This solution indeed functions according to the external logic of the plot. The play, however, gives numerous signals to the audience on how to avoid the interpretative trap of dramatic irony or falling back on traditional readings and warns the audience of the unreliability of sensual perception.
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The direct and simple language Mandryka uses to describe himself is in stark contrast to the artificial and sophisticated atmosphere of the Viennese ball where he and Arabella are having the conversation. In addition, he shows irrational generosity and fills the stereotype of a somewhat alien and overly rich foreigner buying his way into society by treating the guests of the ball with gallons of champagne and mountains of roses The mutual appeal between Mandryka and Arabella arises from a feeling of the uncanny.
Er ist kein ganzer Mann. Wer das nicht ist, der hat bei mir verspielt! From this primary mutual feeling of appealing fear a traditional awe characterizing lovers Arabella steers the conversation in a more rational direction which should bring about disillusionment. Mandryka, however, perceives the world in a different manner than Arabella.
However, at this point it is still the mutual fascination and the lure of the uncanny that dominates the relationship between Arabella and Mandryka. Unheimlich ist irgendwie eine Art von heimlich. Although Arabella is innocent of deceiving Mandryka, she too discovers her uncanny side when she compares herself to her sister and to Mandryka — what is in her need not be her. She has played the role of seductress for too long and has let her admirers cherish too many hopes because she was distant, rational and did not involve her emotions.
Stolz und coquett, und kalt dabei! She has been trained — costumed — as a Salondame, which she is not. What distinguishes her from Zdenka and Mandryka is her capacity to face reality from a distance as well as her language skills in conveying her thoughts and feelings to the others. She is thus equipped to be the guide in the process of Enlightenment which all three characters undergo. In addition, the supposedly transparent Milan functions as an alibi which lures the main character into a nearby dangerous village, where he dies Schon vor Morgengrauen, [ Hoffmansthal and Burckhardt Hofmannsthal projects fairy tale features onto the Orient and displays Western cultural superiority indeed.
In this he certainly follows the nineteenth and early-twentieth century patterns of the orientalist discourse, as Berman points out Yet another carnevalesque exchange of roles has taken place — the rich foreigners are now people from the South Eastern margin of the empire and the poor Orient is now the Habsburg metropolis Vienna. In his last work, Arabella, Hofmannsthal retains some of his earlier patterns, but applies them in a different manner from his previous works.
The topos Slavonia is thus depicted in Arabella as a non-existing, utopian space. Slavonia fulfills a similar function for the whole play as it does for Adelaide. The cultivation of Mandryka evokes the subsequent project of enlightened reforms pursued by the Habsburg Monarchy in order to bring this region culturally closer to the other parts of Croatia which had been continually under Habsburg rule.
At the same time, Hofmannsthal develops a project of reuniting former margins of the Monarchy with their former center of Vienna through common cultural values which, to be sure, are negotiated and re- negotiated in the process of coming together. Vienna and Slavonia need each other in the same way Arabella and Mandryka need each other. Mandryka needs to cultivate his senses, and Arabella needs to regain authenticity in her emotions. This can only happen in an equal interaction of the two cultural modes symbolized by the geographical spaces and embodied in the two dramatis personae.
Things most obvious and probable should not be taken as obvious and probable. Likewise, the audience should not draw conclusions on the basis of the audiovisual presentation and the structure of the play. It must follow Arabella and Mandryka in the process they undergo. At the end of Arabella, the concepts of heimlich and unheimlich prove synonymous. The reasons, however, why the Slavic character is a Croat, and not a Czech or a Pole, are not merely political, i. The Slavonian character, whose ethnicity is never mentioned, symbolizes rather the regional identity, as opposed to the national one, as well as the bridge between Western and South Eastern Europe, and the latter is perceived and depicted by Hofmannsthal not only as Slavic, but also as slightly Oriental and Asian.
