These processes comprise blending , clipping, initialization and acronyns. Other processes employed in word formation include borrowing , coinages, backformation , analogic creation , eponyms, and idioms and proverbs. Additive Processes :derivation: Crystal defines derivation as the process of "building new words by adding derivational affixes ,which do not apply regularly to an entire class of words,but only to some subset "p.
Derivation also involves adding an empty morpheme to a full morpheme. Derivational affixes can be subdivided into different categories based on various classifications. They can be categorized according to placement within the root into prefixes , infixes and suffixes. According to the semanticity of the affix itself the semantic connotation it denotes ,they can be divided into affixes that change verbs into nouns, nouns into adjectives, and adjectives into adverbs.
According to their grammatical function affixes are divided into inflectional affixes and derivational ones. Derivational affixes mostly change the part of speech of the word they are adjoined to whereas inflectional ones nonnally do not. Some of the most used prefixes are : anti- antifreeze , , de- defraud , ex- ex-husband , non- co- co-pitot non-smoker , super- supermarket , ultra- ultra-modern , and un- undecided.
Among the suffixes are :-able drinkable , -ation starvation , -eer Qtrofiteer , -ftil glassful , -ish childish , -let booklet ' -ness goodness uod -ly friendlY. Foreign affixes of old etymology include -ize and-ism;both are adaptations on the Greek -izein , a suffix used to form action verbs and -ismos or -isma the ending used to derive nouns from these verbs. Examples of English words formed on this model are , syllogize syllogism, evangelize and Evangellsz 'Examples and for Latin affixes that entered the English language are the two prefixes of privative firnction de-,anddls-.
These two prefixes are used to add the meaning of deterring or subtraction to the base as in defrost to remove frost from; cause to melt , dewax to remove wax from a new parcel disincentive ,,deterrent" and disassemble meaning "to take apart". Another Latin prefix that is populady used is non- which turns meanings of words into opposite, e. Words formed on this basis are wasltateria, bookateria' and sodateria. IJsageof this sufEx has extended to names of retail business or establishments as in hatateria "hat shop" and snackateria "snack shop counter".
Compounding Pyles defines comPounding as : Putting together two or more words together to make a new word with; meaning in some way different ,if only in being more specific ,fr; that of its separate elements in board" is not the same luxtaposition -for instance ,a "black thing as a "blackboard"'. Strang states that "especially ,but not exclusively, in the fields of science and technolory ,abundant new formations depend on processes more akin to compounding than affixation.
English has known it ever since the days of Chaucer till early and late Modern English periods. For example "garlic" iS an OE compound from gar "spear" plus leac "leek" , also hussy from O. The most remarkable compound that struck English ears in the early s is the famous manshoot referring to launching astronauts into outer space and though the compound easily died and did not find much repeating tongues it gave quick rise to a pattern of similar compounds such as " splashdown" which was virtually contemporaneous with it.
As frequent and well used is the process of compounding in English, it exhibits no regularityof pattern. Compounding in English tends rather to be idiosyncratic. There is no single definition that specifies the types of morphemes or elements that might cluster together into compounds. Any English word has the possibility of entering into combination with any other word; nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, or even prepositions.
There are criteria to differentiate a compound noun from a lexical phrase. One of these criteria is stress pattern. Whereas in lexical phrases stress usually falls on the second part of the phrase, in lexical compounds stress usually falls on the first noun. As O"Grady says :"In particular, most A-N compounds are chara cte-5zed by a more prominent stress on their first component. In effect, it welds together the elements and thus makes the difference between'greenhouse "heated structure for growing plants" and green'house "house painted green".
Compounds vary in length ;there is no rule to set the number of words combining into a compound. Compounds could be made up of two words such as toothbrush ligsaw and they can pile up to fow or five words e. Further exarnples arc: ready-to' eat meal , hit-and-run driver , much-talked-about subject , blow'by-blow figbt and round-the-clock talk. Strang, p. Yet compounds of moderate length do occur in speech hand-to- media press. For example , tongue -in-cheek ,mother-in-law, mouth, lighterlhan-air, etc.
They can be written hyphenated as in baby-sit , goose-step or intact as in icebox andfirearm'Sill using a hyphen in writing the compound is a matter of orthograPhical convenience that varies from one dictionary to the other rather than being a been to feature. Chronologically ,"the preference in recent years has linguistic write compounds solid. Preposition' adverb and pronoun componnds are written intact e. In such cases the stress lexical compound serves to differentiate compotrnds from their counterpart phrases.
They can be verbs asin make-believe ,nouns wishbone ,adjectives foolproof, adverbs overheard , prepositi ons without or participial -ed adjectives as in open- minded. Pyles noted that -ed participles al. Hatch , in an attempt to enumerate the types of relations that binds together parts of compounds, enumerates nine patterns of lexical relationships : Cause: teargas ,sleeping pill Have: bull"s eye ,picture book Make: rainwater, daisy chain lJse walerwheel ,sleom iron Be whitecap ,larget site ln'.
Pragmatically ,as Hatch says, they are : useful ways of condensing information and they add variation to the way we refer to concepts in discourse Compounds provide us new ways to refer to the same information. They are for that reason often used for newspaper headlines and advertisements and announcements where space is at premium.
