological dimension of translation studies in present-day China, which can be viewed as an indicator of any discernible change in ideological fluctuations of translation.

Based on an overview of translation studies in present-day China, this essay argues that the most urgent problem is the domestic climate for the social, cultural, political, and institutional sub-systems of Chinese society. It is inadvisable to take the traditional cultural heritage or Western influences as the excuse or panacea for current problems in China. Local knowledge can be trivialized if cut off from the global setting, and the global setting becomes meaningless if local knowledge is ignored. The information transmitted by images accompanying technical and scientific texts id supposed to lead to a better, visually-oriented understanding of the concepts and descriptions contained in the text.

Given that conceptualising scientific information entails creating mental representations of the concepts, and since the function of images is complementary to the function of texts, cultural attitudes might well influence many aspects of an image ranging from its contents, to shape or colour. One might ask if the translation process should include the adaptation of original images in the text in order to avoid a misunderstanding of the message by readers from a target culture, or if images should be treated differently depending on the target audience.

As images in technical and scientific books and articles are often difficult to interpret a close study of them is needed so that the visual message matches the knowledge of the receiver in the target culture.

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In this article we propose cognitive and pragmatic criteria regarding the message transmitted by images in scientific texts as a guide to translation-oriented image analysis. Over the last decades, Translation Studies has explicitly tried to develop and regard itself as an interdiscipline. This evolution, as well as this self-esteem, has not only widened the focus of the field, it has also created a sometimes unclear eclecticism of topics, influences and methods.

Characteristic of a still not too well-established and not always acknowledged discipline, research in Translation Studies has been looking for common interests and common grounds with other disciplines in an ambitious, but often unstructured way. The new online Translation Studies Bibliography TSB - first release October , which concentrates on the last decade, is used here as a tool for the analysis of the multiplicity of influences.

Expanded several times a year, the TSB offers more than 7, annotated entries and uses a sophisticated key word system. The quantitative analysis of these key words and their thematic fields indicate the priorities in the dissemination of TS research over the past decade. How does research on translation today reflect this assumption? Is research on literary translation still as widespread as it was in the eighties? The results of this analysis may indicate emphases and research priorities for the next decade in Translation Studies. Yet, pedagogical assessment of translation, especially in relation to the assessment of translation works by students, mostly seem to fall into one kind, one which is overwhelmingly based on an imagined standard and concerned with accurate and adequate comformity to the standard.

The author of this paper, while experimenting with game theory and problem-based learning in the teaching of translation and interpreting, has been rethinking the assessment process. In this paper, he will discuss the characteristics of plan-based assessment system in comparison to those presumably comprising the conventional system. Comparison will also be made to the sort of assessment advocated by functional theories of translation as they inspired and informed the construction of plan-based assessment.

The paper will conclude with a case study of the use of plan-based assessment. This study seeks to demonstrate that active interaction between learner and teacher rather than passive reception by the teacher - as obtains in traditional teaching models - is essential. A product-based analysis of actual training makes it possible to identify a translation problem and subsequently apply theoretical considerations. Depending on the nature of the text being translated, error analysis can be used effectively not only for monitoring student progress but also for appraising general performance.

Meta-reflection, according to the article, is the key to promote awareness-raising and, as a consequence, an increment in the quality of translator. For the interpreter, preparing for an interpretation is of utmost importance since it is directly linked with the quality of the interpretation? How long the interpreter prepares depends on the interpreter experience, the difficulty of the subject as well as well the time available before the actual interpretation takes place.

The purpose of this article is to research the objective and means of preparation as well as the variables which influence the preparation phase and the evolution in preparation methods. A special emphasis will be placed on the importance of Internet use during preparation, which areas to concentrate on during preparation and how to manage each different case. These are all factors that should be taken into account when teaching student interpreters. In the last twenty years authors like Delisle and Kiraly have made evident the lack of agreement concerning the methodologies used to teach practical translation courses.

