Revealing these events may shed light on strategic improvements to water infrastructure security to make it difficult for the attacks to succeed and reduce the impact of the attacks that may occur. This section presents the amount of chemicals needed to destroy the water supplies. Accordingly, this is not intended to promote harm against human health and the environment but to drive the general public in acknowledging and realizing the probability or feasibility of water source contamination. CN-based pesticide or sodium cyanide with an LD50 of 6. The terrorist group also has an option to use the traditional pesticides available in the market, if it is difficult to acquire sodium cyanide or CN-based pesticide in some areas.
They require 18,, lbs of pesticide to generate mass casualties. Based on the illustration in Figure 4. Aside from foreign support, they can use credit cards and loans within the United States to financially support the attack. Meanwhile, one trailer dolly or pick-up truck has the capacity to carry lbs of chemical threats. Two terrorists can be involved in one station between San Antonio and Austin, Texas to entirely contaminate the Edwards Aquifer within a single month.
If there are four or more additional terrorists assigned for this mission, it could be less than a month before terrorists can achieve their ultimate goal without exhausting themselves or being caught by authorities or intelligence agents. Therefore, aquifer destruction can possibly be executed anytime by terrorists based on their extreme hatred and aim to inflict catastrophe against United States.
This chapter sufficiently identified and presented the chemical threats against water infrastructure including some of the effective treatment technologies, which can be used to treat the water supply in the event of contamination. Fundamentally, identifying the potential threats and their hazards is very crucial in optimizing procedures for the protection of the homeland water infrastructure. The following chapter introduces the most accessible explosives and blasting agents used for terrorist attacks.
Thus, blasting of water supply facilities, explosion of dams and reservoirs, and the creation of leaks or explosions to petrochemical refineries or chemical plants near water resources could create further damage. The explosive materials or blasting agents potentially used in terrorism are detailed in Chapter 3. America Public Health Association. Standard Methods for Water and Wastewater Examination. Association Engineering Geologists. Burrows, W. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water. California Environmental Protection Agency.
California: California Environmental Protection Agency. Cheng, R. Liang, H. Wang, and J. Enhanced coagulation for arsenic removal. Clark, R. Fronk, and B. Lykins Jr. Removing organic contaminants. Claire, D. Randtke, P. Adams, and S. Microfiltration of a high-turbidity surface water with post-treatment by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis. Clancy, J. Control of cryptosporidium: How effective is drinking water treatment? Corso, P. Kramer, K. Blair, D. Addiss, J. Davis, and A.
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Cost of illness in the waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreak, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Dart, R. Daughton, C. Edwards, M. Chemistry of Arsenic removal during coagulation and Fe-Mn oxidation. Eitzen, E. Pavlin, T.
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Cieslak, G. Christopher, and R. Culpepper, Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook. Fort Detrick, MD: U. Faust, S. Chemistry of Water Treatment. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Defense against toxin weapons. Sidell, E. Takafugi, and D. Freeman, B. Burrows Textbook of Microbiology.
Fronk, C. Pesticide removal by membrane processes. Hathaway, G. Proctor, J. Hughes, and M. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Hartman, M. Morasch, and W. Webber, eds. Prepared for U.
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Department of Energy. March Hayman, M, and R. Imangulov, R. ICD Army Research Institute of Chemical Defense. Geneva: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Environmental and Health Effects of Cyanide. Jensen J.
E, and Greer W. Kingston, R. Hall, and L. Clinical observations and medical outcome in cases of arsenate and killer ingestion. Klaassen, C. McGraw Hill. ISBN Knowles, J. Enzyme-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer reactions. Lindsten, D. Rpt no , AD A Fort Belvoir, VA: U. Al Qaeda Threatens Water Supply.
McGeorge, H. Miltner, R. Fronk, and T. Removal of Alachlor from Drinking Water. Michigan Department of Community Health Office. Arsenic As. Oxford University. Physical chemistry department standard material and data sheet. Parker, A.