Reduplication: Reduplication is an additive word-formative process. It is a repetitive process where , as Hatch states, "all or parts of the words are repeated to add quantity, intensity, or smallness qualities by repetition or elongation. That is to say "reduplicative compounds". Reduplication is a process used in many languages of the world.
For example it is used in Vietnamese to modify and intensify adverbials e. Luon Luon often always and nho' nho' smallish. Examples where reduplication is used to add the quality of smallness ar. Sometimes reduplication is used to intensifii the quality of an action or denote its continuity as n flip-flop and hush-hush. Reduplication can also be used for mere exaggeration of an action as in tittle-tattle gossip , titbit good news , tit for tat one deed done in repayment of another and higgledy-piggledy in messy disorder.
Reduplication can be done by repeating the entire word as in goody- goody or just a syllable or a sound in it as in ping-pong , criss-cross, hodge- podge andmishmash Romaine distinguishes three main patterns in reduplication. Identical reduplication the least frequent form e. Sometimes there would be a linking or extending syllable after either element as appears in the last four examples. Another source for supplying reduplications is baby-talk, Romaine writes : English also has several devices for freely creating reduplicating compounds.
A variety of babytalk is illustrated by dogry-wogry and fuzzy'wttz'zy , ffid Yiddish English makes forms like fear-schmear , courage- shmourage. Conversion: Conversion is a process where existing lexical items change their part of speech in order to create new items bearing the same meaning but belonging to different grammatical categories. Subtle modifications of meaning may take place as a result but in the end the core meaning in both the word and its converted fonn remain the same.
Conversion is considered derivation by adding a zero-morpheme to the base. It is a process well-used and explored in English, Pyles says: The name of particularly every part of the body has been converted to use as a verb - one may head a committee, shoulder or elbow one"s way through a crowd , hand in one"s papers ,finger one"s tie, thumb a ride ,back one"s car ,leg it along, shin up a tree, foot a bill,toe a mark, and tiptoe through the tulips-without any modification of form such as would be necessary in other langrrages.
Pyles says : Adjectives may also be converted into verbs , as with better, round, tame, and rough. In advertising "literature " we have been urged to "pleasure up" our smoking with a particular brand of cigarette ,though some would doubtless have preferred a rival brand which "gentles the smoke and makes it mild. Even adverbs and conjunctions are capable of conversion , aS in "the whys and the wherefores," "but me no buts" in which but is first used as a verb , then as a pluralized noun.
Noun-to-verb conversions are classified into five patterns. These patterns describe the semantic relation between the converted form and the new lexical item. When a morpheme is extended to a new syntactic class ,it acquires a new meaning. Its new syntactic use is accompanied by a new meaning "raise" 'Down has also become a verb, with the meanings "drink" e. People speak about "zip- codingtheir letter s" , " trashing papers" ; they say they will "pizza a bit before they freeway on home".
Thus it appears that conversions can be used to create lexical items expressing location, duration ,agency' goal and insffumentalitY. Reductive Processes : Reductive processes include blending , clipping and initialization and acronJrms. Each of these processes plays a role in adding to the lexicon of the language ,though to varying degrees of course. Blending: Crystal defines a "blend" as "the result of two elements fusing to form a new word or construction. Hi -fi is a blend of high andfidelity. Romaine speaks of blending phones or phone themes rather than blending whole syllables or morphemes, she says: Blending is not limited to the combination of two specific etymologies, but can also in the case of phone themes involve whole sets of word.
Thus bash combines the first consonant of words like bang,bump,blow with the rhyme of crash ,dash, smash ; similarly,bonk combines the same first consonant with the rime of conk. Old Britons used it fluently and easily to form as many words as they could. For exarnple nobleman appeared in the late fourteenth cenhrry as a blend of aFel and haleb OE noble and man. Flush is a blend of flash and gush that made its first appearance in language in, nuirl is a blend of twist plus whirl , dumbfound ablend of dumb plus confound and flurry of flutter and hurry.
For example, Medicare,the name of a program essentially for care of the elderly, is a blend of medical and care. Velveeta , a cheese brand ,is a blend of velvet , eat and cheese ; Sitcom is a blend of sil and comfortable; flurry fromflutter and, hurry ; smog from smoke andfog. Historically , sparcity came from sparseness and scarcity ; splotch from spot and blotch.
The "retro active repair of Los Angeles freeway overpasses by refitting support columns after the earthquake became known as retrofittingi' Hatch, p. They save space at printing and create a catch-the'eye effect for the reader. Many of these are short-lived and few of them acquire a permanent place in language. For example guesstimate, alcoholiday are blends that were contrived for headlines and momentar5r usage only. A good example quoted by Hatch is" mummabilia a blend of memorabilia and mummy which made its first appearance in a story in the Associated Press about a display of "long-forgotten munmies and mummabilia".
Clipping: Clipping is a process where a syllable or more is cut off the word in order to produce a shortened form. Romaine writes " clipping , acron rms , and alphabetisms have become increasingly fashionable in recent years. Clipping may take place either at morpheme boundary or between such boundaries ; it may occur both in spoken and written forrns. For example mob is the clipped form of mobile vulgus movable ,or fickle, common people and it has supplanted it permanently in language. Wig is a clipping of periwrg ,etymologically from French perruque.
It has totally replaced the original form that it is the only fonrr known. Perm is a clipping of permanent wove a way of hairdressing familiar with British women. Curio is the clipped from curiosity, bumf from bumfodder ,etc. Clipped forms may be roots or affixes. There is no specific rule to define which part of the word to be clipped. The root of the word may be clipped to leave affixes or marginal syllables standing in representation.
