A hundred years ago, lightning probably was the leading thunderstorm-related killer. At that time, the U. The majority of people worked outside, exposing them frequently to the threat of lightning compared to today. In addition, housing was much less substantial, lacking the plumbing and wiring that we have today that acts more or less like a Faraday cage to channel lightning around and away from the inhabitants.
It was not unusual for a structure to literally blow apart when hit by lightning, often crushing the inhabitants. Lightning and its subsequent thunder can be used in lightning safety to protect yourself and others.
Warnings & Dangers
The flash-to-bang method of protection considers the time between seeing lightning to hearing its thunder. New lightning data showed that most CG flashes in a storm were within miles Using the flash-to-bang method, lightning that has a second count between the flash and the thunder is 6 miles 9. This translates into 5 seconds per mile 1. It is possible that the next flash of CG lightning may occur at your location. The LSG also suggests waiting 30 minutes after hearing the last sound of thunder or seeing the last lightning in daytime before returning to any outside activity.
This allows the thunderstorm to move out of the area, greatly reducing the lightning threat level. The average lightning flash distance between two flashes averages about mikes km , but 6 miles 9. The LSG strongly recommends proactive action rather than a reactive approach to lightning safety. This means knowing the weather prediction and pre-planning for a scene evacuation that includes knowing a safer place to go and the time needed to reach it.
Statistics have shown the majority of people who are struck by lightning are struck before or after a thunderstorm, not during the heaviest rain. A few short rhymes or slogans to remember for lightning safety are as follows: "If you see it, flee it. A lightning flash has brightness, infrared and ultraviolet radiation that can temporarily blind a person or seriously damage vision.
Lightning injury and death predominantly occurs outside, often during recreational activities. Lightning injuries often last a lifetime. This annual event takes place during the last full week in June. The goal of the LSAW is to reduce injury and death from lightning by promoting awareness and education. Medical information, lightning safety, and support groups for strike victims can be obtained from the following web sites, in addition to this one: www.
Additional weather and lightning information with related topics may be downloaded from the following web site: www. During the later half of the 19th century, H. Kretzer collected thunderstorm newspaper articles. Terminology used to describe lightning and thunder was different than that used today. Instead of using the word thunder, it was described as an unusual acoustical or deadening report, or an acoustical bombardment. Lightning was described as an electrical bombardment or accompaniment, or an electrical pyrotechnic or peculiar pyrotechnic display.
During an hour period on July , , in a mile km radius centered in Merrillville, Indiana, there were 10, CG flashes. For centuries there have been documented records from reliable individuals reporting unusual behavior anxiety, restlessness, and irritability associated with some pets and livestock prior to thunderstorm activity. This behavior has been observed in animals for as much as an hour or more before the first sound of thunder is heard in the distance.
It is speculated that some animals are reacting to hearing long-wave sound energy below the Hz level from an approaching thunderstorm. Theories about the cause of thunder date back thousands of years. It wasn't until the turn of the 20th century that the origin of thunder was properly identified and accepted. Thunder is produced by the explosive expansion of heated air surrounding a lightning channel.
Thunder can be heard from a maximum distance of about 10 miles 16 km under good atmospheric conditions. When lightning strikes close, thunder has a loud clap or snapping sound. The rumbling we hear is the sound of thunder reaching us at different times from the sound produced along its length.
People have experienced injury and property damage from the sound of thunder at close range. If outdoor activity is planned for the day, check your local weather forecast for the possibility of thunderstorms. Become proactive about safety, instead of reactive. The sound of thunder can be a wake up call for lightning safety. If you see lightning and hear thunder in 30 seconds or less, the threat is imminent and the next strike may be at your location. Take safety measures immediately.
Outdoor activities should not be resumed until 30 minutes after the last thunder is heard or lightning seen. Many individuals struck by lightning are struck before or after the heaviest rain from a thunderstorm, not during the strongest part. It appears that people pay more attention to the rain than to the danger from lightning injury. Is it going to rain today? Understanding the weather forecast. Hill, R.
- Tangled Web.
- Christopher Johnson.
- The Science of Thunder!
- Toccata Op.155 - Piano.