Risk-based principles for defining and managing water security
Kirsi, W. Rose, and D. Army Test and Evaluation Command. Parmeggiani, L. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Organisation. Sawatsky, B. Ranaheera, H. Weingartl, and M. Hendra and Nipah Virus. Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology.
Schnoor, J. Licht, S. McCutcheon, N. Wolfe, and L. Phytoremediation of organic and nutrient contaminants. Science Applications International Corp. An Overview. Environmental Protection Agency. Snyder, S. Keith, D. Verbrugge, E. Snyder, T. Gross, K. Kannan and J. Analytical methods for detection of selected estrogenic compounds in aqueous mixtures.
Villeneuve, E. Snyder, and J. Identification and quantification of estrogen receptor agonists in wastewater effluents. Solomons, T. Organic Chemistry. Speth, T. GAC and air stripping design support for the safe drinking water act. Clark and R. Technical note: Adsorption capacity of GAC for synthetic organics. Standard Material Safety and Data Sheet. Stewart, H. Evaluation of arsenic removal by activated alumina filtration at a small community public water supply. Tyrrell, S. Rippey, and W. Inactivation of bacterial and viral indicators in secondary sewage effluents, using chlorine and ozone.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxic substances portal. Cyanide fact sheet. Central Intelligence Agency. CIA and war on terrorism. Department of Defense. The Homeland Security Act Public Law , Stat. Washington DC: U. Department of Homeland Security. Interim National Infrastructure Protection Plan. Risk for Chemical Anti-terrorism Standards. Department of Justice DOJ. Freedom of Information Act. Drinking water criteria document for cyanide.
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Report No. Technical Information Review. Methyl tertiary Butyl Ether. CAS No. EPA P Drinking Water Assessments. EPA R Water Security Legislation and Directives. Technical factsheet on cyanide. Organic chemicals. Inorganic chemicals. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Why dams fail. Wagler, J. Malley Jr. Wang, L. Sorg, and A. Arsenic removal by full scale Ion exchange and activated Alumina treatment systems. Dinterman, W. Thompson, M. Schmidt, and W. Treatment for Removal of Biotoxins from Drinking Water. Report no. TR, AD A Warner, J. Review of Reactions of Biotoxins in Water.
Army Medical Research and Development Command. Whelton, A. Jensen, T. Richards, and R. The Cyanic Threat to Potable Water. White, G. The Handbook of Chlorination and Alternative Disinfectants. Zilinskas, R. The past as future? IEDs are responsible for numerous American combat casualties including civilians in Iraq and Afghanistan.
This chapter provides the basics of explosives and their design, specifications, and characteristics as weapons usually used by terrorists. Warnings against terrorism and appropriate preventive measures can be determined by having an idea of the materials used in explosives preparation and their specifications. In Section 3. This method can be used to help design and install perimeters and emergency response stations for major assets. A list of explosive materials determined to be within the coverage of 18 U.
To achieve uniformity in transportation, the definitions of the DOT in Title 49 Transportation Code of Federal Regulations CFR , Chapter 1, subdivides these materials into class A explosives detonating, or otherwise maximum hazard , class S explosives flammable hazard , class C explosives minimum hazard , and oxidizing material a substance that yields oxygen readily to stimulate the combustion of organic matter.
Hence, there are several categories of explosive materials; however, the ones described in Sections 3. Its properties are comparable to those of primary explosives. Acetone peroxide is not used in practice because of its tendency to undergo sublimation. It is highly susceptible to heat, friction, and shock. However, it can be a powerful weapon for destroying water infrastructure and the chemical compositions are commercially viable. The cyclic dimer C6H12O4 , an open monomer, and a dimer are also formed, but under special conditions the cyclic trimer C9H18O6 is the primary product.
Acetone peroxide was used as the explosive in the July London bombings. Three bombs exploded within 50 seconds of each other on the London Underground trains. It should be noted that the terrorists usually launch their attacks during rush hours. Detection method and emergency response techniques based on the timing and distance of the explosion may need to be analyzed closely. AN fertilizer does great things for the agriculture industry. Hence, it is very accessible to terrorists and criminals as a weapon of destruction, and it was used in the notorious federal building bombing in Oklahoma City.