Und wie wahr, mein Freund! Dominik: Die Liebe ists, die uns erhalten wird, allein die Liebe! They dress and present the other daughter Zdenka as a young man because they can only afford to merry off one of their daughters befitting their social rank. Count Waldner, who is an addicted gambler, has a rich friend in the Habsburg province of Slavonia, whom he sends a picture of the beautiful Arabella. Instead of his friend, who is deceased, the picture reaches his not less rich nephew Mandryka, who, enchanted by the image, travels to Vienna to meet the beauty.
In Vienna, Arabella is surrounded by wooers, but none of them arouses her interest until she meets the stranger Mandryka, who fascinates her with his simple, rural habits. Zdenka does this because she is in love with Matteo and fears that he will leave Vienna if rejected by Arabella. In the last act the errors and the confusion are clarified and both couples unite in love and understanding. In fact, the correspondence between Richard Strauss and Hofmannsthal reveals that Strauss insisted on a more stagey and less dramatic plot and requested from Hofmannsthal more emotional conflicts in Arabella to justify the music.
Her prophecy gives only a very rough scheme for general human interrelations and by no means determines the plot, but rather leaves open countless possibilities for acting, and this gives the characters freedom to choose between these possibilities. However, the characters still move within the boundaries of the general scheme and fill out the surfaces marked by the outline. It was created by German traveling theater troupes in the late seventeenth century.
Im ersten Fall handelt es sich um verbale dramatische Ironie, im zweiten um aktionale. It is not clear, whether Hofmannsthal used it in error, or wanted to attribute pan-Slavic traits to this character. Thomas A. Rochester, NY: Camden House, Benjamin, Walter. Ursprung des deutschen Trauerspiels. Berman, Nina. Colonialism: Hofmannsthal in North Africa. Ritchie Robertson and Edward Timms. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, Bottenberg, Joanna.
Foteva, Ana. Purdue University, Monika Schmitz- Emans and Gertrud Lehnert. Heidelberg: Synchron, Goldstein, Ivo. Croatia: A History. London: C. Hurst, Freud, Sigmund. Psychoanalytische Studien an Werken der Dichtung und Kunst. Vienna: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag, Hofmannsthal, Hugo von.
Finally, algorithmic procedures are used for pro- cessing linguistic signs Cramer , 3. The Baroque writ- ers worked out a poetic theory in the tradition of Ancient paradigms. They did not consider the successful work of art as an achievement of creative genius but insisted upon the teachability and learnability of poetic methods and procedures. Hence any linguistic act- ing of human beings for him only was a reconstruction of intrinsic properties of things Hundt , The linguistic universalism represented by Leibniz and others, however, is different from both aforementioned attitudes.
The whole world is considered a closed system, an order of things that can be algorithmically produced and varied from a preexisting and limited set of elements. This applies both to cosmic elements from which God was believed to have created the world and to the elements of language. According to this theory, any divine acting is regarded in- accessible while language cannot represent the given order of things as congruently. According to Schottelius, the complex structure of a language is generated by varying combina- tions of words from basic elements.
Of course, all these metaphysical premises were to get lost due to the technological execution of combinatorial procedures. The basic principles of theories of order, however, had not been abandoned. These words have no meaning but are only legitimate because they have been formed ac- cording to word formation rules. But this does not mean that at the core of such games lies the imagination and creativity of a writer. Above all, however, they are setting each other riddles or other exercises and engage in liter- ary games.
These games are an integral part of the inventio prior to the real creative act. Hence the anagram is a comparatively simple example of the in- determinate transformation of cohesive structures into semantically coherent statements. For centuries, the anagram has very often been discredited as baublery or magical practice. But there have also been periods every now and then in which it was quite popular, e. We do not know very much about the origin of the anagram; it is as- sumed that it developed from magic rituals and oracles. The name anagrams of the Greek poet and grammarian Lycophron expressed the characters of persons that made them ideal for panegyric but also for polemical writing.
In Jewish mysticism, the anagram was also used as method of combinatory literature. This was a common concern of all Baroque poets such as Martin Opitz who cited the anagram as evidence for the equality of German language with Latin and other European languages. Hence the Baroque trea- tises contain a variety of instructions, which make obvious the causal connection between permuting letters and mechanical devices. In his Helikon, Philipp von Zesen gives recommendations to facilitate writ- ing anagrams by using cardboard letters: So that the poet, who wants to imitate this, does not have to think so much about the spelling and interpretation of the letters and names, I ad- vise him to cut out all letters from card-games.