Thunder and lightning, vol. Golde, New York: Academic Press , p. Holle, R. Lightning hazard education. Seminars in Neurology, 15, pp. Kithil, R. Christopher Johnson is now following. Christopher Johnson. Christopher Johnson started reading. Christopher Johnson rated a book it was amazing.
Add a reference: Book Author. Search for a book to add a reference. We take abuse seriously in our discussion boards. Only flag comments that clearly need our attention. As a general rule we do not censor any content on the site. The only content we will consider removing is spam, slanderous attacks on other members, or extremely offensive content eg. We will not remove any content for bad language alone, or being critical of a particular book. Welcome back. From June to December, the typhoon season runs in Japan with the most number of storms occurring between July and September.
The southern areas of the country are especially at risk. You can get tsunami and typhoon warnings from the Japan Meteorological Agency website and also get advice and information on what you should do in case you get caught up in a storm. Money The official currency in Japan is the Yen. Credit cards are not used here as widely as in the West but you will find most of the major cars like American Express, Mastercard and Visa to be accepted in restaurants, department stores and large hotels.
Before going on a trip, check with your own bank and make sure you have enough money in your account for the entire duration of your stay in Japan.
Japan it's largely a non-tipping society, tipping is not a part of the japanese culture. Tipping is perceived insulting. Toggle navigation. Book the best hotels in Kobe - in partnership with booking. Toyofuku - JPY. Kobe Japan Sakai Osaka Nara Kyoto Okayama Quality of life in Kobe - 76 72 - - 90 92 Quality of health care in Kobe 86 80 73 83 83 75 77 Crime threat level in Kobe 8 13 15 10 9 1 2 Safety index in Kobe 91 86 84 89 90 95 97 Traffic inefficiency in Kobe 15 9 7 - - 1 1 Traffic jams in Kobe 17 15 9 4 1 7 8 Kobe - Traffic jams time in minutes 36 30 26 19 5 22 23 Kobe - Consumer Price Index - 53 52 64 - 48 49 Kobe - Consumer Price Index, including rental - 48 45 53 - 40 41 Prices in restaurants in Kobe 23 25 25 27 25 25 26 Kobe - Real estate prices in relation to income 1 1 - - 1 - - Grocery prices in Kobe 66 47 45 63 - 40 41 Prices of renting apartments in Kobe 22 24 19 20 20 13 14 Purchasing power in Kobe - 52 51 39 - 52 54 Kobe - General pollution index 13 30 44 38 21 1 1.
Kobe Japan Sakai Osaka Nara Kyoto Okayama Ambient air quality in Kobe very high 88 high 68 moderate 53 moderate 53 moderate 53 moderate 59 very high 88 Quality and access to drinking water in Kobe very high 87 very high 72 high 65 high 65 high 65 high 63 very high 87 Satisfaction with the garbage disposal service very high 93 very high 74 high 66 high 66 high 66 high 61 very high 93 Cleanliness and tidiness in Kobe very high 90 very high 76 high 67 high 67 high 67 high 66 very high 90 Calmness and lack of light pollution in Kobe high 62 high 60 moderate 50 moderate 50 moderate 50 moderate 56 high 62 Water quality in Kobe very high 75 high 65 moderate 52 moderate 52 moderate 52 high 64 very high 75 Satisfaction with spending time in Kobe very high 92 very high 71 moderate 55 moderate 55 moderate 55 high 63 very high 92 Quality of city green space and parks in Kobe very high 93 high 67 moderate 51 moderate 51 moderate 51 high 66 very high Travel expenses, prices and safety We have calculated that the total cost of hotels booking in Kobe is lower than the cost of accommodation in United Kingdom.
Healthcare and safety in Kobe Health care ranking is based on an index of factors like: speed of service, protection of privacy, quality of amenities, health care professionals, equipment, staff, doctors, and cost. Hostel Anchorage - JPY.
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Tipping in Japan Japan it's largely a non-tipping society, tipping is not a part of the japanese culture. Try to avoid bug bites while spending time outside or in wooded areas. What can I do to prevent bug bites? Cover exposed skin by wearing long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and hats. Use an appropriate insect repellent. Consider using permethrin-treated clothing and gear if spending a lot of time outside. Do not use permethrin directly on skin. Do not touch your eyes, nose, or mouth.
If you need to touch your face, make sure your hands are clean. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your sleeve not your hands when coughing or sneezing.