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The names of the signers were released publicly in early So that famous painting showing the signing of the Declaration on July 4, , is a bit of an exaggeration. Historian Pauline Maier said in her book about the Declaration that no member of Congress recalled in early July that it was almost a year since they declared their freedom from the British.

They finally remembered on July 3rd, and July 4th became the day that seemed to make sense for celebrating independence. Maier also said that the Declaration and celebrating its signing was stuck in a feud between the Federalists of John Adams and the Republicans of Thomas Jefferson.

Both documents were packed up about two weeks after Pearl Harbor. They were given a military escort to Fort Knox in Kentucky, where they remained until late There really is a message written on the back of the Declaration of Independence. In the movie National Treasure , a secret message written on the back of the Declaration is a key plot device. Toggle navigation. July 4 is when the Declaration was adopted After voting on independence, the Continental Congress needed to finalize a document explaining the move to the public. Six people signed the Declaration and also the Constitution Franklin was among a handful of people who signed both historical documents.

OK — when was the Declaration actually signed? In , Jefferson wrote a letter to James Madison in which he recounted the drafting process. After making alterations to his draft as suggested by Franklin and Adams, he recalled that "I then wrote a fair copy, reported it to the Committee, and from them, unaltered, to Congress. The Fair Copy was presumably marked up by Charles Thomson , the secretary of the Continental Congress , while Congress debated and revised the text.

The Fair Copy was sent to John Dunlap to be printed under the title "A Declaration by the Representatives of the united states of america , in General Congress assembled. The Fair Copy may have been destroyed in the printing process, [12] or destroyed during the debates in accordance with Congress's secrecy rule. The Declaration was first published as a broadside printed by John Dunlap of Philadelphia. One broadside was pasted into Congress's journal, making it what Boyd called the "second official version" of the Declaration. Upon receiving these broadsides, many states issued their own broadside editions.

The Dunlap broadsides were the first published copies of the Declaration of Independence, printed on the night of July 4, It is unknown exactly how many broadsides were originally printed, but the number is estimated at about On July 4, , Congress ordered the same committee charged with writing the document to "superintend and correct the press", that is, supervise the printing.

Dunlap, an Irish immigrant then 29 years old, was tasked with the job; he apparently spent much of the night of July 4 setting type, correcting it, and running off the broadside sheets. Another copy was sent to England. In , 14 copies of the Dunlap broadside were known to exist. It is currently unknown how this copy came to the archive, but one possibility is that it was captured from an American coastal ship intercepted during the War of Independence. In January , Congress commissioned Mary Katherine Goddard to print a new broadside that, unlike the Dunlap broadside, listed the signers of the Declaration.

In , nine Goddard broadsides were known to still exist. The reported locations of those copies at that time were: [26].

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In addition to the broadsides authorized by Congress, many states and private printers also issued broadsides of the Declaration, using the Dunlap broadside as a source. In , an article in the Harvard Library Review surveyed all the broadsides known to exist at that time and found 19 editions or variations of editions, including the Dunlap and Goddard printings. The author was able to locate 71 copies of these various editions. A number of copies have been discovered since that time. In , a copy of a rare four-column broadside probably printed in Salem, Massachusetts was discovered in Georgetown University 's Lauinger Library.

The type of copy was not specified. The copy of the Declaration that was signed by Congress is known as the engrossed or parchment copy. This copy was probably handwritten by clerk Timothy Matlack , and given the title of "The unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America". Throughout the Revolutionary War, the engrossed copy was moved with the Continental Congress, [31] which relocated several times to avoid the British army.


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In , after creation of a new government under the United States Constitution , the engrossed Declaration was transferred to the custody of the secretary of state. After the War of , the symbolic stature of the Declaration steadily increased even though the engrossed copy's ink was noticeably fading. Stone to create an engraving essentially identical to the engrossed copy.

The Constitution of the United States and The Declaration of Independence

When Stone finished his engraving in , Congress ordered copies to be printed on parchment. From to , the engrossed copy was publicly displayed on a wall opposite a large window at the Patent Office building in Washington, D.


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Exposed to sunlight and variable temperature and humidity, the document faded badly. In , it was sent to Independence Hall in Philadelphia for exhibit during the Centennial Exposition , which was held in honor of the Declaration's th anniversary, and then returned to Washington the next year. For nearly 30 years, it was exhibited only on rare occasions at the discretion of the Secretary of State.

Funds were appropriated to preserve the documents in a public exhibit that opened in For many years, officials at the National Archives believed that they, rather than the Library of Congress, should have custody of the Declaration and the Constitution. The transfer finally took place in , and the documents, along with the Bill of Rights , are now on permanent display at the National Archives in the "Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom.

In , using the latest in preservation technology, conservators treated the documents and re-encased them in encasements made of titanium and aluminum , filled with inert argon gas. How it came to be in England is not yet known, but the finders believe that the randomness of the signatures points to an origin with signatory James Wilson , who had argued strongly that the Declaration was made not by the States but by the whole people. The finders identify the Sussex Declaration as a transcription of the Matlack Declaration, probably made between and and likely in New York City or possibly Philadelphia.

They propose that the Sussex Declaration "descended from the Matlack Declaration, and it or a copy served, before disappearing from view, as a source text for both the Tyler engraving and the Bridgham engraving". Publication information for sources mentioned in brief here can be found in References" section below. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Information Bulletin.

Declaration of Independence - Kids Learn Liberty

Library of Congress. Retrieved July 9, The Washington Post. Retrieved July 3, Boyd Papers of Jefferson , —28 casts doubt on Becker's belief that the change was made by Franklin. All of these copies were then destroyed, theorizes Ritz, to preserve secrecy. Harvard University.


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Harvard Library bulletin. Cambridge, Mass. The Early America Review, Vol. VII No. April 3, Huffington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved July 1, The Daily Telegraph. July 3, Charters of Freedom. National Archives and Records Administration. National Park Service. Retrieved July 12, The Georgetown Voice. Retrieved 22 September The Times Of India. April 1, Retrieved July 6, New York Times Magazine. Retrieved April 24, Washington Post.

Retrieved April 24, The Guardian. Retrieved April 22, Declaration Resources Project. Historical documents of the United States. George Washington. John Langdon Nicholas Gilman. Nathaniel Gorham Rufus King. William Samuel Johnson Roger Sherman. Alexander Hamilton. George Read Gunning Bedford Jr. James McHenry Daniel of St.

Thomas Jenifer Daniel Carroll. John Blair James Madison. William Few Abraham Baldwin.

William Jackson. Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson. John Hancock Massachusetts. Stephen Hopkins William Ellery.