In this presentation we, first, revise the concept of community in translation studies. Second, we echo the criticisms of Delisle on the lack of innovation in the teaching of practical translation courses. And finally, we share two examples of the kind of research that could take place in translation classes and in translation programs to promote collaborative research projects.

This should be a way to insist on the importance of the classroom as the place to produce the kind of empirical data that could provide the grounds for a translation teaching methodology. Although from an internal perspective, researchers regard translation as a complex cognitive process, it is also necessary to take into account the external viewpoint represented by translation receivers.


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This is true, not only because of the necessary information that knowledge of user expectations provides for the translation process itself, but also because of the possibility that it offers to modify external expectations that are not in consonance with professional translation. In this paper, we review the principal models proposed by modern descriptive studies of translation, as well as cognitive models. We thus contrast these theoretical approaches in an empirical study that we have carried out, and which is based on the results of evaluations made by a group of translation users of a specific set of translations.

Our conclusions highlight the points where both perspectives coincide as well as those points where they still defer. This approach is of limited benefit when the novices must apply what they have learnt to real situations that they will encounter as professionals. Thus, it can be said that we are at the point where we need to seek a new approach in which we can help novices to develop their own competence.

While PBL is now commonly employed in such areas, there has as yet been no significant movement to introduce this approach in the area of translator education. This paper consists of three major components. First of all, the problems of educator-centred teaching in translation will be discussed.

This will be followed by an outline of the benefits of PBL for translator education, from both theoretical and practical perspectives. The feasibility of PBL as an effective model for translator education will be then considered based on empirical case studies. Cet article comporte trois volets principaux. Based on the results of such analysis, a program renewal is proposed to better coordinate the interests and views of the parties involved in the teaching and learning. This paper presents the first project on the formation of Sign Language Interpreters in Greek Universities.

At the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, the training of sign language interpreters is an experimental project organized by the Social Policy Committee and is carried out in collaboration with the School of English Studies and the Postgraduate Program in Translation and Interpretation Studies. This project has been initiated because of the realization that deaf students represent a linguistic minority in our University. In universities, the growing number of deaf students increases the demand for community and conference interpreting between the Greek sign language and the Greek — general or special — spoken language.

The classroom-based action research explored the question of how to incorporate sustainability in translator education. The research adopted social constructivism as a teaching approach to achieve the goal of education for sustainability. The whole process was studied by means of action research.

The research found that collaborative project-based teaching is a highly efficacious method to improve translation skills and generic skills required for sustainability.


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This paper explores the usefulness of self-assessment in an interpretation classroom. Students of the Korean-English Program in a two-year graduate school of translation and interpretation were asked to analyze and assess their interpretation performances and submit a self-assessment report to the instructor. Later, a survey was conducted to find out what aspects of self-assessment the students found positive or negative. But students also found selfassessment to be time-consuming and emotionally draining. However, all students and the instructor agreed that self-assessment was conducive to students.

A survey was conducted in among Korean-English interpreters residing in Korea to study their views regarding interpreting into B — something that is considered the norm in some countries, while almost taboo in other countries. Following the first survey, a second similar survey was conducted among AIIC members across the world. This compares the two surveys in an attempt to determine whether the sentiment about interpreting into B is different among interpreters — regardless of their language combination — or whether it is relatively the same.

The notion of objectivity for scientific and technical translation is a fundamental criterion. To study this element of a scientific procedure, translation could be positioned on an epistemological axis. We find translation between positivism and constructivism, particularly when rereading and revision are concerned. Questions can lead to knowledge through rigorous method. The translator then reaches a sufficient level of conscience and his mission can be carried out.

He applies a proactive procedure, the implications of which can be taught. While the demand for conference interpreters in traditional language combinations the more widely used languages is decreasing, the need for experts in less widely used languages is rapidly increasing with each enlargement of the EU. Post-war peace-keeping operations as well as warcrime tribunals have also increased the need for high-level interpreters in languages hitherto not used in the international arena and consequently more well-trained interpreter trainers both for traditional programs as well as ad-hoc intensive programs must be available.

