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British Journal of Sociology. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. This multidisciplinary journal largely focuses on research and scholarly work related to policy. Published four times a year, its target audience is those engaged in educational policy analysis, evaluation, and decision making. Educational Researcher. This journal, published nine times a year, includes scholarly articles from a broad range of areas of education research.

This journal is published in association with the American Educational Research Association. Harvard Educational Review. This journal, published by the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is a prestigious journal that is distributed to policymakers, teachers, researchers, and administrators.

Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness. The flagship publication of the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, this journal is published annually and focuses on classrooms and schools. Publications within this journal focus on reading, mathematics education, and science education, cognitive functions, and social processes.

Review of Educational Research. A quarterly journal that publishes critical reviews of education-related research literature, not original empirical research. Reviews of research submitted to this journal include work from disciplines such as psychology, sociology, economics, anthropology, and others. Social Science Quarterly. A quarterly journal that publishes research on a broad range of topics in the social sciences. The official journal of the Southwestern Social Science Association and includes a special annual issue on important—and sometimes controversial—topics.

Sociological Forum. Sociological Forum is the flagship journal of the Eastern Sociological Society. This quarterly publication covers substantive issues of fundamental importance to the study of society, emphasizing innovative direction in sociological research.

Routledge Library Editions: Sociology of Education

Sociological Perspectives. Sociological Perspectives is the official publication of the Pacific Sociological Association. This quarterly publication covers social processes related to economic, political, anthropological, and historical issues. Sociology of Education. A quarterly journal of the ASA that publishes works largely focused on the relationships among individuals and social institutions, including schools and other educational institutions. The journal also includes international work as well as advances in methodology for studying social networks.

Researchers in the field of education have access to a variety of cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets that include several different sampling designs and methods of data collection. This is not a complete list, but these sources include data on educational characteristics of individuals, student achievement, educational and occupational attainment, demographic trends, and other topics. From the NCES website, several national longitudinal studies such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress can be accessed and publicly available data can be downloaded.

Data collected by the United States Census Bureau and the American Community Survey can be used to examine demographic information nationally, as it relates to educational and occupational attainment, and can also be linked to the data collected by NCES.

The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study is an international data set, which includes the United States, that collects information on math and science achievement. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development publishes data that compares the academic achievement of its member countries most notably, the Programme for International Student Assessment.

Finally, the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study collects information on reading achievement across several participating countries. It should also be noted that many states in the United States are developing their own databases of information that are not listed below but can be located through the Department of Education of individual states.

American Community Survey. The US Census Bureau collects data more frequently with the American Community Survey that is administered to a sample of the population every year. Data collected include a range of information, such as education and occupation. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System. This data set is comprised of survey data collected annually in the United States by the NCES and includes data, such as student enrollment and expenditures, from every college, university, and technical and vocational institution that participates in the federal student financial aid programs.

National Center for Education Statistics. Several data sources are available through NCES that cover the spectrum of education from birth to adulthood, including students, teachers, and families. Many of the studies employ nationally representative longitudinal samples.

National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This study follows a panel of adolescents in the United States as they transition from adolescence to adulthood. It includes four waves of data collection from to and contains data related to the experiences of adolescents and young adults. The OECD, established in , publishes reports and promotes policies for its thirty-five member countries and additional emerging economies. Progress in International Reading Literacy Study. The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study began in and reports every five years, focusing on the reading achievement of fourth-grade students.

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Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. This international study was first conducted in and reports every four years on the mathematics and science achievement of fourth- and eighth-grade students. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics is the primary source for cross-nationally comparable statistics on several topics, including education, science and technology, culture, and communication. Data from more than two hundred countries and territories are included. United States Census Bureau. Census data are collected every ten years in the United States, with the most recent collection occurring in The census collects demographic information from all households in the United States, including a range of data from educational attainment and household income.

The works listed below explore various historical dimensions of education, but they largely focus on the development of education in the United States. Rury begins at the time of the common school era in the United States and analyzes this policy history through the No Child Left Behind era. A four-part documentary, Mondale and Patton chronicles the history of education in the United States with contributions from several scholars in the field. Ravitch and Ravitch offer contrasting analyses of educational policies in the United States.

Vinovskis focuses on the last thirty years in education policy, allowing a more detailed analysis of history leading up to the earlyst-century policies and criticisms of education in the United States. Providing a broader view, Reese traces educational reforms from the 19th century through the 21st century. Cremin discusses the history of education and how the United States uses educational policy as a vehicle for social change. Hess describes the features of the American education system that have remained constant since its conception.

Lastly, Boli, et al. Boli, John, Francisco O. Ramirez, and John W. Explaining the origins and expansion of mass education. Comparative Education Review In the first part of this article, the authors discuss explanations of the creation and rise of mass education. The second part analyzes the general themes of mass education, and, based on these analyses, the third part presents the hypotheses that the expansion of mass education in both developed and developing countries is characterized by traditional social organization, social inequality, and lack of autonomy.