Or, in order not to have to cut up so many card-games, and so that the godless people can keep their bible as a whole, I should like to advise him that he write down a letter on one card-game only, or on something else, and then mix them up and change them around. Oskar Pastior, certainly the best-known contemporary anagram writer, rec- ommends various methods and exercises with subtle irony: There are aids carton, scissors, block-letter. But these examples were exceptions to the rule. In general, as from the age of Enlightenment, the Baroque ars combinatoria was largely discredited.
Instead, cre- ativity and spontaneity became the paradigms of literary theory. The good taste of our scholars today has long exiled these activities and the satirists have already ridiculed them. Dadaists and surrealists were interested in the procedural logic of the anagram, which resembles surrealist ideas of an automa- tism of language. Talking of a rediscovery does by no means indicate that the historical avant-garde of the s made extensive use of the ana- gram.
However, there is a strong link from Dada and Surrealism to the experimental literature and arts of the s. Bellmer relates his breaking up and rearranging of the female body to the anagrammatic practice of language Gendolla Der erste Fisch! Following the Oulipo theories, Pastior considers his texts test arrangements in which he applies both self-invented rules and models from the history of literatures.
Es fuehrt es Hefe-Vorwinden sehr diffuse vor. Wen Teehen- ne vorsieht, der fuenf Seh- westen oder Hufweisen fehver- weist.
7. Dietrich Bonhoeffer
Von Fehes Duerfen her verseift Fernsehen, wo due- ster Huf es feindverwoehne. Huste, Revers — nen Wiedehoff! Pastior , 45 Pastior and Czurda are only two representatives of the short-lived renaissance of the anagram in the s. Verse palindromes were known as early as the Middle Ages, e. Proteus verses — named after the Greek sea-God who could change his shape at will — vary the elements of a verse in any combination. In Germany, pro- teus verses were only known as from the Baroque period when they were discussed in any major poetic book. In , Stanislaus Mink von Weinsheun — a slightly incorrect anagrammatic pseudonym of Johann Justus Winkelmann — published an entire book un- der the title Proteus.
For Kuhlmann, the proteus verse has the function to illustrate the volatility of being. All things on earth change; all love, all hate. The sestina, a poem composed of six stanzas of six lines each with a half-stanza of three lines at the end, was invented by troubadour poets in Italy and Provence. In German literature, the sestina was not cultivated before the 17th century. Throughout the 18th century, it was rather disregarded. It was not until the Romanti- cist period that August Wilhelm Schlegel drew the atten- tion to the sestina in his critical writings.
In contemporary literature, it was Oskar Pastior again who re- discovered the genre when he published a book of 34 sestinas under the title Eine kleine Kunstmaschine There had been acrostics as early as the Middle Ages, e. Nichts weilt. Eichendorff , The abecedarius is a special case of an acrostic poem in which the words are used according to the alphabetic order of their initial let- ters. I already mentioned earlier that Dadaists as well as Surrealists referred back to aleatoric conceptions. They were written down, like the Surrealistic automatic poems, immediately without thought or revision.
Dialectal constructions, out- moded sounds, Vulgar Latin, confusing onomatopoetic words and verbal spasms are particularly noticeable in these poems. The essence of life and decay is incorpo- rated into the picture by tearing up the paper or drawing. It is not surprising that he takes many words and phrases from daily newspapers, particularly from the advertisement sections: Words, slogans, sentences, which were selected from daily newspapers and especially from advertisements in them, formed the basis of my poems in I often selected words and sentences from newspapers with my eyes closed by marking them with a pencil.
Life is a mysterious breath of air, and the result of it can be nothing more than a mysterious breath of air. In , Williams planned The Ultimate Poem, a recursive poetry generator: 1. Choose 26 words by chance operations — or however you please. Substitute these 26 words for the 26 letters of the alphabet, to form an alphabet-of-words. Choose a word or phrase a word or phrase not included in the alphabet of words to serve as the title of the poem. For the letters in the title word or phrase substitute the corresponding words from the alphabet-of-words.