Interpreters are a highly mobile community of professionals, unable to be physically present in a university for long periods of time to be trained as trainers. The Certificate course for Interpreter Trainers at ETI University of Geneva has been offering the only postgraduate course for training interpreter trainers since To meet the demand for training around the world the Certificate course is now offered in a blended format: Nine months of distance learning are blended with one week of faceto-face learning.

The portal www. With its public access and a special section for students of interpreting the portal has become an international meeting point for interpreter trainers where participants in the Certificate course interact with interpreting students at ETI, and interpreter trainers from schools around the world can interact with the Certificate teaching staff and students.

This paper reports on the first systematic assessment of both the learning environment and the learning outcomes of the Certificate course. The authors present their views on the importance of providing individual, immediate feedback in on-line teaching. The authors have adapted the Proxy program, enabling the teacher to. An empirical experiment is described involving students of German and Portuguese, which provides initial data on the appropriateness of different feedback paradigms for on-line and distance education of trainee translators. They can also be used in the area of evaluation, as an objective filter to assess language performance in translations or as a descriptive tertium comparationis for the interpretation of translational shifts obtained from work done exclusively with parallel corpora STEng- TTSp.

This paper combines the communicative model of translation with performative linguistics to arrive at a translation model that is meant to proactively shape the attitudes of future translators. Central to this model is the claim that the translator, like any communicator, has a communicative intent that gets expressed in the target text. This is contrasted with machine translation, which is concerned with finding equivalents to translation units without actually having anything to say in the target language. The paper concludes by indicating a way of building a translation evaluation system on the proposed model.

The methodology of an e-learning course is based on the strategies of proactive learning, focused on the student as the key element of an approach to training in which the teacher acts as a facilitator of the learning process. Within the context of the design of a translation course in an e-learning context, the teacher must bear in mind that the student is faced with tasks that require the previous design of aids that help both in the translation process and in the acquisition of field knowledge to carry them out.

Furthermore, the design should reflect the new multimedia structures that the information society has brought about. We present a series of activities generated with both visual and textual material implemented in the design of e-learning courses in audiovisual translation subtitling and multimedia , technical and scientific translation.

The activities are intended to be of use for other subjects too, since they facilitate communication between students and act at the levels of lexical, phraseological, textual and cultural competence. Il doit le faire autant de fois que le nombre de domaines dans lesquels il veut traduire.

The translator who has to do translation in a scientific or technical domain must get to know notions and terminology of the domain. He does it as many times as the number of domains in which he wants to translate. It takes a long time as there are very many concepts. With research carried in cognitive science and in terminology studies concepts have been put into categories, their properties have been put forward and criteria which speed up the analysis and the understanding of concepts have been set.

In this paper we present types and features of concepts as well as fundamental questions to ask in order to apprehend essential notions of a domain and be able to do translation in that domain. While current translation theory is beginning to reconcile cultural and linguistic approaches to translation, this is far from the case in translation pedagogy and curriculum. Issues examined include redesigning curriculum to highlight the socio-cultural functions of translation, integrating culture and pedagogy, and identifying the theoretical implications of a cultural turn in translation teaching.

Bassey E. Against the backdrop of the place of terminology in shaping professional issues in translation, we initially describe some stages in the process by which terminology has acquired institutional identity in translator training programmes and constituted its knowledge base. We then suggest a framework that seeks to show how theory construction in terminology has contributed to a better understanding of technical texts and their translation.

A final section similarly illustrates how this overarching theoretical scheme has driven, or is at least consistent with, products and methods in the translation sector of the so-called language industries. The purpose of this paper is to examine its potentialities, which can be very practical and useful when analysing stylistic deviations in the meaning of words coming from languages that share common cultural and historical origins. Modern dictionaries, if they aim at becoming useful tools for translators, cannot ignore the so-called lexico-pragmatic dimension of words.