Meyer, Kohler, and Homburg indicated that the product shows a great tendency to cake and the resulting difficulties are avoided by transformation into prills prills are small aggregate materials formed from a melted liquid. AN is commercially sold as dense prills and as porous prills employed for industrial explosives such as mining after milling. Table 3. Kohler, and A. The application technique of these mixtures has now become much easier owing to the fact that the material, which has a strong tendency to agglomerate, is commercially produced as porous prills Meyer, Kohler, and Homburg Cyclohexanone, nitrobenzene, and glycol are solvents at elevated temperatures Meyer, Kohler, and Homburg Its detonation velocity at a density of 1.
The chemical reaction of concentrated nitric acid with hexamine produces RDX.
Based on testimony in the U. RDX was the main component used in the Mumbai, India, train bombings. It is also believed to be the explosive used in the Moscow Metro, Russia, bombings. Homburg, Explosives, 5th ed. The reaction between glyoxal and urea produces glycolurile. Once glycolurile undergoes the dinitration process, it produces dingu. The characteristics of dingu are presented in Table 3. It is easily decomposed by alkaline hydrolysis. It is stable in contact with neutral or acid water. It is insoluble in molten TNT but soluble in dimethyl sufoxide.
Nitration with nitric acid and nitrogen pentoxide can generate sorguyl. Nitro derivatives of glycolurile have recently attracted renewed interest because sorguyl has proved to be one of the most powerful modern explosives Boileau, Emeury, and Keren Sorguyl has high density and high detonation velocity, which can be used by terrorists for attacking dams.
Dingu and sorguyl are not very common in the United States and not easily detected onsite. Sorguyl is not hygroscopic, decomposes easily by hydrolysis decomposes when mixed with molten TNT , and is insoluble in both hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The characteristics and specifications of dingu and sorguyl are presented in Tables 3. It is usually made from hexamethylenetetramine and nitric acid; it is an important precursor of primary explosives.
Emeury, and J. Keren, German Patent 2,,, ; Emeury, J. Girardon, U. Patent 4,, , Keren, German Patent 2,,, Also, oxidation and nitration of tetranitrohydrazobenzene can produce hexanitroazobenzene Table 3. It is a threat to be used for destroying dams, underground sewer pipelines, and aqueducts because it is a considerably powerful underwater explosive. It is less powerful than hexanitroazobenzene but can still destroy large dams when it is appropriately installed near dam abutments on unstable ground.
Additionally, it is insoluble in water and most organic solvents and forms acid-sensitive salts. As stated by Meyer, Kohler, and Homburg , it is an explosive with a relatively low sensitivity to heat and has been used as a precipitant for potassium. The characteristics and specifications of hexanitrodiphenylamine are presented in Table 3.
The characteristics and specifications of CL are presented in Table 3. Urtiew, D. Ornellas, G. Moody, K. Hatch, M. Mezger, and S. It is prepared by reacting sodium azide and lead nitrate; production of large crystals may occur and should be mitigated for safety from potential explosion during the preparation by precipitation with dextrin or polyvinyl alcohol.
The characteristics and specifications of lead azide are presented in Table 3. Patent 3,,, August 2, It is water insoluble and can be phlegmatized by the addition of fats, oils, or paraffin. Then, energetic gas and crystals are produced, the crystals are filtered by suction and washed until they become neutral after the reaction. The mercury II fulminate product is obtained as a small brown to grey pyramid-shaped crystal, the color of which is caused by the presence of colloidal mercury.
Its characteristics and specifications are presented in Table 3. The crude nitration product is first centrifuged to remove the bulk of the acid, after which it is stabilized Table 3. Evers, M. Oehlinger, and T. Phillips, Handbook of Inorganic Compounds. Also, the nitration processes are resumed while a measured amount of nitric acid and anhydrous sulfuric acid are applied to regulate the spent acid.