This operation generates line one of the poem. Repeat the process described in step 4 with the results of step 6. Repeat the process with the results of 5. Et cetera. I already cited some very simple means of mecha- nizing the literary invention by using cardboard plates or other tools and media.
7. Dietrich Bonhoeffer in: The Existential Philosophy of Etty Hillesum
The combination of these plates remains completely up to the user. However, there have been many more sophisticated mecha- nisms and machines for facilitating literary production by combining words or attributes selected from a number of lists. The prototype of such logic machines was the Ars magna devised by the Catalan monk Ramon Lull. The disks were progressively larger from top to bottom. By rotating the disks, a large number of random statements could be generated from the alignment of words.
At a random point in time, it results in an artifact that could not be predicted in advance. Neither the storing nor the production of knowledge, however, is ascribed to an author, and the knowledge is not written or printed in syntagmatic chains but machines are designed, which generate the knowledge from a compact source code by combinatorial procedures. This refers back to my considerations of linguistic theories of the Baroque era. Neubauer , 33ff. The linear reading process is transformed into a rotating mechanism. The user has to start the mechanism, and he can either stop the rotating disks or just wait until they come to a complete standstill.
He thus resolves the problem that his machine inevi- tably generates words, which make no sense in the German language by declaring the outcome of his Denckring to be the proper language. The hexagons pivot on a plane and form phrases in three directions on the hexagonal roof Thomkins They can even be arranged differently on the ten slots, so that the number of combina- tions can further increase. This machine was invented by his fellow-artists Daniel Spoerri and Jean Tinguely and consists of a rotating rod driven by an engine.
If the user throws two dice, he can cre- ate syllables. This method can be extended by using additional dice. Max Bense e. Mengden , 38 Figure 4. It is only a small step from such permutative procedures based on me- chanical devices such as rotating disks or dice to the use of computers for producing literature. The mathematician and software engineer Theo Lutz was one of its members.
Today, the artist produces situations on the basis of intentional theories and intentional experiments. We are speaking of a poietike techne again. We are speak- ing of a progressive aesthetics or poetics once again, whose intentional application demonstrates a progression of literature comparable to the progression of science. There are nine synthetic approaches to the language of the girl.
These monologous computer-texts are realized by translating it into a synthetic language created by a complicated vocoder-system that is re- duced more and more in the course of the monologue and thereby re- placed by the natural voice. Schaudt published their book Computer- Lyrik. It is then up to the reader to ergodically recombine the segments in the course of reading. For the purpose of this historical re construction, the rather pragmatic approach of Monika Schmitz-Emans may be helpful. Regarding the arrangement of text segments by the author, two types can be distinguished: Segments can either be put together in succession in a book and highlighted only as loosely associated ele- ments by cuts, numbers, chapter headings or various other paratextual elements or, alternatively, they can be printed on loose leaves such as untacked sheets of paper, cards or lots.
In each case, familiar read- ing conventions have to be relearned, and thus most of these books contain paratextual features such as reading instructions, game rules, etc. But unlike the rules of football or board games, these instruc- tions are not intended as a body of rules imposing sanctions on those who break them. The Castle of Crossed Destinies , which was inspired by Tarot cards. Both consist of unpaginated sheets on which fragments of a story are printed. Friedrich tells Wilhelm Meister of a literary game that he has been playing with Philina in their li- brary. Here was a proper pleasure!
We felt now as if we were in good society, where it is reckoned unbecoming to dwell on any subject, or search it to the bottom; we thought ourselves in witty gay society, where none will let his neighbor speak. Already there is nothing new for us under the sun; on everything we see or hear, our learning offers us a hint. This method of instruc- tion we diversify in many ways. Frequently we read by an old spoiled sand-glass, which runs in a minute or two. The moment it is down the silent party turns it round like lightning, and commences reading from his book; and no sooner is it down again, than the other cuts him short, and starts the former topic.