An age-old science, medicine has had to follow in the steps of history for millenniums. Little wonder, then, if medical language - and, hence, terminology - has always been influenced, over the years, by its successive users. The medical translator is bound to realize that the medical sociolect, far from feeding on an exact and objective terminology, is in fact prey to synchronic as well as diachronic instability. A , a motorcycle producer, axing on the prestige and visibility of the regional variety as main language of communication of the working place.

Every day, we can witness the growing importance of Internet. A substantial amount of Web sites host interesting terminological information dealing with specialised subjects but have yet to be the object of a literature search. The online booking field, to name but one of many subject areas whose realizations are mainly on the Internet, can only be searched by using an array of specialised tools. In this article, we will start by presenting the distinctiveness of our field of study and the methodology we used to complete our method. Much good work on Translation Studies TS has concentrated on the verbal text.

Nevertheless, in our post-modern world, multi-modality is exploited to the maximum, as advertising shows.

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The answers could take a while to come by. Le virage culturel dans sa version forte effectue un changement radical dans la fonction de la traduction et rend la trace de la presence du traducteur trop visible. Cet article a donc pour objectif de corriger les choses, du moins les tenir en bride. The willed interaction of laws in Europe entails an interaction of languages. Yet, the defenders of uniformization of laws ignore the linguistic stakes in a way that can only summon the traductologist.

Given his epistemic assumptions, the latter is however led to react in a way that lawyers will readily find subversive. For these two admittedly paradoxical reasons, the traductologist argues that lawyers underestimate the impact of language on the process of uniformization of laws. Concurrent translatology studies were appearing without any similar link within comparative semiostylistic studies; these were mainly concentrated in analysing styles, esthetic forms, semiotical aspects but not in linguistical and cultural transfer processing. Comparative semiostylistic and translatology are two subjects sharing common fields of research and in the future they may continue their new collaboration.

It offers a critical path analysis of the translation cycle, with due consideration to the various operators and functions that do influence the processes or interact in the course of the processings. Working with recombinant unitary operations makes it possible to pinpoint the influence of each and every variable and to clearly see the effects of variation without inteference from influences outside the operations themselves. This paper will, in effect, sketch out a possible itinerary for such a revisit.

These courses have been and are being tried at the newly instituted graduate programme in translation at the University of Peradeniya in Srilanka. This study was stimulated by several questions: What time lag is contained in the synchronicity of simultaneous interpretation? How do the linguistic characteristics of the language to be interpreted influence synchronicity? The results showed that in Korean-Chinese interpretation the interpreter begins the interpretation before a whole sentence is finished, and that in Korean-Japanese interpretation, the interpreter leaves a time lag before beginning the interpreted utterance.

In order to define the translator as a border-crosser, to formulate four tasks of the localiser, and finally to delimit culture of bordercrossing, we will explain the differences between traditionnal and new global translation contexts. Given the evanescent quality of the spoken word, interpreters tend to be evaluated, trained, and selected on the basis of unproven theories and preconceptions about the cognitive processes and areas of difficulty associated with their work.

A gap persists between theoretical work and empirical evidence of the processes proposed by such studies. Recent developments in technology are now being applied to interpreter performance evaluation, shedding light on aspects of interpreter performance that have previously resisted systematic analysis.

It is now possible to examine large volumes of language in use, in both audio and textual realms. This paper presents the MRC model for analysis of interpreter performance and a study conducted using that method for the purpose of identifying interpreter training needs. Theoretical background, the MRC model, and the study outcomes and pedagogical implications are presented. Poetic text, as a literary genre, is distinct from non-literary text because of the special effect it can have on the reader and this special effect in literature-text, as a whole, has been argued to be a function of the special literary forms imposed upon the ordinary language patterns in the literaturetext.