Cremin, Lawrence A. Popular education and its discontents. This book begins with a discussion of rising dissatisfaction during the s and continues through educational reforms of the post—World War II years, concluding with an examination of how US citizens tend to remedy certain social issues indirectly through education policy. Hess, Fredrick M.

Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. In this book, the director of education policy studies at the American Enterprise Institute AEI provides an overview of major school reform debates, highlighting the features of the American education system that have remained constant over time. Mondale, Sarah, dir. School: The story of American public education. This four-part documentary originally aired on PBS in follows the development of US public education beginning in the late s up to the 21st century. It details the romanticism of early public education proponents and examines the challenges that have influenced educational reform over time.

See companion website. Ravitch, Diane. Left back: A century of failed school reforms. Educational historian Diane Ravitch explores commonly held myths about how the educational system in the United States developed. Ravitch argues for a more liberal education and that progressive education has undermined not only the intellectual development of students, but also the democratic principles of American society. The death and life of the great American school system: How testing and choice are undermining education. In this revised and expanded edition of the book first published in , Ravitch reveals the radical change of heart she experienced as she examines her career and contributions in education reform through previously published works.

Reese, William. William J. Reese, professor of educational policy studies, examines the practices and theories that have impacted and transformed US public schools from the 19th century onward. This book is framed as a means to observe the ways education reforms society and explores reform within schools, highlighting pedagogical, race, and academic standard reforms. Rury, John L. Education and social change: Themes in the history of American schooling. This book provides a brief and interpretive history of schooling, focusing on the relationship between education and social change.

Rury discusses the influence of important historical movements, such as industrialization, urbanization, and immigration. The book also explores how schools have contributed to the history of social change. Vinovskis, Maris A. New York: Teachers College Press. He also highlights key policy debates and addresses the practical considerations of policy implementation and evaluation. As educational reforms are developed and implemented, they do not occur in a vacuum.

Policies are shaped from their original forms to schools and classrooms in which current reforms and policies already exist. The works below discuss policymaking, governance as it relates to education reform, and changes in education policy over time, and they provide recommendations for collaborative partnerships between policymakers and educators.

Cooper, et al. Manna and McGuinn analyzes governance structures and provides recommendations for improving student educational outcomes. Penuel and Gallagher contributes suggestions for policymakers as they work to collaborate with educators. Finally, Mitchell, et al. Cooper, Bruce S.

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Fusarelli, and E. Vance Randall. Better policies, better schools : Theories and applications. Boston: Pearson. This book provides a general overview of the theories of policymaking, the policymaking process, and examples of how the theories apply to school improvement policies. Key components include discussion of policy definition, agenda setting, policy formulation, and implementation.

Manna, Paul, and Patrick McGuinn, eds. Education governance for the twenty-first century: Overcoming the structural barriers to school reform. This book, containing contributions from education scholars, analysts, and practitioners, provides analysis of education governance structures, and suggests how governing structures may be changed to improve educational outcomes for students. Mitchell, Douglas E. Crowson, eds.

Shaping education policy: Power and process. This book is sponsored by the Politics of Education Association. Chapters within this book examine changes in education policy from to today, and they cover topics that have influenced education, such as the civil rights movement, the accountability movement, family choice, and globalization. Penuel, William R. Creating research-practice partnerships in education. This book aims to serve as a resource for researchers and educators to use as they pursue working relationships with one another.

The authors describe the purposes of such partnerships, strategies for problem-solving conflicts, and tools for collaboration. Cuban and Lortie provide a portrait of the teacher profession, including the various demands placed on teachers by reforms. Coburn examines the relationship between policy and practice through a model of sense-making theory.

Coburn, Cynthia E. Collective sensemaking about reading: How teachers mediate reading policy in their professional communities. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis Using an in-depth case study, Coburn examines the processes of teachers as they construct their understanding of a new reading policy and the role of collective sense making in this process. Sense making, the act of simultaneously shaping and reacting to policy reforms, suggests that teachers interpret, adapt, and change policies as they put them into practice.

Cuban, Larry. How teachers taught: Constancy and change in American classrooms, — In this updated text, Larry Cuban, professor of education at Stanford University, furthers his previous research into the history of teaching practice in the United States, highlighting teaching practices in segments of ten to twenty years and concluding his volume by offering recommendations for policymakers. Lipsky, Michael. Street-level bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the individual in public services. Updated ed. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. In this expanded edition of his text originally published in , Lipsky argues that policy is best understood through the daily encounters of those closest to the ground—teachers, in the educational context.

Lortie, Dan C. Schoolteacher: A sociological study. Weiss provides a framework for understanding the relationship among teachers, administrators, and reforms. Tyack and Cuban discusses the relationship between schools and reforms, drawing on a century of changes in education in the United States. Additional resources on school system—wide reforms include Borman, et al.