For exarnple influenza is clipped to flu, zoological garden to zoo , advertisement to ad,laboratory to lab , omnibus to 6ns which is not the root but a part of the dative ending -ibus attached to all third person plural forms in Latin. Words where the clipped forms is the root are exam of examination dorm of dormitory ,andfridge of refridgerator.
Clipping is not a feature of one English variety only,namely formal or Standard English. Almost all varieties of language employ it. For example it is used in slang and mostly ends in the syllable -o as in weirdo and psycho. Still not all clippings ending rn -o are to be slang e. Once a word is clipped the new fonn acquires a life of its own within the lexicon of the language. Clippings are treated as discrete and established words in the lexicon as any other item.
For example they can be pluralized, as in ods, zoos, demos, etc. Some field languages and jargon talk have clippings as a distingulshing feature. For example ,computer language and commands, which are almost always clipped forrns ,e. Also in-group talk and peer talk abound in coded clippings and body language signals. Groups which are well-known for such usage of language are teens and drug trafiEckers. Initialization and Acronyms: An acronym , as defined by Pyles, is "a word coined up from Greek akros meaning'trp' and onyma i.
Thus an acronym literally means "tip of a name". Initialization, on the other hand ,is a reductive process where only the initials of a group of words ,of a phrase or even of a title are clustered together into a goup of letters written capitalized ,in conjunction one to the other or separated by full stops. A distinction between acronyms and initializations is that letters in initializations are pronounced as individual separate phonemes as n FBI which stands for "Federal Beaureau of Intelligence", a.
Whereas in acronlnns letters are pronounced as a sequence of undivided phonemes. In acronyms letters are not written separated by dots and in most cases only the first letter is capitalized as in Wave "women accepted for volunteer emergency service", and Yip "Youth International Party" , etc. Sometimes acronyms are treated as mere ordinary words ; no capitalizations are used. This happens when they refer to an ordinary object or device in everyday life rather than to a name of an organizaion e. Acronyms are used in all domains of language usage.
But they are mostly used in scientific language and as references for names of political or social organizations. They provide a means of brevity in usage. For example , a radar is an acronlmr of "radio detecting and ranging" , Laser is an acron ffn of "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation". Other Processes Employed in Word formation Other processes employed in English word formation include shifting, borrowing, coining and idioms and proverbs. Shifting Shifts are cases where language development results in the change of meaning of the lexical item thus leading to the creation of a new word bearing the same orthography yet with a new different meaning.
Classical examples of shifts of meaning are in words such as lcnave which originatly meant "a young lad" and now means someone rather nasty ; deer which once meant "wild animals" in general ,so bears could be considered deer too ;and couth which meant known or familiar and now strrvives only in uncoulh. Decimale is nowadays widely used to mean "destroy a lot of'. As Crystal says "The Latin origins of the word meant to destroy one tenth of decem being Latin for "ten". Drive originally referred to driving cattle but is now mainly used for driving cars.
Clearly ,what a word meant once is not always what it means now. Virtue,then originally meant something like "manlinss" in general. Later it came to stand for warlike prowess. Still later ,as it passed into French and then to English ,it meant power ,even magical strength ,and it meant a noble quality. One wonders ,then, how it came to be applied primarily to women when it originally meant manliness as in " May all your sons be brave and all your daughters virtuous. In Anglo-Saxon, meat meant "food"; today, it means a certain type of food. Notorious once meant "widely known"; today, it means "widely and unfavorably known".
Similarly, pretty once meant "ingenious" "a pretty plot" , avillain was a farm laborer, naughty meant "worth nothing", and a publican was a public servant. Further this process may either elevate the value of the word or lower it. For example the word lust did not always describe moral depravity but once meant pleasure. Accident, originally meant something that happened, today it is almost always unpleasant. Lewd meant ignorant; now these terms have much less favorable meanings, and other words have become more exalted.
For example, minister used to mean servant, a constable was someone who cleaned horse stalls, l. Borrowing: All languages borrow words from each other. Borrowing is one of the most vital and influential processes in English word formation. English borrowed an exffemely large number of lexical items from French dgring the occupation period to England in Legal occupation meant that terms for the court ,law, and properf would enter English from French.
The influence of the chrnch brought new terms too such as religion, service, virgin and, trinity. As stated by Hatch: "English has words borrowed from almost every language of the world. Immigrants from many parts of the world have their languages to enrich our own. Asia is represented, for example ,by Chinese tea, Japanese kimono ,Malay gong , Hindi jungle, persian pagodo, Arabic sherbet. Australia gave English kangaroo and boomerang. From Africa come chimpanzee, gorilla, gnu and zebra. Most words introduced by translators and by scholars in general come from written language.
Th"y are sometimes taken from modern literatures German "ablaut" and "umlaut' , but more commonly from the classical languages Greek "drema"," cosmos"; Latin,,ictus,,,,,adjective,,,,,adverb,,. Sometimes phonetic or morphological change affects the word. For example, the adoption of foreign sounds may become quite fixed. The Scandinavian cluster occurs not only in borrowed words , such as sky ,skin ,skirl beside the native shfut , but also in new- formations such as scatter ,scrawl ,scream; it has become an integral part of the phonetic system.
