Photo by LaertesCTB. It has no place in our Party, in our country, or in our world. Continue reading on Haaretz. Of the 2, Jewish-owned firms that year, only remained by Westphal, 60, was in Israel recently for Tel Aviv Fashion Week, delivering lectures on his pet subject. The figures he quotes are staggering: In , nearly 2, Jewishowned clothing companies — most in the ready-to-wear line — existed in Berlin, accounting for an overwhelming 85 percent of the industry and employing some 90, workers. By , only about remained.
It was almost by a fluke, as Westphal recounts it, that he developed his longtime obsession with the pre-Holocaust Jewish fashion industry in the German capital. In the s, as a rookie reporter trying to realize his dream of becoming a foreign correspondent, he consulted with several editors who gave him some unusual advice. And they said not to worry, that I would work myself into it. It was not long after that, while covering a fashion show in Paris for the German daily Der Tagesspiegel, that Westphal met an elderly woman with a story he had never heard before.
She told him she had been a fashion designer in Berlin, but was forced to leave the country because she was Jewish. A few weeks after they met, she sent Westphal a long and detailed letter about her memories from that time.
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One of the final photographs taken of staff at Leopold Seligman, before the firm was forced into liquidation by Nazi officials in Seligman left for London and later resettled in New Mexico. His decision to point fingers and name names drew fire in certain quarters. After the book was published, Westphal was inundated with letters from Jews worldwide whose families had owned business in the garment industry in prewar Germany. Each letter contained a detailed, personal account of the tragedy that had befallen the family, often accompanied by photographs. Westphal realized his work was not over: Three years ago, he published another book on the Jewish fashion industry in pre-war Berlin — this one a work of fiction.
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Einen Rundgang in Hampstead wollte Sylke Tempel unbedingt machen, so unsere Vereinbarung am Telefon und so kam es dann auch. Elegant allemal, nicht extrovertiert. Sylke mochte die englische Art und Weise demokratischer Debatten, die Fairness trotz aller Kontroversen, das faszinierte sie ebenso wie die Studien in den strategischen Reviews der Briten. Since child figures help reclaim an ethical dimension for human Since child figures help reclaim an ethical dimension for human interaction, they point to the ethical foundations of the texts.
Exploring the relationship between 1 the role of child figures in these books, 2 the ethical issues thus raised, and 3 the publication and reception history of the texts concerned, shows that the radically different responses to the novels are rooted in their fundamentally different ethical cores: while Apitz reassuringly uses his communist Buchenwald prisoners' heroic saving of an infant boy to demonstrate that moral motivation is rationally grounded and that the demands of rational choice do not conflict with those of morality, in Hilsenrath's dire ghetto Prokov, chances for making ethical choices such as those posed by children in need are recognized as such — but mostly not heeded in the inexorable struggle for survival, so that the ethical is equated with the irrational, and the unethical with the rational.
Zensurforschung: Paradigmen, Konzepte, Theorien more. More Info: Buchwissenschaft in Deutschland. Ein Handbuch. Berlin: de Gruyter, , vol. More Info: in: Criterios. Revista internacional de teoria de la literatura las artes, y la cultura 36 , pp. La Habana. Rodopi, , pp. Censorship , Censorship of literary and popular culture texts , and Book Censorship history. View on criterios. More Info: Trans.
Censorship , Censorship History , Censorship of literary and popular culture texts , and Self-Censorship. Rather than reading the Stasi files as historical sources, this article focuses on the textual nature of secret service documents in order to demonstrate their discursive distinctiveness. The goal is to establish typical elements of the When comparing Stasi documents to each other, the logic of secret service epistemology becomes apparent. By adapting Foucault's discourse analysis, the written evidence of the Stasi's work emerges as discourses which served to produce 'truth' and 'discipline'.
