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In the countryside around Lille was affected by the Iconoclastic Fury.

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They were removed four months later by a Catholic Wallon regiment, after which they tried several times between and to take the city of Lille, all in vain. The Hurlus were notably held back by the legendary Jeanne Maillotte. At the same time , at the call of Elizabeth I of England , the north of the Seventeen Provinces , having gained a Protestant majority, successfully revolted and formed the United Provinces.

The war brought or exacerbated periods of famine and plague the last in — The first printer to set up shop in Lille was Antoine Tack in Unsuccessful French attacks on the city were launched in and For five years, from to , the city was occupied by the Dutch, during the War of the Spanish Succession. Throughout the 18th century, Lille remained profoundly Catholic. It took little part in the French Revolution , though there were riots and the destruction of churches.

In , the city held its first municipal elections. In , in the aftermath of the French Revolution, the Austrians , then in the United Provinces, laid siege to Lille. Although Austrian artillery destroyed many houses and the main church of the city, the city did not surrender and the Austrian army left after eight days. In , a rail line connecting Paris and Lille was built.

At the beginning of the 19th century, Napoleon I 's continental blockade against the United Kingdom led to Lille's textile industry developing even more fully. The city was known for its cotton while the nearby towns of Roubaix and Tourcoing worked wool. Leisure activities were thoroughly organized in for the 80, inhabitants. Cabarets or taverns for the working class numbered , or one for every three houses. At that time the city counted 63 drinking and singing clubs, 37 clubs for card players, 23 for bowling, 13 for skittles, and 18 for archery.

The churches likewise have their social organizations. Each club had a long roster of officers, and a busy schedule of banquets festivals and competitions. In , Lille annexed the adjacent towns of Fives, Wazemmes, and Moulins. Lille's population was , in , growing to over , by In Lille became the first city in France to be led by a socialist, Gustave Delory. By , Lille's population stood at , The city profited from the Industrial Revolution , particularly via coal and the steam engine. The entire region grew wealthy thanks to its mines and textile industry.

Lille's occupation by the Germans began on 13 October after a ten-day siege and heavy shelling which destroyed apartment and office blocks and 1, houses, mostly around the railway station and in the town centre. By the end of October the town was being run by German authorities. As a result, occupied Lille became a place both for the hospitalisation and treatment of wounded soldiers as well as a place for soldiers' relaxation and entertainment. Many buildings, homes, and businesses were requisitioned to those ends. Lille was liberated by the Allies on 17 October , when General Sir William Birdwood and his troops were welcomed by joyous crowds.

The general was made an honorary citizen of the city of Lille on 28 October of that year. The only audio recording known to have been made during the First World War was recorded near Lille in October The two minute recording captured the Royal Garrison Artillery conducting a gas shell bombardment. Cordonnier , was dedicated in From Lille felt the repercussions of the Great Depression , and by a third of the city's population lived in poverty. In , the city's mayor, Roger Salengro , became Minister of the Interior of the Popular Front , eventually killing himself after right-wing groups led a slanderous campaign against him.

During the Battle of France , Lille was besieged by German forces for several days.

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When Belgium was invaded, the citizens of Lille, still haunted by the events of the First World War, began to flee the city in large numbers. Lille was part of the zone under control of the German commander in Brussels, and was never controlled by the Vichy government in France. Lille was instead controlled under the military administration in Northern France. On 3 September, German troops began to leave Lille, fearing the British, who were on their way from Brussels.

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The city was liberated by a British force consisting largely of tanks. Throughout the s and 70s, the region was faced with some problems after the decline of the coal, mining and textile industries. From the start of the s, the city began to turn itself more towards the service sector. In , the VAL , the world's first automated rapid transit underground network, was opened. This, with the opening of the Channel Tunnel in and the arrival of the Eurostar train, put Lille at the centre of a triangle connecting Paris, London and Brussels.

Work on Euralille, an urban remodelling project, began in The Euralille Centre was opened in , and the remodeled district is now full of parks and modern buildings containing offices, shops and apartments. In the "Grand Palais" was also opened for the general public, which is free for the public to enter on the first Sunday of every month. Lille and Roubaix were impacted by the Riots which affected all of France's urban centres. Lille can be described as having a temperate oceanic climate ; summers normally do not reach high average temperatures, but winters can fall below freezing temperatures, but with averages quite a bit above the freezing mark.