After complete adaptation, the loan-word is subject to the sulme analogies as any similar native word. Thus from the completely nativized chauffeur, we have the back-formation to chauffe, as in " I had to chauffe my mother around all day". Calquing is a process where a word-for-word imitation of foreign phrases or expressions takes place. As Strang states : It takes place when for a cofirmon fiurction a cofirmon pattern is used , but its component parts are not native , as in English "power politics" on the model of German Machtpolitik and " wishful thinking" on the model of German Wunschdenken Calques are sometimes called loan translations or Gallicisms.
The phrase "loan-words" itself is formed on the model of German Lehruw1rter. Coining Coining is sometimes called word-manufacfure. This phenomenon is especially cofltmon in cases where industry requires a ncw and attractive name for a product. As noted by Pyles, the most famous coinage in ME is the word Kodak: which made its first appearance in print in the U.
S Patent Ofifrce gazette in and was, according to George Easfinan, who invented the word as well as the device which it names ,"a purely arbitrary combination of letters ,not derived in whole or in part from any existing word. She says: If we were to discover a new product Depending on the image we hoped to invoke for the product ,we might fiy for combinations of sounds thatsomehow seem to exemplify that characteristic. If we wanted to emphasize the sheen of its surface ,we might well begin the word with sh- ,as in shimmer ,shine and so forth.
Hatch gives some of these examples: Companies spend a great deal of money tying to find exactly the right sound and letter combination for their particular product. The car nilme Acura is said to be an example of an excellent choice because it sounds as though the engine has the perfect engineering of a Swiss watch Still ,it is said that Mist hairspray sells well in Germany even though mist means filthy in German.
G6rlach enumerates these factors as follows: a The productivity of the pattern employed. Literary coinages gain currency fust in educated and well-cultured circles then gain access into ordinary language. Pyles quotes numerous examples for words originally created as literary coinages by famous authors in literary works. The existence of such coinages in famous literary works , gave them crurency among the ordinary speakers. Backformation O"Grady defines the process of backformation as : A process that creates a new word by removittg u real or supposed affix from another word in the language A major source of backformations in English has been words that end with -or or -er and have mearrings involving the notion of an agent,such as editor, peddler,swindler, and stroker.
Romaine,pT 3 Sometimes verbs are backfonned from adjectives ,particularly participial adjectives n -ed : ill-treat , ill-use, streamline ,bottle feed, etc. Backformed verbs can be also formed from action nouns ending with the suffix -ion or -ation e. Examples of "backformed" words in English are housekeep from housekeeper, wordprocess from wordprocessor ,orient from Orientate, enthuse from enthusiasm , donate from donation and lase from laser. Backformation accounts for such words as stagemanage , institute and burgle. For example Maverick is a name of a major of San Antonio who refused to brand his cattle.
The word maverick ca:orrc then to become a term for unbranded cattle ,and later for anyone who took an independent stand. They hated him so much that they ostracized him and boycott became a synonym for rejection and isolation. Poinsettia ,a Chistmas plant, is named for the ambassador to Mexico who introduced it to the United States.
The word Pantaloon was used in the plural old-fashioned form to refer to a masculine garment termed pantaloon in French which in turn is adopted from the Italian pantalone ,the name of a silly senile Venetian of early Italian comedy who wore such fitting as nether coverings. Pantalone in Italian means "Venetian" and hence cnme the connection. Sanh,vich is the name of the fourth Earl of Sandwich , said to have spent twenty-four hours at the gaming table with no other refreshment than slices of meat between slices of bread. Names of persons can be adopted unchanged ,for example: ampere, bowie lcrife , chesterfield overcoat or sofa ,graham flour , titan color ,valentine , watl ,hertz ,ohm ,Pasteur.
Some of the above-mentioned eponyms are niunes of scientists memorialized e. Watt, Hertz and Ohm. When a slight modification occurs in the pronunciation of the eponym its spelling might be consequently changed. Names hke Volt is a clipping from the snrname of Count Alessandro Volta d. Epicure is an anglicized fonn of Epicurus. Eponyms receive the treafinent of ordinary lexical items in the langtage, even if they might be names of foreign people or places. They can have derivatives and attributive forms as pasteurize ,lewisite ,platonic, sadism , me smeri sm, cltouvini sm, c homslryan,etc.
For example names of gods and godesses in Greek mythology have entered the language unchanged,e. A name of a literary character who entered the lexicon is Benedict a newly married man. Originally it is the name of a Shakespearean bachelor who -after a long life of celibacy ,finally succumbed to the charms of a beautifrrl lady called Beatrice. The name has gone a very slight modification from "Benedick" to Benedict.
Hyde are all names of famous literary characters that were impersonated and gained a life of their own into language. Names of literary characters can be derived from as freely as with names of real people. For example there are the forms: Herculean, odyssey, quixotic, t ant ali ze and vul c ani ze. Eponyns can be names of places as in Camembert cheese and Limousine car which are names of places in France. Charleston the dance,is also the name of an American city.
Tabasco a sauce is the name of a river in Mexico. Derivatives of names of places are damascene ,domosk and damson all three come from one n:rme which is Damascus. Frankfurter comes from Franffirt, mayonnaise from Mayon , roman type from Roma,etc. Eponl'rns might be used metaphorically ,for example :"She is the Madonna of the neighborhood. Particularly botany ,medicine in astronomy comets are named for the first and astronomy. For example person who observes them. Botanists and ornithologists have been memorialized through their discoveries. Plants and birds carry the names of important researchers.