Ironically, these discursive practices not only exposed and repressed that which, and those who, had been constituted as oppositional but also helped shape the oppositional, thus bringing about what was supposed to be curbed. More Info: published in: Views from Abroad. Die DDR aus britischer Perspektive. Article pagination: Publisher: Bielefeld: Bertelsmann Publication Date: View on iasgp. Schlaflose Tage marks a turning point for Jurek Becker: it is the only one of his novels which was never published in the GDR, and after its failure to gain authorisation in , Becker left the GDR.
The publishing negotiations The publishing negotiations concentrated on contentious elements of the fictional text, as well as on Becker's demands and his public demeanour. As was often the case, political concerns rather than aesthetic preferences proved to be decisive — the ban came as a reaction to Becker's critical interviews in West German print media. Nevertheless, it is important to study the arguments advanced about the manuscript, because they offer an insight into the ways in which those who worked in the GDR's 'Literaturbetrieb' received and responded to a text which they regarded as violating political sensitivities.
An analysis of the logic of these censorial discourses shows that they focus on plot elements of the novel, on direct statements by its central characters, and on ideological issues related thereto, while ignoring Becker's more subtle representations of censorship which underpin the macrostructural levels of plot and dialogue: metaphors, symbols, parables, and intertextual references. More Info: in: German Life and Letters Censorship and Cultural Regulation: Mapping the Territory more.
The revival of censorship studies over the last two decades is due not only to the implosion of the Soviet bloc and the ensuing release of official records from East European states for research purposes, but also to conceptual changes in The revival of censorship studies over the last two decades is due not only to the implosion of the Soviet bloc and the ensuing release of official records from East European states for research purposes, but also to conceptual changes in our understanding of censorship.
Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, , pp. German Literature , Censorship , and Jurek Becker. Censorship , Public Sphere , and Power. Studien zur englischsprachigen Literatur. Publication Date: Censorship , Contemporary Literature , and Suspense.
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The revival in contemporary fiction of the sea voyage of exploration as a subject must be seen in conjunction with postmodern attempts to overcome exhausted literary conventions. Voyages into time and space are functionalized for Voyages into time and space are functionalized for aesthetic, philosophical, and epistemological reflection, quests that result in a critical reworking of the archetypal seafaring tale.
Umberto Eco's L'isola del giorno prima and Christoph Ransmayr's Die Schrecken des Eises und der Finsternis exemplify two different postmodern strategies: while Eco employs ironic and playful, largely intraliterary, self-reflexivity, Ransmayr focuses on the relationship between history and fiction, as well as the representation of historiographic metafiction. Publication Name: Modern Language Review, vol. In Kafka's "Penal Colony", censorship -- the control and manipulation of information -- is functionalized for an aesthetic and poetological discourse.
Within the closed-off colony, social hierarchies and groups are formed on the basis of Within the closed-off colony, social hierarchies and groups are formed on the basis of information and disinformation, such that the penal system itself relies on the ignorance of those to be punished.
For in the process of his execution, the offender is supposed to decipher the inscription the machine administers to his body, and it is this eventual decoding which represents the torture's true purpose. Here, the dysfunctional quality of the machine, together with the artistic nature of the inscriptions, open up a poetological perspective which revolves around the motif of understanding. The object of these endeavours is the literary text, symbolized by the inscriptions.
Taking the narrated world of the island colony as a frame of reference, the figures embody the narrative functions of author, fictional character and reader, engaged in creation and reception. But ultimately, the literary text acts as censor: It does not yield to the reader's knocking on the gate; complete understanding is impossible. View on link. Mannheimer Studien zur Literatur- und Kulturwissenschaft, vol. View on roehrig-verlag. Hamlet at the Dentist's: Parodies of Shakespeare more. Introduction [on parody] more. Koch ed. Radio, TV, Web. View on www1. Metamorphosis: The Science of Change more.
Part of "Alien Nation Season". Broadcasts on Broadcasts on 13, 14 and 17 March , on 12 July , as well as on 1 and 7 June Franz Kafka and Metamorphosis. View on bbc. Die wundervolle Welt der Wissenschaftsparodien more. Interviewed for radio feature on parodies of academic writing, broadcast on Deutschland Radio Kultur on 16 September Transcript available online. View on dradio. This public talk will focus on the persecution of the Jews as described by non-Jewish German schoolchildren in the post-war period.