Among these special forms, this paper will focus on phonological patterns in poetic texts.

Mozart - Le nozze di Figaro (actes 1-2) (ST it-eng-fr-de-esp)

Phonological patterns rhyming, alliteration, assonance, etc. The paper will then discuss the implications for the un- translatability of poetic texts. Translating poetry does not merely mean producing a text, in TL, which carries rhyming patterns. The TL text should also be equal to SL in terms of the type and degree of special literary effect. For this purpose, the rhyming patterns, due to the special textual function they assume in poetry, should be placed upon the same lexical locality in both SL and TL, a requirement which can hardly be achieved due to the non-isomorphism of sound-meaning relationship across languages.

Parallel corpora have long been awaited in simultaneous interpreting studies in order to validate existing theories and models. The aim of the project is to study recurrent lexical patterns and morphosyntactical structures across all the possible language combinations and directions, and verify empirically whether different strategies can be detected when interpreting from a Germanic language into a Romance one and vice-versa, or between two Romance languages.

EPIC is freely available on-line for the research community to use and contribute to. The aim of this paper is to describe the issues and trends facing the next generation of Bible translations. In the second part of the twentieth century a primary concern for meaning and readability has influenced the trend to produce translations which are more reflective of dynamic equivalence than formal equivalence.

A new trend in Bible translation will take into consideration the requirements of the hearer, as well as those of the reader the translation has to be read out aloud, heard and listened to. A shift away from the typical language usage of the Bible translations in the second half of the 20 th century is the offing i. Une nouvelle tendance dans la traduction de la Bible devra tenir compte des besoins de ceux qui entendent et de ceux qui lisent. A semiolinguistic analysis is prerequisite to all process of translation.

It is a creation of an intermediary though not subordinate version between two languages, a third text mentioned by Ricoeur. The analysis of a text lays the foundations for a conceptual grammar which makes a translation possible. In this respect, the analysis is a proactive approach guiding the translator through a jumble of priorities. It allows him to identify the reference marks necessary to establish a certain hierarchy of values, or in other words, to realise what is more and what is less important for the semiosis of the text and, by consequence, for carrying out its translation.

These phenomena underpinning the conceptual structure are often difficult to interpret and translate. Many researchers have already observed that the difficulties of translation derive from the peculiarity of the language itself. The coincidence of semiotic importance of these phenomena and their "odd" character is due to the research of literary or poetic expression as it frequently explores the areas far behind linguistic habits. These particularities convey a message of the subject and build up the characteristics of its identity as well as the identity of the text itself since precisely because of their peculiarity and oddity they are easily spotted and singled out.

The term particularity or peculiarity powers its way spontaneously. It is used by Paul Ricoeur, George Steiner and Jean-Claude Coquet and it expresses well the specific, concise, compact, and sometimes symbolic character of the form-sense units which depict our reality in metaphors through a process of artistic creation. These units need to be understood, rendered and reconstructed in another idiom in order to offer an equivalent structure with the same linguistic, semiotic and sensorial pattern.

What is different draws attention. It is valid for all human activity given that there is an observer, an eye that records that difference. In my translatological reflections, these difficult units, transgressions of linguistic habits are called transemes. The quoted examples come from Polish romantic poems analysed, conceptualised and translated into French. The aim of the article is to evaluate to what extent the recent advances in phraseology may contribute positively to the research in traductology.

Despite the significant increase of research works devoted to the field of phraseology, up until now most of the findings do not seem to have found their use in the domain of traductology, specifically from a theoretical point of view. Phraseology is indeed often presented as a domain of applied research rather than of fundamental research. The article shows that nevertheless phraseology is not only capable of resolving some specific problems of translation but that it owes this capacity to its underlying assumptions which stand behind every phraseological approach of language.