Further, in medicine, eponyms are often used to identifo diseases. Whereas coining invents and innovates brand new lexical items, analogic creation is a process that depends on parody and creating items similar to an existing model. Strang clarifies this fact ,she says : By contrast with the rare extreme of pure invention, many,probably innumerable,formations exploit the principle of analogy ,of developing the new on the basis of what is already familiar Since likeness is an infinitely variable relation , in degree and in kind, many different sorts of likeness can underlie a new development.
Yet a development is only new if it involves difference as well as likeness. Strang ,p. In adopting Christianity ,the Germanic people kept some of the heathen religious terms : god ,lteoven ,hell were merely transferred to the new religion. The pagan terrn Easter is used both in English and German. Strang explains the mechanisms of the process of analogic creation in this example ; how the word "nylon" was created as a model for other words: Another invention This family of words illustrates a range of analogies that can operate in word formation once a model, however arbitrary,comes into existence.
Idioms and Proverbs : Forming idioms is one way of forming complex lexical items in English besides compounding and derivation. An idiom is a phrase whose meaning can not be predicted from the individual meaning of the morphemes it comprises. If you beot a dead horse , you do not necessarily strike a carcass.
A person can die with his boots on or with his boots off. Languages are full of idioms for example, smelling like a rose , stick to the straight and narrow ,hit the nail right in the head, and sing a dffirent tune. Almost by definition , idioms are idiosyncratic rather than regular in their formation. Most idioms can be interpreted literally. Idioms are in many cases similar to standardized metaphors, such as stir up trouble or the heart of the maner. In fact ,the metaphorical origin of many idioms is quite apparent , and there is no reason to fiy to draw a dividing line.
But not all idioms b"g as metaphors. If kick the bucket had a metaphorical origrn ,the nature of the metaphor is no longer apparent to English speakers. Words that are constantly associated in usage sometimes begin to cohere as lexical units. Bread and butter is such a common expression that it is somewhat odd to hear "butter and bread". Ham and eggs is another example ; "eggs and ham" is not the way to say it. Other examples are bread and wine and bread and water. The stars and stripes refers to more than just any aggregation of "stars" and "stripes" ; "stripes and stars" does not have this special significance.
The silme can be said of hammer and sickle. The morphemes in,so, and,far are used together so often that they have virtually fused into one word. Anarysis presented in the quantative of the data is order they take in the sample. Derivation is the rargest word formation process emproyed English in the sampre words. Maoy prefixes and suffixes are at use in this process'But some affxes which were considered marginal are getting into focus and receiving more zeal in usage.
Another remarkabre usage in the sampre is the prorific emprolmrent of agentive suffixes. The suffixes ir , er are employed in forming agentive noun -using -er is the dominant pattem, exampres are: shopper, developer, insider, backer, cleoner, cleaner, enforcer. As appears from examples above --er is used to derive both anim ate creaner, rescuer inanimate creaner and , bomber, rauncher agentive nouns.
Furttrer -er is not used to derive agenfive nouns from verbs onry, the usage is extended to derive agentive nouns from two-part compounds and even three-part ones. Nouns coined using -ist usually refer to persons members at political, social or artistic movements e.
Re- is a prefix used also for creating new verbs. The newest creations using this prefix ile: regroup, redouble, restructure,rentn, rethink resurface. Under- is used also as a prefix in such new examples as: underfunded, underworld,under-equipped, underpower. Un- is a well-used prefix for coining nouns ,adjectives and even adverbs Most of the words coined up using un- are adjectives, particularly participial adjectives e. Un- is used to coin up negative adjectives from ordinary and gerundive adjectival forms. Exwnples where un- is used for coining verbs are limited e.
Examples where un- is used for s6ining nouns are almost rare e. Up is also remarkably used in the sample. It has almost acquired the status of a prefix.
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Example of new coinages that have -ize as a suffix are : politicize, mechonize, tetorize, privatize, destabilize criminalize, destabilize, pressurize, privatize, romanticize, globalize, legrtimize, demonize, modernize, mechonize, fictionalize, politicize, terrorize, westernize, womanize.
Nso -6e which is an emerging suffix adopted from French as stated by Sinclak ,p. There is a multiplicity of examples where the suffix -y is used for deriving new forms of adjectives,e. Other affixes that had a big share in the sample , are'. Almost all the affixes are present in the sample, examples of new creations arc.
Compounding is the second richest source for word-formation in English words. Most compounds in the sample are adjectival compounds created using past participles as their heads heads of compounds are always the leftmost constituent Examples for participial compounds are: tin-roofed,silver'haired, much-revered, much' needed,ill-chosen,ill-equipped. Further elaboration on their usage would promote them as established suffixes within the language repertoire.
Compounds can be made of any part of speech. Examples for compounds created by joining two nouns together. Or two verbs together ; would-be, play-act, make-believe. Or two adverbials ; roundabout whereabouts. Examples for prepositional compounds are : on-screen, go-between. All other combinations and alterations of nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs are also present in the sample, e.