Standard nitrocellulose types are manufactured and blended to the desired nitrogen content. Blasting soluble nitrocotton dynamite nitrocotton; In addition, it is a highly flammable compound formed by nitration of cellulose. Most airport X-ray machines may not be able to detect nitrocellulose, although another type of technology called a trace detection machine can. Most underdeveloped countries may not have the technology to detect nitrocellulose; terrorists will be able to pass through their security system and can hijack the airlines heading to the United States for a series of attacks.
Based on the chemical equation above, 4 moles of nitroglycerin generates 35 moles of hot gases, which makes it as one of the most powerful explosives. The characteristics and specifications of nitroglycerin are provided in Table 3. Homburg, Explo sives, 5th ed. Octagen is insoluble in water and is made by the nitration of hexamine with ammonium nitrate and nitric acid in an acetic acid. It can be used to manufacture cyclotrimethylene-trinitramine RDX , another high explosive similar in structure to HMX.
The characteristics and specifications of HMX are shown in Table 3. Pentaerythrol is mixed into concentrated nitric acid with efficient stirring and cooling to produced PETN. PETN is more complex to detonate than TNT but it has a higher level of shock and friction sensitivity; an explosion will not be produced by dropping or igniting.
A deflagration to detonation transition can take place in some cases. PETN is used to avoid the need for primary explosives; the energy needed for an immediate initiation of PETN by an electric spark is approximately up to 60 mJ. It is a major ingredient of the plastic explosive semtex.
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PETN can only become a violent explosive when it is mixed with other explosives. The explosive that almost brought down Northwest Airlines Flight was extremely powerful, allowing terrorists to use only small quantities to cause enormous damage. PETN crystals are hard to detect if carried in a sealed container. The characteristics and specifications are shown in Table 3. Also, it has a greater magnitude of explosion than TNT. The crude product is purified by washing in water and needs an elevated pouring temperature Meyer, Kohler, and Homburg But, the solidification point can be reduced by using nitronaphthalene or dinitrobenzene.
These explosives are easy to use by terrorists or disgruntled individuals. It can be produced pure and mixed with ammonium nitrate, with aluminum powder, with RDX, and in other combinations. It is one of the most highly used explosives in the military because it is neutral and very stable. Moreover, this knowledge could help prevent disaster by timely detection of these potential attacks. Terrorists aim to inflict mass casualties and cause maximum loss of life and property damage, and explosives are typically their first weapons of choice.
Some of the common components and considerations to bomb making that can destroy water infrastructure are presented in Sections 3. They can be used as swelling agents to explosive mixtures in order to improve the resistance of such explosives to moisture. It is composed of a secondary nitramine explosive Ledgard PETN or another type of secondary charge is added to achieve a higher brisance. A blasting cap can be ignited by the flame of a safety fuse or ignited electrically.
The normal size should only be used with a slow fuse. They contain a bridge made of thin resistance wire with an igniting pill built around the wire and immersed in pyrotechnical substance after drying, which will glow by using an electric pulse. Hence, if multiple charges are to be detonated at the same time, the detonators need to be connected in series with the connecting wire. Special blasting machines must be used in parallel connection with detonators.
The relevant parameters of explosives are detonation rate and loading density, gas yield, and heat of explosion. The higher the loading density of the explosive the higher speed of the reaction rate and intensity of the impact of the detonation. Moreover, an increase in density is in conjunction with an increase in the detonation rate of the explosive, whereas the shock wave pressure in the detonation front varies with the square of the detonation rate.
Therefore, higher loading density is very significant. The burning of powder is a deflagration process. Delay compositions are mixtures of substances that when pressed into delay tubes react without the progression of gaseous products and thus ensure minimum variation in the delay period. Examples of such mixtures are potassium permanganate with antimony, and redox reactions with fluorides and other halides.
