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Exploration of the moon has taught us much about the evolution of the solar system and ourselves. But it took space-age exploration to show us how the moon is connected to human existence on a very fundamental level. With the shocking launch of Sputnik 1 in October , the moon changed from a distant silver disk in the sky to a real place, a probable destination for probes and people.

The Soviets struck first, flying Luna 1 by the moon in January They followed this success with a number of other robotic probes, culminating later the same year with Luna 3, which photographed the far side of the moon, never visible from Earth. From these early, poor quality images, we discovered that the far side has surprisingly little of the dark, smooth mare plains that cover about a third of the near side.

Other surprises would soon follow. Kennedy committed the United States to landing a man on the moon by the end of the decade. The Apollo program greatly accelerated interest in exploring the moon. To ensure that human crews could safely land and depart from the lunar surface, it was important to understand its environment, surface and processes.

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At the same time, the robotic precursors would collect valuable information, constituting the first scientific exploration of another planetary body. These probes were designed to photograph the lunar surface at increasing levels of detail before crashing into the surface. After several heartbreaking failures, Ranger 7 succeeded in sending back detailed television pictures of Mare Nubium Sea of Clouds in July From the Ranger probes, we discovered that craters, those strange holes that pepper the lunar surface, range down in size to the very limits of resolution.

Micrometeorite bombardment has ground up the surface rocks, creating a fine powder called regolith. Two more Ranger spacecraft flew to the moon, culminating with the Live From the Moon television images from Ranger 9, careening into the spectacular lunar crater Alphonsus. Again, the U. It found the surface to be powdery dirt strewn with a few rocks, but strong enough to support the weight of a landed spacecraft.

In May , the United States followed with the landing of the complex robotic spacecraft, Surveyor 1. It sent television pictures back to Earth, showing the surface and its physical properties in detail. Later Surveyor missions five in all , collected physical data on soil properties, including its chemical composition. Analysis of the lunar surface showed that the dark maria had a composition similar to terrestrial basalt, a dark iron-rich lava, while the highlands near the very fresh rayed crater Tycho were lighter in color and strangely enriched in aluminum.


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The final robotic missions mapped the entire moon from orbit for the first time and obtained extremely high resolution pictures of potential landing sites, certifying their safety for the Apollo missions to follow. This U.

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Lunar Orbiter series conducted five mapping missions, whereby boulders as small as a couple of meters could be seen. From these robotic missions, we learned that the moon was cratered and pitted at all scales. The surface was powdery dust but strong enough to support the weight of people and machines. The moon had no global magnetic field or atmosphere and was made up of common rock types, similar to those found on Earth. Now the stage was set for the next giant leap in understanding lunar and planetary history.

In just eight years, we had gone from zero human spaceflight capability to landing men on the surface of the moon. From these missions, scientists developed a new view of the origin and evolution of the planets and of life on Earth. The Christmastime flight of Apollo 8 was a milestone — humans left low Earth orbit and reached the moon, circling it for almost a day.

For the first time, people gazed on the moon from orbit. They found it desolate and gray, but saw nothing to prevent journeying the final 62 miles to the surface.

In May of , Apollo 10 orbited the moon, testing the lunar lander. It was a dress rehearsal for the manned landing to come. Their visual observations added to the burgeoning knowledge of lunar geology. In a harrowing descent marked by program alarms from an overloaded computer and freezing fuel lines, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin in Apollo 11 safely landed in Mare Tranquillitatis Sea of Tranquility on July 20, They walked on the moon for over 2 hours, collecting rocks and soil and laying out experiment packages.

From the Apollo 11 samples, we learned that the dark maria are ancient volcanic lavas, having crystallized over 3. Lunar samples are similar in chemical composition to Earth rocks but extremely dry, with no evidence for any significant water on the moon, past or present. Small bits of white rock were found in the soil, blasted to the site from distant highlands.

Combined with the earlier results of the Surveyor 7 chemical analysis at the crater Tycho, scientists reasoned that the ancient moon had been nearly completely molten, covered in a layer of liquid rock. Micrometeorite bombardment ground up the bedrock and gases from the sun were implanted on the surfaces of the lunar dust grains.

Another potential candidate for a radio telescope is the Saha crater. Before deploying radio telescopes to the far side, several problems must be overcome. The fine lunar dust can contaminate equipment, vehicles, and space suits. The conducting materials used for the radio dishes must also be carefully shielded against the effects of solar flares. Finally, the area around the telescopes must be protected against contamination by other radio sources. The force of this impact has created a deep penetration into the lunar surface, and a sample returned from this site could be analyzed for information concerning the interior of the Moon.

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Because the near side is partly shielded from the solar wind by the Earth, the far side maria are expected to have the highest concentration of helium-3 on the surface of the Moon. Proponents of lunar settlement have cited the presence of this material as a reason for developing a Moon base. Some conspiracy theorists, notably Milton William Cooper , have alleged that some Apollo astronauts had seen UFOs on the far side of the Moon but were told to keep quiet about them.

Some photographs circulated on the Internet purport to show a large "castle" on the Moon.

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The Apollo 20 hoax claims that a manned mission landed on the far side. NASA states that these claims are hoaxes. Former United States Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara stated that several unspecified officials "Chiefs" within The Pentagon were opposed to a Nuclear Test Ban Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union , on the premise that the Soviets would continue nuclear weapons testing on the far side of the Moon, far from the observations of American observers. McNamara considered this premise "absurd" and that "[they were] out of [their] minds," but he believed that it was an example of the state of mind of some Pentagon officials during the Cold War.

The project was created not only to help in answering some of the mysteries in planetary astronomy and astrogeology , but also as a show of force intended to boost domestic confidence in the astro-capabilities of the United States, a boost that was thought to be needed after the Soviet Union took an early lead in the Space Race and who were thought by some to be working on a similar project. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Dark side of the Moon. See also: Lunar mare.

The Dark Side of the Moon Observing America (Volume 4) – Jim Freeman

Moon portal. Retrieved Penn State News. Gillis; P. Spudis Lunar and Planetary Science. Bibcode : LPI Jutzi; E. Asphaug Bibcode : Natur. Accessed Jan 9th, Penn State University. Adler Planetarium. Space Policy. Times of India. Associated Press. Retrieved 3 January Xinhua English News. Archived from the original on Duke; B. How Grant Pattison saved Edcon. Most Read Luxury life: the rise of champagne in SA. Beheading time looms for Proteas.

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