Three-part compounds have a number ,too e. Almost all three-part compounds are used adjectivally Four-part or sentential compounds are almost rare in the sample. Most compounds in the sample are adjectival; either in form, usage or both. The number of noun compounds in the sample is very small in comparison with adjectives, verbs bid a far smaller portion. Orthographically most compounds in the sample are two-parted, hyphenated compounds 3ls hyphenated ,two-part compounds. Three- part compounds are few and they are always hyphenated 27 compounds. Sentential or phrasal compounds are few.
Using such long compounds in everyday speech will place the hearer at a disadvantageous place. Borrowing is one important source of word-formation in English , deciding on the etymology of all words in the sample is not a simple matter particularly that most English words have Latin or French origrns.
Words chosen as exilmples for borrowed fonns are clear-cut cases where the morphological characteristics of these forms are evidential of their foreignness. This means that the sample of borrowed words sample is rather evidential and exemplary rather than being a statistical representation of the process itself. This is due to difficulties in attesting the exact date and etymology of all words in the salnple. Most of these fonns are French. The number of borrowed forms examined are words. Words which are French in origin are 65 words.
Borrowed forms refer to almost all aspects of life. Forms that tackle religious creeds include the Sanskrit word Ahmici which refers to a in Sanskrit , Hinduism , and Buddhism which rejects religious principle any use of violence. Tycoon is a Japanese word "Tai-koon" literally meaning 'great lord' , came to mean an exceptionally wealthy and powerfrrl businessman , a shogun.
Robot is aCzech 'robotiti' , 'to work' , which was stereotyped in English to refer to an automan. Other words were derived from it,e. Trek a word taken from Afrikaans from'trecken' 'to pull, haul, migrate'. Bonanza in Spanish means 'good sea' ,hence good luck. It came to refer to any rich source of profit , an unusually profitable invesfinent or speculation. Bog n Irish and Gaelic means 'soft ' , in English it came to refer to a place of wet, sponry ground. Tottoo is taken from Polynesian; the act or practice of marking the skin with inedelible patterns, pictures or legends.
Conversion is the third-place category in the sample l39 words. Converting the grammatical frrnction of one-part of speech into another is the easiest and readiest way of supplying new lexical items. Noun-to-verb conversions are almost the norrn, examples: dynamite , badmouth , nursemaid ,closet , savoge, countenonce ground and soldier. The most notable example of conversions into verb , is that of the adverbial near in :"As the pull-out neirs ,Haezbollah is Conversions to other parts of speech are few.
Examples of conversions to adjectives , and it is only contextual sentential usage that highlights such conversion,e. Other less dominant examples exist,too : siphon, brush, whisk, soften, riddle. Acronyms and initializations 43 words are important in referring to political organizations or other non-govenrmental societies. Many of these fonns sprang in reaction to the establishment of the European Union and the so many organizations running its affairs e. A good number of acronyms and initializations are also related to United Nations" organizations Other examples are.
ClA Central lntelligence Agency and scuba self- contained underwater breathing apparatus. Coining brand-new words is a process that provides few words in language repertoire 38 words. Words newly coined into language are not so many as would be thought. They need approval, acceptance and standardization to gain cunency in the speech community.
Examples : sovvy, spoof ,wonk, gag, guntoting,slush, hack. Atl blends of this type are hyphenated. Blends are used sparingly in the sample and referring mostly to very specified objects and terrns. Idioms are collocational sets of words that are used to convey stereotyped meanings. Examples for idiomatic usage in the sample arc to dig in their heels , hit and run , to make tight of and to leave no stone unturned. Examples for reduplication l9 words exist also in the sample. Most examples are partially reduplicated words. Examples: helt- hole, hoi-polloi, humdrum.
Clipping is a good way for abbreviation. It is a minor process for creating new words I3 words. It frrnctions on already existing ones. Examples are: Intern, medic, euro, qmic, and,diss,,. There are few examples where eponyms 9 words exist in the sample.
Examples for usage of proper names dre maverick, Rubicon, Goullist and iockey , names of places byzantine and names of literary origrns odyssey. For example. Televise is back-formed from television which was the first to make its entry and appearance into language , bulldoze is back- formed from bulldozer and craze from crazy. In all these examples the original form made the first appearance into language before the back- formed one, and not vice versa. Almost all English word formation processes are explored in the sample.
Examining the research sample showed that derivation is almost the largest employed process followed by compounding. An innovation in English word formation is the increasing usage of conversions to create new vocabulary items. The least used processes in the sample are eponyms and backformation. Development in language is a collective process that needs ratification and correctness from language academies. The notion of the eloquence fasaftah of language and its purity is rule-sanctioned in both CA and MSA.
Historically, 'eloquence' in language was based on one ,singular non- urban model ; that is of the variety of Arabic spoken by Quraysh Quraysh is the tribe of hophet Mohamed and their variety of Arabic was reported to be the clearest, most articulate and eloquent one.
It is in their variety that the Quran was revealed. Hence the fact that their variety provided the model of eloquence to all other Arab tribes, and upon its characteristics the criteria of linguistic eloquence was set. With the appearance and wide spread of press ,writers started taking on new forms and modes of writing with easier and more lucid styles so as to secure a lager scale of readers and to guarantee comprehensibility and communication.