It will compare and contrast school essays from two archives which have yet to receive wider scholarly These essays offer interesting insights into how the young generation, as members of the perpetrator nation, handled their knowledge of their compatriots' persecution of the Jews, how they negotiated their own role and identity in post-war German society, and how they positioned themselves in the emerging discourses about coming-to-terms-with-the-Nazi-past. It appears that the immediacy of the fundamental collective crisis of consciousness experienced by Germans when the war was lost led to a widespread repression of the Holocaust in the school essays, whilst ten years later, personal affective bonds to the Nazis' discredited regime were much less significant for those in their teens in the s, and discursive patterns for addressing the Holocaust had become more established, thus enabling critical engagement with the legacies of the Third Reich.
View on soundcloud. View on holocaust. I want that in order! Human Rights , Oral history , and Life Stories. View on jhbholocaust. Working in Archives in Germany and Israel more. Archives , Israel , and Germany. The German Road to Genocide" more. This public lecture focused on the pre-war process of increasing marginalisation, discrimination, and persecution of Jews in Nazi Germany.
The talk also thematised the benefits and incentives the Nazis provided to the German people in order to win their support. View on newcastle. In , Nuremberg's schools inspector Otto Barthel had local school children write essays on their wartime experiences.
They were also asked to fill in questionnaires which specifically addressed political attitudes of the young. The texts tell a complex story about the thoughts and feelings of German adolescents in the early postwar period, demonstrating the ideological influence of National Socialism, trauma suffered during the war, as well as the shock, frustration, and desorientation after the collapse of the Third Reich.
Of these topics, the descriptions of experienced air raids are the most visceral; they also clearly dominate the essays penned on 'An unforgettable experience'. This talk will argue that whilst the stories of the young differ considerably in terms of content, evaluations of events and narrative coping strategies, there is much less diversity when it comes to memories of the bombings, which indicates that these memories united the otherwise quite diverse young postwar generation. View on ncl. These texts tell a complex story about the thoughts and feelings of German adolescents in the early postwar period, demonstrating the ideological influence of National Socialism, trauma suffered during the war, as well as the shock, frustration, and desorientation after the collapse of the Third Reich.
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This talk will focus on identifying the coping strategies of the young in their attempts to make sense of their extreme experiences and of the radical ideological reorientation necessitated in the occupational period. The essays and questionnaire responses already contained many of the themes which were to become typical of Germans' attempts at coming to terms with the Nazi past. Scholars have been grappling with this typically Kafkaesque, ambiguous, multi-dimensional text for almost a hundred years now.
The Metamorphosis has been read in a number of different ways, depending on the viewpoint of the reader.
Thus, Marxist critics have emphasized economic factors and alienation in the modern workplace, whilst psychoanalytically minded critics have seen the text as being about the conflict between the Id and the Super-Ego, feminists have focused on the gender politics of the story, biographers of Kafka think that he used the Metamorphosis to give expression to the strained relationship that Kafka had with his father, cultural critics have looked at Gregor the protagonist in the text as embodying the conflict between nature and civilization, and existentialist readings have discussed the story as depicting the contrast between different modes of being.
But at times, these different readings seem to reveal almost more about their authors than about Kafka's story. Obviously, it's impossible for a human being to undergo metamorphosis and thus take on an animal's shape. And yet this is exactly the thought experiment Kafka invites us to engage in, but the story only starts making sense when we don't take Gregor's metamorphosis literally. Only when reading the story metaphorically, does it unfold its true disturbing, complex and specifically modern nature.
For what would happen to us if for some reason we lost our ability to fulfill our normal roles and duties? How ostracized would we become? And what effect would such a radical change have on our sense of self, of identity? What is so unsettling about Gregor's transformation is that Gregor, through whose eyes we see the events unfold, doesn't just experience his metamorphosis as a catastrophe but also as liberating: no more dead-pan job, no more responsibilities as a breadwinner, and a whole world of new capabilities and sensations.