The article thus offers an overall view of theoretical premises in phraseology by examining a number of fundamental concepts common to both disciplines, phraseology and traductology. The first part of this paper is a historical sketch of MT and MAT in the Chinese context, highlighting some important stages in its development which have laid the foundation for later achievements.

It is shown that the research of MT in this region is similar to that in other parts of the world, with the attention gradually turning to MAT. Then popular commercial software dedicated to the translation from Chinese into other foreign languages, and vice versa, are introduced, with an appraisal of both their merits and demerits. It is suggested that, for mutual benefits, MT and MAT research in the Chinese context should cooperate with the outside world more closely.

Envisioned in ethical Berman and political terms Venuti , translation was never successfully considered in erotic terms. Indeed, when translatologists attempted to do so, they emphasized either the viewpoint of the translator brutalizing the source-text or that of the translator subjugated to the Original. The relationship to the textual body is never as sterile as theoreticians posit or as crude as practitioners believe.

Following Levinas, the notion of caress could be considered as a paradigmatic gesture touching lightly the textual body, a gesture whose aim is neither to possess this body nor to betray it. This essay examines the ideological dimension of translation studies in present-day China, which can be viewed as an indicator of any discernible change in ideological fluctuations of translation.

Based on an overview of translation studies in present-day China, this essay argues that the most urgent problem is the domestic climate for the social, cultural, political, and institutional sub-systems of Chinese society. It is inadvisable to take the traditional cultural heritage or Western influences as the excuse or panacea for current problems in China. Local knowledge can be trivialized if cut off from the global setting, and the global setting becomes meaningless if local knowledge is ignored.

The information transmitted by images accompanying technical and scientific texts id supposed to lead to a better, visually-oriented understanding of the concepts and descriptions contained in the text. Given that conceptualising scientific information entails creating mental representations of the concepts, and since the function of images is complementary to the function of texts, cultural attitudes might well influence many aspects of an image ranging from its contents, to shape or colour.

One might ask if the translation process should include the adaptation of original images in the text in order to avoid a misunderstanding of the message by readers from a target culture, or if images should be treated differently depending on the target audience. As images in technical and scientific books and articles are often difficult to interpret a close study of them is needed so that the visual message matches the knowledge of the receiver in the target culture.

In this article we propose cognitive and pragmatic criteria regarding the message transmitted by images in scientific texts as a guide to translation-oriented image analysis. Over the last decades, Translation Studies has explicitly tried to develop and regard itself as an interdiscipline. This evolution, as well as this self-esteem, has not only widened the focus of the field, it has also created a sometimes unclear eclecticism of topics, influences and methods. Characteristic of a still not too well-established and not always acknowledged discipline, research in Translation Studies has been looking for common interests and common grounds with other disciplines in an ambitious, but often unstructured way.

The new online Translation Studies Bibliography TSB - first release October , which concentrates on the last decade, is used here as a tool for the analysis of the multiplicity of influences.

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Expanded several times a year, the TSB offers more than 7, annotated entries and uses a sophisticated key word system. The quantitative analysis of these key words and their thematic fields indicate the priorities in the dissemination of TS research over the past decade. How does research on translation today reflect this assumption? Is research on literary translation still as widespread as it was in the eighties?

The results of this analysis may indicate emphases and research priorities for the next decade in Translation Studies. Yet, pedagogical assessment of translation, especially in relation to the assessment of translation works by students, mostly seem to fall into one kind, one which is overwhelmingly based on an imagined standard and concerned with accurate and adequate comformity to the standard. The author of this paper, while experimenting with game theory and problem-based learning in the teaching of translation and interpreting, has been rethinking the assessment process.

In this paper, he will discuss the characteristics of plan-based assessment system in comparison to those presumably comprising the conventional system. Comparison will also be made to the sort of assessment advocated by functional theories of translation as they inspired and informed the construction of plan-based assessment.

The paper will conclude with a case study of the use of plan-based assessment. This study seeks to demonstrate that active interaction between learner and teacher rather than passive reception by the teacher - as obtains in traditional teaching models - is essential. A product-based analysis of actual training makes it possible to identify a translation problem and subsequently apply theoretical considerations.

