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Find out more OK. At the end of the fair, KEO, the project management consultant, sponsored an award ceremony where exemplary staff were acknowledged for their professionalism. Speaking on behalf of Doka, Mr. We are always conscious to not cut corners to save time - the safety processes involved in our industry are integral to the outcome of any project. No price can be placed on the wellbeing of the teams that work on this project, which is why events such as this are not only important in practical terms, but furthermore illustrate our commitment to promoting safety as an on going topic for discussion and improvement.
To date the Al Wakrah Precinct has successfully completed over one million hours of work without a lost-time incident, something that has only been possible thanks to the combined diligence of all stakeholders involved in this project. His sisters climbed on, too. The water felt cold, and it tickled the baby otters, but they held on tight. Soon Mother Otter ducked under the water with her babies. Keo almost let go, he was so frightened.
The water came up into his eyes and nose. Then Mother Otter took the baby otters back to land. Keo shook himself all over. The water flew into his sisters' faces. The next time Mother Otter took her babies for a swim she dumped them off into the water. Keo was frightened when he felt Mother Otter sliding out from under him. He squealed and splashed in the water. He felt very shaky, but he tried to swim. Soon Mother Otter came along. She dived under the baby otters and they grabbed her fur tight. They climbed on her strong back. Then Mother Otter carried her babies back to shore.
In a few weeks the baby otters could swim by themselves. Their webbed feet helped them swim smoothly. Soon they began to use the water door to their den. They did not go in and out the land door now. That was for baby otters who could not swim. Father Otter taught them how to go into the den so no one could see them. He taught them to dive under the water in the middle of the river. Then they had to swim straight for the doorway without letting their noses show. Father Otter was a good fisherman. He caught the biggest fish in the river as he swam along.
Then he carried them to a rock for his family to eat. One day Keo went fishing.
He swam along, watching for a fish to come by. Soon he met a big one and he grabbed at it. But it went on swimming down the river. Another fish came along. Keo rushed through the water and grabbed again with his teeth. But he only got a mouthful of water.
Then Keo saw another fish coming. He watched it very closely. The fish tried to wriggle out of his way. But Keo rushed after it. As the fish zigzagged away, Keo grabbed it. My, but he was proud! He carried it to shore in his mouth. There was Father Otter. One day Keo and his sisters took a walk along the river.
They saw a smooth little hill. At the bottom of the hill was the water. He went down the hill as fast as he could. Near the bottom he flopped down and slid. But the dry ground was not very slippery. Then Keo's sister dived into the water. When her fur was all wet, she came out. She coasted down the hill to the water and splashed in. The water from her coat made the ground slippery.
Then zip! Keo went down the slippery slide. He hit the water. It was so much fun that Keo wanted to try it again. But he waited for his sisters to take their turns. Final analyses were run ten times for each genetic cluster between 1 and 4 with an initial burnin period of 50, generations and , MCMC generations under an admixture model with correlated allele frequencies among populations. For Neighbour-Net trees, unphased sequences from the seven autosomal introns with heterozygous sites coded with IUPAC symbols were concatenated for each individual.
Neighbour-Net tree analyses used uncorrected P distances and considered heterozygous sites as average states. Putatively admixed individuals from Canada were not included in the Holarctic lineage for these measures of F ST. To test for a signal of admixture between lineages, we used three-population test f3 statistics as implemented in TreeMix v1. To aid interpretability, these graphs exclude populations from the eastern United States and Mexico. Populations were designated by grouping geographically proximate specimens within a state or province. To explore evidence for mosaic genomes and test the hypothesis of no assortative mating between California and Holarctic lineages 20 , we created genomic profiles for all Common Ravens that were sampled in at least three data sets by scoring each individual as belonging to Holarctic, California or admixed genetic clusters in each data set.
To further explore whether Common Ravens in admixed regions show evidence of having substantially admixed nuclear genomes that are a mosaic of California and Holarctic parental lineages, we created SNP-level genomic profiles. For each bi-allelic SNP, we designated the allele that was fixed or near-fixed in the pure populations as California or Holarctic and then we scored each individual from the rest of the range as homozygous or heterozygous for these California or Holarctic alleles at each SNP. The phylogenetic signal in the nuclear genome was explored using Neighbour-Net and species tree approaches.