Precipitation is plentiful year round. The table below gives average temperatures and precipitation levels for the reference period. Lille is noted for its air pollution, with a study attributing 1, deaths per year in the agglomeration of Lille to pollution. In , Lille held France's record pollution peaks. For centuries, Lille, a city of merchants, has displayed a wide range of incomes: great wealth and poverty have lived side by side, especially until the end of the s.

We die under your stone ceilings! Employment in Lille has switched over half a century from a predominant industry to tertiary activities and services. Lille features an array of architectural styles with various amounts of Flemish influence, including the use of brown and red brick. In addition, many residential neighborhoods, especially in Greater Lille, consist of attached 2—3 story houses aligned in a row, with narrow gardens in the back. These architectural attributes, many uncommon in France, help make Lille a transition in France to neighboring Belgium, as well as nearby Netherlands and England, where the presence of brick, as well as row houses or the terraced house is much more prominent.

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Lille hosts an annual braderie on the first weekend in September. It is one of the largest gatherings of France and the largest flea market in Europe. Many of the roads in the inner city including much of the old town are closed and local shops, residents and traders set up stalls in the street.

Lille Grand Place. La Voix du Nord newspaper offices.

Anglican Christ Church. It comprises buses, trams and a driverless metro system, all of which are operated under the Transpole name. The metro system has two lines, with a total length of 45 kilometres 28 miles and 60 stations. Lille is an important crossroads in the European high-speed rail network. It lies on the Eurostar line to London hour journey. Lille has two railway stations, which stand next door to one another: Lille-Europe station Gare de Lille-Europe , which primarily serves high-speed trains and international services Eurostar , and Lille-Flandres station Gare de Lille-Flandres , which primarily serves lower speed regional trains and regional Belgian trains.

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A sixth one — the proposed A24 — will link Amiens to Lille if built, but there is opposition to its route. In terms of shipping, it ranks fourth, with almost 38, tonnes of freight which pass through each year. The airport mostly connects other French and European cities some with low-cost airlines. Lille is the third largest French river port after Paris and Strasbourg.

With over , students, the metropolitan area of Lille is one of France's top student cities. At the beginning of , Lille 1, Lille 2 and Lille 3 merged to form the new University of Lille student enrollment: 70, France's national public television network has a channel that focuses on the local area: France 3 Nord-Pas-de-Calais. The city's most major association football club, Lille OSC , currently plays in Ligue 1 , the highest level of football in France.

In the —11 season , Lille won the league and cup double. It was in Lille that the th World Esperanto Congress took place, in Lille is partnered with: [32]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Lille disambiguation. Prefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France. Prefecture and commune. London has signed up — will it enjoy the success of New York, or the delays of LA? Correspondent Stephen Burgen samples the newfound silence in the Spanish car-free city of Pontevedra, and Matthew Keegan discovers what prompted Hong Kong to reopen a popular pedestrian street to vehicles.

Nick Van Mead. Lores became mayor after 12 years in opposition, and within a month had pedestrianised all , sq m of the medieval centre, paving the streets with granite flagstones. It was a city in decline, polluted, and there were a lot of traffic accidents. It was stagnant. Most people who had a chance to leave did so.

Instead we decided to take back the public space for the residents and to do this we decided to get rid of cars. They stopped cars crossing the city and got rid of street parking, as people looking for a place to park is what causes the most congestion. They closed all surface car parks in the city centre and opened underground ones and others on the periphery, with 1, free places.

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The benefits are numerous. On the same streets where 30 people died in traffic accidents from to , only three died in the subsequent 10 years, and none since Lores, a member of the leftwing Galician Nationalist Bloc, is a rarity in the solidly conservative northwestern region. However, the mayor says Rajoy has never shown any interest in an urban scheme that has earned his native city numerous awards.

And the same shopkeepers who complain are the ones who have survived in spite of the crisis. They do it less now. I hardly use my car at all now. Please share your reflections with us using this form , or on social media with the hashtag GuardianWalking.