They started to experiment with vocabulary; exploring new dimensions of coinages and usage. Alhamzdwy says: I. This language is as a refinement of modern colloquialisms and a facilitation of CA. It is upon this 'third language', despite misusages , that new models of eloquence are built. It has its own individual morphologcal system that is based upon discontinuous root paradigms. An enfiy in an Arabic dictionary will give only the three consonantal radicals of the root, other derivations of the surme root are formed by adding and alternating different vowelings at different points of the root and according to defined and preset morphological patterns in the language.
Enffies are always trilateral verbal roots. The verb is the derivational base in Arabic morphologcal system exactly as it is in English. Other patterns are created by alternating different vowelings and sometimes the consonantal affxes m,n,s,t on this pattern. J'4 l0 estaf3ala d's-l These verbal patterns are applicable to all roots; only that some of these are neglected or not frequented in daily or literary usage of the language. Arabic morphologcal system is a highly systematic one. New words can be easily coined following preset metric patterns. For example the pattern maJ36l always generates past participle adjectives as in : mahoob "written", monzoor "seen, perspective" , and mahzoor "banned".
The patternfi3el is always used for coining agent nouns as in: qdtel "killer" , lrArcb "w-iter" , ndzer "seer, headmaster". Also active and passive participles which count for a good bulk of Arabic adjectives. This fact adds more to the regularity in the semanticity of language and creates a sofi of predictability of meaning for the learner. Word formation in Arabic: Helal categorized word formation in Arabic into eight processes: derivation al? Derivation: One of the most important and richest processes in Arabic word formation is derivation.
Derivation in Arabic means generating a new word from an existing one in order to denote a new meaning and relation of receiving an action ,being the goal of an action, its place ,its doer, etc. Categories of derived words include agentive nouns ,past and progressive participles ,quasi-adjectives, comparative forms, names of machinery ,time and place references and attributives. Arabic is a language where each goup of semantically-related words cluster round a prototypic consonantal root. The concept of derivation then is based on the relation between the core meaning of the root and its family of derivatives.
Each vowel combination would generate a definite,constant and preset meaning. Hence the fact that derivation in Arabic is rather an inter-morphemic process that depends on infixes more than prefixes or suffixes as is the case in English. Internal vowelings are alternated between three main vowels. Alternations of these vowels with four T main consonants m,n s, t comprise the derivational affixes in Arabic. It can be said ,then, that the process is a morpho-phonemic one intertwining both morpholory and phonolory together. Helal says: L -Jl ul tj! S jt5. L -r-"! JJ -lJ. In this case words ile generated to pre-known meanings.
That is to say words are generated up to the systematicality and semanticity of language"s morphologlcal paradigm' For example the combinati on fojeel is used to create exaggerative adjectival forms as in: Qateel "murdered" ,flazeen "sad" and 3azeem"great". Ilregular derivation is employed mainly in creating word families from proper names and Arabicizations where the base does not usually match any specific metric pattern in the language. So derivation is mostly done up to the musicalrty of the language and in conformity with its sound system.
The Academy of Arabic Language AAL licensed such kind of derivation particularly in certain fields such as art and science where many proper nilmes of scientists and artists are used as bases for coining up related words , particularly in the attributive form For example, bostorah n. Examples of nouns derived from proper names are. Verbs derived from seasons'names follow the pattern aJ3ala. For example: akhrafo from khareeflautumn meaning "to pass autuinn or to have it". Arabs derived from names of places. For example the verb abSara is from albaSrah ; the name of a city in Iraq.
This verb means "to head for albaSrah or take it as a destination in travel". The verb AmSara means "to fravel for maSr Egypt ",etc. Arabs also derived from nzrmes of objects. For example agbala is derived from algabal the mountain "to stay nearby or go for the meaning mountain". Taqalnasa means "to wear a qolonswah a helmet ", tamanTaqa means "to argue using logic ,to use logic in reasoning" , estoftgara means to be as tough and hard as a stone ;to resemble a stone in hardness,etc.
Derivation using phones : Arabs derived from single sounds or phonemes. Derivation using particles and conjunctions: Further Arabs derived verbs from particles and conjunctions. For example sowwafa means to use sowfa will i. Arabicized words can be derived from too. For exampre allegdm the saddle is an Arabicized word of persian origrn. The verb algama is an Arabic derivative meaning ,,to saddle a horse,,. In modern age rclefezy1n is an Arabicization from English ,the verb tarfuza "televise" is an Arabic derivation from this root.
Arabicization Abu Mansorn Algawareeqy ,an old Arab grammarian , defined an Arabicization as: Any, 'language' rexical item the Arabs adopted from foreign languages and was mentioned in the Grorious Quen , narrated in the history of the companions of the Prophet and their foilowers or even mentioned , in poems and stories of earlier Arabs. An Arabicization is a rexical item that Arab people of pure descent have adopted from a foreign language and used into theirs Magatat Almagma3 ; I s ed. Such contacts lead to much development in languages on both sides.
Arab tribes at the pre-Islamic age were in contact with the persian and the Roman empires and also with the Semitic coptic, , Greek,Turkish and Barbarian cultues. The contact of the Arabs with these cultures gained their language many new lexical items. These were mainly scientific jargon and nrrmes of new objects unknown to Arab people then.
Examples for items Arabicized from Semitic languages are i yomm a river and? Examples for Arabicizations from foreign languages are : aron'dng a black shoeJeather or varnish and drafs an adjective referring to a person of great knowledge ' both words are Arabicized from Persian.