But Gregor's is a conflicted existence: he enjoys hanging from the ceiling and crawling up and down the walls, but panics when his beloved sister wants to remove the furniture from his room to give him more space for his new pastimes. His old human consciousness remains part of his new life, a coexistence of old and new that is constantly pulling him in opposite directions, which is further exacerbated by mounting conflicts between Gregor and the other characters.
It is this fundamental conflict between the self and the other, between the individual and society which appeal to readers of the 21st century as much as it did to those of the last century. German Literature , Philosophy , and Franz Kafka. View on newphilsoc. Karski was smuggled into the Warsaw ghetto and into a concentration camp, where he became an eye-witness of the Nazi Karski was smuggled into the Warsaw ghetto and into a concentration camp, where he became an eye-witness of the Nazi genocide.
After publishing a book about his mission as early as Story of a Secret State , Karski maintained a long silence. The Polish government even declared the Jan Karski Year.
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This talk will introduce the audience to Karski's reports and will show how Karski's own representations of his wartime mission changed over time, and how other people's engagements with Karski's work and his legacy developed. Their testimonies were recorded in nine languages, which prompted Boder to translate as many of them as he could into English, thus turning the original audio files into written documents for an American audience.
Translation Studies and Holocaust Studies. Testimony and Holocaust Studies. View on bucerius. November Censorship and 20th Century German Literature. Censorship of literary and popular culture texts. More Info: University of Warwick, May Censorship , 20th Century German Literature , and Suspense. More Info: University of Durham, 5 December German Literature , Censorship of literary and popular culture texts , and Jurek Becker.
More Info: University of Glasgow, 29 April Conference papers. Many of these survivors' recorded recollections hail from recent decades. My paper, by contrast, will focus on the persecution of the Jews as described by non-Jewish German schoolchildren in the post-war period. I will argue that the immediacy of the fundamental collective crisis of consciousness experienced by Germans when the war was lost led to a widespread repression of the Holocaust in the school essays, whilst ten years later, personal affective bonds to the Nazis' discredited regime were much less significant for those in their teens in the s, and discursive patterns for addressing the Holocaust had become more established, thus enabling critical engagement with the legacies of the Third Reich.
In the postwar German cultural imaginary, the symbolic capital of the war child was used in order to negotiate crises of consciousness pertaining to the adult world. How did the young represent themselves in this context? How did they Perhaps predictably, there is a number of recurring themes that characterise the early postwar essays e. The immediacy of these stories told by the 'Erlebnisgeneration' wanes somewhat in the later essays, which were predominantly penned by children too young to have lived through the war themselves, or to have clear memories of the Nazi years.
But rather than focusing on the foregrounded themes or on the relative closeness of the respondents to the represented events, I will concentrate on discourses of youth and community in the narratives.
My hypothesis is that the young constructed communities of fate, victimhood and perpetration founded on ideas of national community, but that they pointed to their own youth to exonerate themselves from ideological involvement or from political and moral responsibility.
View on germanhistorysociety. Juli View on kcl. About 3, pupils submitted their work, which resulted in a collection of some 7, individual items. These texts provide highly interesting insights into the hearts and minds of early post-war German youths. Their responses reflect and relate to many of the contemporaneous ideological and political debates informing the adult world in the occupation years, and beyond.
Of course, one of the key issues debated was that of the Nazis' persecution of the Jews. This begs the question whether and how the local adolescents engaged with antisemitism and persecution in their writings. Um herum geboren, waren diese Jugendlichen im Nationalsozialismus und Krieg herangewachsen. Es stellt sich also die Frage, ob und wie sich die Jugendlichen in ihren Texten mit diesen Themen auseinandersetzen. Stattdessen erscheinen die Deutschen oft als Opfer. View on hsozkult. This paper will focus on identifying the coping strategies of the young in their attempts to make sense of their extreme experiences and of the radical ideological reorientation necessitated in the occupational period.