Depending on the nature of the text being translated, error analysis can be used effectively not only for monitoring student progress but also for appraising general performance. Meta-reflection, according to the article, is the key to promote awareness-raising and, as a consequence, an increment in the quality of translator.

For the interpreter, preparing for an interpretation is of utmost importance since it is directly linked with the quality of the interpretation? How long the interpreter prepares depends on the interpreter experience, the difficulty of the subject as well as well the time available before the actual interpretation takes place. The purpose of this article is to research the objective and means of preparation as well as the variables which influence the preparation phase and the evolution in preparation methods.

A special emphasis will be placed on the importance of Internet use during preparation, which areas to concentrate on during preparation and how to manage each different case. These are all factors that should be taken into account when teaching student interpreters. In the last twenty years authors like Delisle and Kiraly have made evident the lack of agreement concerning the methodologies used to teach practical translation courses.

Meta : Journal des traducteurs – Érudit

In this presentation we, first, revise the concept of community in translation studies. Second, we echo the criticisms of Delisle on the lack of innovation in the teaching of practical translation courses. And finally, we share two examples of the kind of research that could take place in translation classes and in translation programs to promote collaborative research projects. This should be a way to insist on the importance of the classroom as the place to produce the kind of empirical data that could provide the grounds for a translation teaching methodology.

Although from an internal perspective, researchers regard translation as a complex cognitive process, it is also necessary to take into account the external viewpoint represented by translation receivers. This is true, not only because of the necessary information that knowledge of user expectations provides for the translation process itself, but also because of the possibility that it offers to modify external expectations that are not in consonance with professional translation.

In this paper, we review the principal models proposed by modern descriptive studies of translation, as well as cognitive models. We thus contrast these theoretical approaches in an empirical study that we have carried out, and which is based on the results of evaluations made by a group of translation users of a specific set of translations.

Our conclusions highlight the points where both perspectives coincide as well as those points where they still defer. This approach is of limited benefit when the novices must apply what they have learnt to real situations that they will encounter as professionals.

Thus, it can be said that we are at the point where we need to seek a new approach in which we can help novices to develop their own competence. While PBL is now commonly employed in such areas, there has as yet been no significant movement to introduce this approach in the area of translator education.

This paper consists of three major components. First of all, the problems of educator-centred teaching in translation will be discussed. This will be followed by an outline of the benefits of PBL for translator education, from both theoretical and practical perspectives. The feasibility of PBL as an effective model for translator education will be then considered based on empirical case studies.

Cet article comporte trois volets principaux. Based on the results of such analysis, a program renewal is proposed to better coordinate the interests and views of the parties involved in the teaching and learning. This paper presents the first project on the formation of Sign Language Interpreters in Greek Universities. At the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, the training of sign language interpreters is an experimental project organized by the Social Policy Committee and is carried out in collaboration with the School of English Studies and the Postgraduate Program in Translation and Interpretation Studies.

This project has been initiated because of the realization that deaf students represent a linguistic minority in our University. In universities, the growing number of deaf students increases the demand for community and conference interpreting between the Greek sign language and the Greek — general or special — spoken language. The classroom-based action research explored the question of how to incorporate sustainability in translator education. The research adopted social constructivism as a teaching approach to achieve the goal of education for sustainability.

The whole process was studied by means of action research. The research found that collaborative project-based teaching is a highly efficacious method to improve translation skills and generic skills required for sustainability. This paper explores the usefulness of self-assessment in an interpretation classroom. Students of the Korean-English Program in a two-year graduate school of translation and interpretation were asked to analyze and assess their interpretation performances and submit a self-assessment report to the instructor. Later, a survey was conducted to find out what aspects of self-assessment the students found positive or negative.