Old grammarians used two terms to refer to Arabicizations: almo3or'rab and aldakheel. The one meaning "a word that has been Arabicized" and the other "a foreign word". One refers to the word after its adoption into language ,and the other to its state before being adopted into it.
Arabicization in Arabic is synonymous with borrowing in English, only that Arabicizations mostly have to undergo one process of change or another in order to fit in the Arabic linguistic system, whereas this is not always the case in English bonowings. Arabicized words are mostly assimilated to fit into the phonological and morphologlcat patterns of Arabic.
An Arabicized word undergoes one or more of three stages of change in its way of assimilation into language: phonetic change, morphologlcal change or wholesale fransliteration. A sound that does not exist in Arabic is assimilated to or replaced by the nearest similar sound. A foreign sound may be assimilated into a native similar one sharing the same point of articulation or a nearby one as nfulAz 'steel' originatly bulFz and Foor ,the nzrme of a city on the Indian coast, originally Boor ,etc.
Clusters that do not exist in Arabic are replaced by the most similar sequences that fit into the phonetic system of the language ,e. Words hke desht the desert were changed to dest and Ishma3eel anutme of a prophet to Isma3eel. Words with sounds phonologically distributed in a different way from Arabic sounds are also assimilated into the phonology of the language. Morphological Changes: Words that do not fit into the morphologrcal system of the language are changed.
For example words having a consonant cluster at initial position are assimilated. And so are words ending in consonant clusters of more than two sounds.
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An example of a morphological adaptation of a lexical item is the word bernameg which is an adaptation on English programme having the initial consonant cluster voweled and letter arrangement changed. In transliteration the foreign lexical item whether the name of an object or a proper name are adopted into the language and written using its orthographic characters. Old Arabs transliterated some proper names as in Khorasdn a name of a city in Iran.
For example, Rosya Russia , Amrica America , engltera ngland ,etc. Arabicized words can be derived from as normally as any other native Arabic word. They can also be used in the nominative, accusative, dative or subjunctive cases. Rules of definiteness and indefiniteness also apply to them normally. A proper nirme in a foreign language is Arabicized retaining its "properness" and semanticity ,too. Translation: Translation is fransferring meaning from one language into another through lexical items.
Translation can be one of two types depending on the aim of the process itself and the technique used to achieve this aim. It can be either communicative with its main focus on transferring the main outlines of meaning without probing into the linguistic particularities of the source text , or semantic copious and literal translation focusing on a word-to-word franslation of the text. A major language CA ranslated from was Greek.
Greek translations had an impact on Arabic in many lexical and structural domains. For exarrple al? For example to derive adjectives ,the infix 4n- was added before the final suffix -y'For example, rawhany spiritual , gosm6ny bodily ,etc' Translation in Egypt flourished in the 30s of the 20ft cenhrry with the abroad and efforts of the scholar Refa3ah AlTahTawy who studied French returned to Egypt to found Al. Alsun High School for translation' Translation movement progressed mainly in one direction; which is from European language to Arabic.
It is important to note that translation started primarily within the literary domain and stretched to encompass all other aspects of life and science. Several factors affect the quality of translation from a language to another e. Different techniques are applied in modern translation in Arabic' First there isDirect Translation semantic translation.
In this case a items is one-to-one equivalent of the meaning is sought' No intermediary used ,nor paraPhrasing. This creates the effect of a "hybrid" usage of language where lexis is native but the structure and overall meaning is "generated" half-blood. For example, Iilhite Literature and Black Literature, referring to the literatures of white and black authors respectively , were translated into al?
Both translations are literary opaque for the Arab reader because they rather denote connotations of the 'color' of the literary work itself rather than the author. Arabic is and was not a wholly recipient language. CA words like algebra, alchemy, and many asfronomical terminologies particularly planet names have entered English in the middle ages. At modern age, new words has gone from Arabic into English such as intifada. The way between Arabic and English is a two-lane highway.
Though fiansferring from Arabic into English is rather slower. Metaphoric and Non-metaphoric Speech: One of the processes Arabic exploits its lexicon is using words figuratively to convey new meanings and give particular collocations. This enriches language with new and innovated modes of expression. Figurative usage of speech is classified into three types: Allegory : An allegory can be used to express different relations between two referents ,e. The relation between the two referents is mostly something other than similarity.
Metaphors are employed if the relation between the two referents bears some of similarity and so are similes. Similes can also be used implicitly or explicitly. Metonymy : A metonymy is used to qualifu one of three things : an animate or inanimate referent, a characteristic in the referent ,a relation between two referents.
In metonymy the lexical item is used to denote a new object not different from the original referent ' ln Arabic when a lexical item is always or mostly used in any of the former three categories then it is called a "shifted" item ,because it has or been moved on from its place from the factual usage domain to rhetoric usage.
It can be used to substitute for one of its meanings narrowing of meaning. For example Dabb in cA was a generic name that referred to any reptile, later usage had come to confine its meaning and narrow its usage to just one particular fourlegged species of reptiles. Its meaning can be generalized widening of meaning so as to encompass a wider scale.
For example the word ba? So is the case with the juristic terms Salah, Sowm and zakah, originally these words meant "prayer", "abstaining from speech" and "refinement" ,etc. Shifting lexical items from their arbitrary factual meaning to figurative usage has certain effects on the reader or listener. This process is mainly employed for expository, explanatory or even for emphatic purposes.
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