These high F ST SNPs are potentially resistant to admixture between collapsing California and Holarctic lineages, and thus our goal was to test whether phylogenetic analyses of these SNPs support the same topology as mtDNA or whether they support the same topology as the other nuclear data sets. The stringently filtered and less-filtered SNP data sets produced near-identical patterns of population structure in all four subsets of SNPs examined Supplementary Fig. For each data set, we used unrooted Neighbour-Net trees in SplitsTree v4. In all analyses, admixed individuals from the western United States connected distinct California and Holarctic lineages based on pure individuals alone Supplementary Figs.
Unrooted Neighbour-Net analyses in SplitsTree v4. Previous divergence estimates for the North American raven lineages were not tree-based, and therefore do not account for possible rate heterogeneity across lineages JModeltest2 70 was used to select the best substitution model for this data set using default parameters, a BioNJ starting tree and the AICc criteria to select the best substitution model. Species locality data were verified and refined according to species ranges ENMtools 73 was used to remove duplicates and records that fell within the same grid cell in order to avoid overfitting ENMs.
This resulted in a data set of over 90, localities for Common Ravens, and localities for Chihuahuan Ravens. MIROC and CCSM models differ in their estimates of precipitation and temperature for the LGM, and thus their combined use offers a better estimate of putative suitable conditions for the species being modelled 66 , 67 , 68 , Model fit and accuracy was evaluated by visually comparing present-day ENMs to species range limits 29 , and using area under the receiver operating curve measures AUC. Note that AUC scores for widespread generalist species with extensive presence records, like Common Ravens, are expected to be lower than those with highly restricted ranges, where an AUC of 1.
Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Kuhlwilm, M. Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals. Nature , — Fontaine, M. Extensive introgression in a malaria vector species complex revealed by phylogenomics. Science , Heliconius Genome Consortium. Butterfly genome reveals promiscuous exchange of mimicry adaptations among species. Nature , 94—98 Rieseberg, L.
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Genomic evidence of speciation reversal in ravens
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Payseur, B. A genomic perspective on hybridization and speciation. Todesco, M. Hybridization and extinction. Toews, D. The biogeography of mitochondrial and nuclear discordance in animals. Gompert, Z. What, if anything, are hybrids: enduring truths and challenges associated with population structure and gene flow. Seehausen, O. Speciation reversal and biodiversity dynamics with hybridization in changing environments.
Vonlanthen, P. Eutrophication causes speciation reversal in whitefish adaptive radiations. Taylor, E. Speciation in reverse: morphological and genetic evidence of the collapse of a three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus species pair. Kleindorfer, S. Garrick, R. Omland, K. Cryptic genetic variation and paraphyly in ravens. B , — Feldman, C. Phylogenetics of the common raven complex Corvus : Corvidae and the utility of ND4, COI and intron 7 of the beta-fibrinogen gene in avian molecular systematics.
Webb, W. Random interbreeding between cryptic lineages of the common raven: evidence for speciation in reverse. Johnsen, A. Sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of the common raven Corvus cora x Aves: Corvidae confirms mitogenome-wide deep lineages and a paraphyletic relationship with the Chihuahuan raven C. Dwyer, J. Chihuahuan Raven Corvus cryptoleucus. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, Fleischer, R. As the raven flies: using genetic data to infer the history of invasive common raven Corvus corax populations in the Mojave Desert.
Baker, J. Ibis , — Genetic signatures of intermediate divergence: population history of old and new world Holarctic ravens Corvus corax. Hill, G. The mitonuclear compatibility species concept. Auk , — Reich, D. Reconstructing Indian population history.
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Pickrell, J. Inference of population splits and mixtures from genome-wide allele frequency data. PLoS Genet. BirdLife International NatureServe. Bird Species Distribution Maps of the World. Bird Conservation International, Cambridge, Lobo, J. AUC: a misleading measure of the performance of predictive distribution models. Phillips, S. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions.
POC plots: calibrating species distribution models with presence-only data. Ecology 91 , — Warren, D.
Genomic evidence of speciation reversal in ravens | Nature Communications
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Primers for amplification and determination of mitochondrial control-region sequences in oscine passerines. Borge, T. Contrasting patterns of polymorphism and divergence on the Z chromosome and autosomes in two Ficedula flycatcher species. Genetics , — Kimball, R. A well-tested set of primers to amplify regions spread across the avian genome.
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