These strategies include denial, withdrawal from politics altogether, turning to religion for providing ethical and moral orientation, portraying Germans as victims, relativizing German atrocities in the face of Allied military actions and occupational policy, as well as devotion to diligence and hard work in order to overcome material deprivation and to regain respect in the world. Contrasting with these strategies of deflection are instances in which the wrongs of National Socialism are clearly identified as such.
Interestingly, one coping strategy rarely used by the adolescents is pointing to their own youth, suggesting perhaps that for this generation of children born around , the concept of childhood had ceased to offer a haven of retreat from adult realities and responsibilities. This paper focuses on identifying the coping strategies of the young in their attempts to make sense of their extreme experiences and of the radical ideological reorientation necessitated in the occupational period. This paper analyses the wide range of representations of the missions undertaken by Jan Karski, courier for the wartime Polish Government-in-Exile, to report on the situation in Poland, both to Polish politicians in France , as well Holocaust Studies and Jan Karski.
Holocaust Studies and David Boder. In , Latvian-born psychologist David Boder from Chicago's Illinois Institute of Technology went to DP camps and orphanages in France, Germany, Italy and Switzerland where he interviewed more than survivors of the Nazi persecution, recording their conversations on a wire-recorder. Boder's interviews constitute the first oral history project with survivors of the Shoah. But his intended audience was the American public, as well as researchers.
Table of contents
This meant that he had to transcribe and translate his source material into English. English was not Boder's first language. Nor was Boder truly fluent in all of the other languages his interviewees spoke. Linguistic problems therefore inform both the interviews and their subsequent transcriptions and translations. View on ehri-project. Both published and unpublished child Holocaust diaries tend to contain a significant amount of visual material. While drawings usually dominate in unpublished sources, published ones feature large numbers of photographs, especially family While drawings usually dominate in unpublished sources, published ones feature large numbers of photographs, especially family snaps, which of course often include depictions of the child diarist.
The selection and the sequencing of photographic material in Holocaust diaries obey a tripartite logic of illustrating happy family life prior to the war, persecution during the Nazi era, and redemption after the war. My hypothesis is that the choice, inclusion and arrangement of family photographs into diaries help authenticate the narrative, realize its political dimension, and create a temporal and generational trajectory towards commemoration of loss and the cultivation of new or renewed Jewish community. The child, for representing innocent victimhood but also new beginnings and hopes for the future, acts as the key figure at the interface between the fact of persecution under the Nazis and its emplotment in subsequent representations.
Holocaust Studies and children's Holocaust testimonies. Testimony , Holocaust Studies , and children's Holocaust testimonies. This paper explores the ways in which early post-war child Holocaust testimonies were taken, recorded and transmitted: alongside 'ego-texts' texts written or spoken by children , we find numerous archival documents which purport to have This paper explores the ways in which early post-war child Holocaust testimonies were taken, recorded and transmitted: alongside 'ego-texts' texts written or spoken by children , we find numerous archival documents which purport to have been written by child survivors but which were strongly guided by adults, or even authored by adult interviewers on the basis of notes taken during the actual interview.
A spoken dialogue was thus transmitted into a written monologue. While interviews are dialogical in nature which means that we can follow the conversation step by step, texts which summarize interviews do not allow us such a direct insight into how the gathering of information was shaped by the questions asked, nor do they offer direct access to the survivor's own voice and words — intertwined with the voice of the interviewee, we hear that of the interviewer. I read these types of testimonies not only for the answers they provide but for the questions that were asked — and for those that might not have been asked.
I argue that the material betrays the conflictual motivations of the adult interviewers oscillating between historiographical and psychological or therapeutic intentions , thus shedding light on cultural practices of dealing with trauma. Children's Voices and Holocaust Studies. Dysfunctional Encounters? In , Latvian-born psychologist David Boder from Chicago's Illinois Institute of Technology went to DP camps in France, Germany, Italy and Switzerland where he interviewed more than survivors of the Nazi persecution, recording their conversations on a wire-recorder.