Thus we study in a truly academic manner: only our hours are shorter, and our studies are extremely varied. Cited in Carlyle , f.
These organized access by indices and thus tried to replace the strict linear sequence of books by other ways of presenting knowledge, such as synopses. The plot of the novel — the life and love story of biblical Jo- seph — is narrated on pages, which are supplemented by an ap- pendix of another pages with mythological and historic digres- sions, annotations, etc. His excessive use of digressions, annotations, foot- notes and periphrases that interrupt his narration again and again and lead him astray are an expression of the strong sense of individual- ity of early Romanticism Ueding I have this collection and add to it daily, if only to free the head as much as the heart.
These combinations are carried out according to the principles of chance. Hence it is no surprise that many writers take up rules and procedures of familiar dice and card games for organizing plots and narratives. The book contains 1, num- bered dramatic text fragments including dialogues, stage directions, titles, subheadings, etc. After each throw, the reader must search in the chart for the number of the particular fragment. For producing a complete drama, throws are required. Much later, around , many writers were experimenting with non-linear texts.
In Germany, the subgenre of the permutative dictionary novel was quite successful at that time. The text of such a novel is subdivided into numerous entries, which are arranged in alphabetical order. Figure 5. The material is waiting, just as the Danube and the multi- tude of plants, stones and people at its banks are waiting for many side- trips of their own choice. Just like in a dictionary. In addition, some fragments are linked by arrowheads and some italicized fragments are privi- leged: Those references, which may help you to continue the journey from place to place and which thus should have priority are printed in italics.
This freedom is now inconspicuous and complete.
Crossover Chat # 344
It is most suitable if the reader just browses through the book, but, of course, he can also read it from the be- ginning to the end or according to any individual mathematical habits. In his durch die runse auf den redder , however, the reading is being sidetracked from the main text into four auxiliary texts.
Peter O. The extent of these footnotes far exceeds that of the main text. Al- though this book is explicitly characterized as a novel, the text starts off with a person and subject index from which the reader can browse through the text. At the end of the book, there are various appendices.
Handwritten notes, blackenings, a strange orthography, etc. Two years earlier than Schmidt, Franz Mon born published Herzzero , a text consist- ing of two versions arranged in two columns. Similar cross-readings have a long tradition in German literature which can be traced back to Georg Christoph Lichtenberg and turned into one of the starting points of the collage of quotes Riha Both editions published by now contain more than 60, rolls.
These have been put into beech wood cases of 5,5x15x11 cm according to the principle of chance. On the top covers of the cases there are serigraphic prints. The cases are waxed. For the sani- tary handling of the language material, anatomic tweezers are included. He also experimented with other alternative ways to arrange text in various storage media. Michael Badura made environments from textual fragments, e. Figure 6. It consists of a box with 94 facsimiled text-image collages in postcard format. In addition, there are photo collages or silhou- ettes on each card.
Although poetic images are densely concentrated here onto single, unbound pages, they form an evolving network of motifs that give unity to the whole. A similar box had been produced 30 years earlier by the Fluxus art- ist Tomas Schmit born The reader can only get hold of these texts by open- ing the envelopes and thus inevitably destroying the book-object. In these games, sentence fragments were whispered into the ear of the neighbor. Thus simple syntagmas and eventually entire sentences were generated step by step. Of course, this is not a literary genre in a strict sense as are, e.
Es schimmert und wimmert und glimmert K. Schalmeyen am Reyen erfreuen [ Up until the present, there have been many collaborative novels, no- vellas, and stories in German literature that were usually written in sequence. Thus writers were either co-operating at the same place anyway, or they only used the post for sending the completed seg- ments from one to the other.
In , the novel Die Versuche und Hindernisse Karls. The method was very simple: Mr. Each of the 12 writers develops the story accord- ing to his manner and to his style. In genre literature, too, serial novels have been written from time to time. In the international Dada movement, collaborative writing had a very different quality. It is thus not surprising that the members of both groups collaboratively wrote and published several texts.
Kon- rad Bayer, H.