Hence, the time or distance between the initiation of the fuze and the detonation can be designed. Increase in temperature and pressure gradients are created in the wave front, in order to initiate the chemical reaction instantaneously. The air in front of the piston is compressed and warms up a little; the compression range is determined by the velocity of sound in the air. In addition, this allows the piston to accelerate again and continue its motion at the higher rate. The new compression is applied to the medium, part of which is already in motion; it is moving at a higher and quicker rate, the movement of the subject is superposed and the sonic velocity is intensified in a warmer medium.
Risk-based principles for defining and managing water security
If the medium is an explosive gas mixture rather than air, an explosive reaction will be instantly initiated in front of the shock wave. Explosions normally produce a shock wave in the surrounding air. Hence, this compression shock is the standard principle of the long-distance effect of explosions. If the explosion-generated shock wave is propagated in three-dimensional space, its effect decreases with the third power of the distance.
This expression can be used to design the location of an emergency response station for a major asset, to immediately respond in the event of an extreme terrorist attack as illustrated in the scenarios in combat zones presented in Chapter Meanwhile, Meyer, Kohler, and Homburg pointed out that the shock wave theory is easier to understand if we consider a planar shock wave, on the assumption that the tube is indestructible such shock wave tubes are utilized as research instruments in gas dynamics and in solid-state physics; the shock sources are explosions or membranes bursting under pressure.
The development and transmission of the shock wave is sustained by the energy of the reaction. The equations presented in Section 3. Since po is negligibly small as compared to the detonation pressure p1, we can write Equation 3. For a known explosive, detonation velocity increases with increasing density.
High density of the explosive is important if high W brisance is required. This is initiated and employed if the blasting has to be applied on softer rocks and if a weaker thrust effect is expected. The determination of the maximum level of detonation pressure p1, in Equation 3. While the detonation velocity can be quantified by electronic recorders, there is no standard quantification for the fume velocity W; but it can be projected by the direction of angle of the fumes behind D the wave front.
Hence, this selectivity is important for ion exchanges. The maximum distance between two cartridges in line is based on the flashover tests, by which the detonation is transmitted. These funds give states certainty that they can meet their drinking water needs and repair or replace aging drinking water systems. And significant attention is paid to increased cybersecurity for American water and wastewater infrastructure, with respect to systems risk and resilience.
Such an assessment — A shall include an assessment of — the risk to the system from malevolent acts and natural hazards; the resilience of the pipes and constructed conveyances, physical barriers, source water, water collection and intake, pretreatment, treatment, storage and distribution facilities, electronic, computer, or other automated systems including the security of such systems which are utilized by the system; the monitoring practices of the system; the financial infrastructure of the system; the use, storage, or handling of various chemicals by the system; and the operation and maintenance of the system; and B may include an evaluation of capital and operational needs for risk and resilience management for the system.
Some useful questions to ask if you are managing the process network or if you are on the corporate IT team managing the network devices in the process network are: Do you know all of the external access points to your network? Are there any pivot points in your network? Does your network allow remote access?
Does IT manage any switches, routers, business systems workstations and servers? Prioritizing Operational Risk and System Resiliency Operational risk has always been a key element in any effective strategy for operational assurance, business assurance, and system resilience. Standards and best practices provide a good starting point for any cybersecurity program Operational risks are not about data, they are about maintaining operational functions Security controls should be selected to address identified operational risks In some cases, the unique requirements of an OT environment may not line up well with some traditional IT system resilience tools.
A relatively new Technology manufacturers in the global IT market occasionally come up for air in order to revalidate that our value propositions are still germane. Phil Won Product Manager at Owl. Owl Cyber Defense specializes in providing data diode solutions for Critical Infrastructure customers as well as cross domain solutions for the government and armed forces.
Attendees learned about these new requirements, U. Environmental Protection Agency EPA plans for implementation and guidance, and tools that will be available to help utilities. Each location has a limited number of seats for in-person attendance. However, each training will be available via webinar for online remote participation. Interested participants are asked to register no later than one week prior to the training date in each respective EPA region.