But students also found selfassessment to be time-consuming and emotionally draining. However, all students and the instructor agreed that self-assessment was conducive to students. A survey was conducted in among Korean-English interpreters residing in Korea to study their views regarding interpreting into B — something that is considered the norm in some countries, while almost taboo in other countries.

Following the first survey, a second similar survey was conducted among AIIC members across the world. This compares the two surveys in an attempt to determine whether the sentiment about interpreting into B is different among interpreters — regardless of their language combination — or whether it is relatively the same. The notion of objectivity for scientific and technical translation is a fundamental criterion. To study this element of a scientific procedure, translation could be positioned on an epistemological axis.

We find translation between positivism and constructivism, particularly when rereading and revision are concerned.


  1. Mieczysław Weinberg (Moisei Samuilovich Vainberg ) - Discographie!
  2. Kreating Truth (Episode One).
  3. The Strategist?
  4. The Harem - Part 1;
  5. Pour une traductologie proactive — Actes. Meta – Érudit?
  6. Questions can lead to knowledge through rigorous method. The translator then reaches a sufficient level of conscience and his mission can be carried out. He applies a proactive procedure, the implications of which can be taught. While the demand for conference interpreters in traditional language combinations the more widely used languages is decreasing, the need for experts in less widely used languages is rapidly increasing with each enlargement of the EU. Post-war peace-keeping operations as well as warcrime tribunals have also increased the need for high-level interpreters in languages hitherto not used in the international arena and consequently more well-trained interpreter trainers both for traditional programs as well as ad-hoc intensive programs must be available.

    Interpreters are a highly mobile community of professionals, unable to be physically present in a university for long periods of time to be trained as trainers. The Certificate course for Interpreter Trainers at ETI University of Geneva has been offering the only postgraduate course for training interpreter trainers since To meet the demand for training around the world the Certificate course is now offered in a blended format: Nine months of distance learning are blended with one week of faceto-face learning.

    The portal www. With its public access and a special section for students of interpreting the portal has become an international meeting point for interpreter trainers where participants in the Certificate course interact with interpreting students at ETI, and interpreter trainers from schools around the world can interact with the Certificate teaching staff and students. This paper reports on the first systematic assessment of both the learning environment and the learning outcomes of the Certificate course.

    The authors present their views on the importance of providing individual, immediate feedback in on-line teaching. The authors have adapted the Proxy program, enabling the teacher to. An empirical experiment is described involving students of German and Portuguese, which provides initial data on the appropriateness of different feedback paradigms for on-line and distance education of trainee translators. They can also be used in the area of evaluation, as an objective filter to assess language performance in translations or as a descriptive tertium comparationis for the interpretation of translational shifts obtained from work done exclusively with parallel corpora STEng- TTSp.

    This paper combines the communicative model of translation with performative linguistics to arrive at a translation model that is meant to proactively shape the attitudes of future translators. Central to this model is the claim that the translator, like any communicator, has a communicative intent that gets expressed in the target text. This is contrasted with machine translation, which is concerned with finding equivalents to translation units without actually having anything to say in the target language.

    The paper concludes by indicating a way of building a translation evaluation system on the proposed model. The methodology of an e-learning course is based on the strategies of proactive learning, focused on the student as the key element of an approach to training in which the teacher acts as a facilitator of the learning process. Within the context of the design of a translation course in an e-learning context, the teacher must bear in mind that the student is faced with tasks that require the previous design of aids that help both in the translation process and in the acquisition of field knowledge to carry them out.

    Furthermore, the design should reflect the new multimedia structures that the information society has brought about. We present a series of activities generated with both visual and textual material implemented in the design of e-learning courses in audiovisual translation subtitling and multimedia , technical and scientific translation. The activities are intended to be of use for other subjects too, since they facilitate communication between students and act at the levels of lexical, phraseological, textual and cultural competence.

    Il doit le faire autant de fois que le nombre de domaines dans lesquels il veut traduire.