Borman, Kathryn, Peter Cookson Jr. Implementing educational reform: Sociological perspectives on educational policy. Social and Policy Issues in Education. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Using a sociological perspective, the contributors describe and analyze the Goals legislation, intended to improve equality and increase achievement in the US school system. The book summarizes the standards and assessments; expectations for schools, parents, students, and community members; instructional support and professional development; and implications of this reform.

Chenoweth, Karin. Building on earlier work, Chenoweth provides educators information on how some schools with high-poverty and high-minority populations have improved student outcomes and closed achievement gaps. Analyzing data from eight schools, the author argues that teachers and schools can implement policies that support effective instruction and reduce ineffective practices.

As good as it gets: What school reform brought to Austin. Cuban explores whether school policies and practices can equalize student achievement and if schools can overcome differences in achievement associated with race and the socioeconomic status of students. Analyzing data from Austin, Texas, Cuban argues that despite overall improvement in the district, schools with high-poverty and high-minority student populations continued to struggle while predominantly affluent schools improve.

Using seasonal comparison to evaluate school effectiveness. Sociology of Education This study evaluates whether impact-based evaluation methods alter the identification of failing schools using the data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of — Grant, Gerald. Hope and despair in the American city: Why there are no bad schools in Raleigh. This book examines two US cities—Raleigh, North Carolina, and Syracuse, New York—to understand how educational reforms and inequalities have evolved over the last few decades.

Grant demonstrates that these two reform contexts offer a window into the challenges and the potential opportunities faced by urban districts that confront growing racial and socioeconomic achievement gaps. Reform as learning: School reform, organizational culture, and community politics in San Diego. The authors use four years of ethnographic data from San Diego to understand how teachers, administrators, and district staff were influenced by a systematic school reform initiative. This study uses a sociological perspective to examine the challenges to reform implementation and provides insights into why this reform failed to achieve its purposes.

This edited volume provides analyses of several different reforms in the largest school district in the United States—New York City. The analyses of reforms include those targeting governance, community engagement, finance, accountability, and instruction. The contributors describe the scope of educational reform while highlighting interrelated factors, challenges in implementation, and how these reforms target improved outcomes for all students.

No Child Left Behind and the reduction of the achievement gap: Sociological perspectives on federal educational policy. Using a sociological lens, and similar to Borman, et al. The contributors examine the implications of this policy for schools and subgroups of students, and they explore the possibilities for decreasing achievement gaps in education. Smerdon, Becky, and Kathryn Borman.

Washington, DC: Urban Institute. The authors examine multiple reforms across several cities to look at how US high schools can be improved. Smerdon and Borman outline steps teachers and administrators, faced with more diverse student populations and increased standards, can do to improve schools, including the use of formative and summative student assessments and the increase of administrator support for good teachers.

Tyack, David, and Larry Cuban. Tinkering toward utopia: A century of public school reform. This book details the history of public school reform in the United States and posits that reforms are never implemented as they were originally envisioned. Tyack and Cuban also discuss how teachers and reforms act upon each other as reforms become assimilated into the school environment. Weiss, Carol H.

Harvard Educational Review Weiss examines how teachers and principals respond to a school reform with a case study focused on shared decision making. Zavadsky, Heather. Bringing school reform to scale: Five award-winning urban districts. Educational Innovations. Zavadsky explores the divergent approaches these districts took and argues that diverse perspectives can contribute to understanding how reforms influence improved outcomes.

Education in the United States is a shared process among all citizens, influencing their own socialization and learning as well as schooling experiences of their family, community, and nation. Hess and Payne explore the politics surrounding urban school reform. Berliner and Biddle discusses the politics of reform and the role media plays in perpetuating misguided information about the successes and failures of education reform.

Apple takes a closer look at the evolving conservative shift in education. Feigenbaum, et al. Henig documents the increased involvement of the US federal government in local education. Maryl examines how political structures have shaped religious education in the United States and Australia. Apple, Michael. The author examines the earlyst-century conservative shift in US education with reforms such as voucher policies, charter schools, and standardized testing. Apple argues that a coalition of strange bedfellows has pushed for these policies and discusses how educators and policymakers can respond by creating a more democratic school system.

Berliner, David, and Bruce Biddle. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Berliner and Biddle use comprehensive evidence from ACT scores, educational reports, and achievement results to dispute the commonly held myth that American schools are failing. The authors demonstrate how educational data and information have been misunderstood and misused, arguing that many of the problems students and schools face are based on societal and economic conditions. Feigenbaum, Harvey, Jeffrey R.

Henig, and Chris Hamnett. Shrinking the state: The political underpinnings of privatization. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. This book describes how privatization in education across many countries has reshaped the balance between the state and the market. Utilizing a comparative political analysis in the United States, the United Kingdom, and France, the authors argue that these policies benefit some students and adversely affect others. Henig, Jeffery R. The end of exceptionalism in American education. This book discusses the transfer of American education system decision-making power from the level of local and state school board control to that of higher levels of government.

Hess, Frederick. Spinning wheels: The politics of urban school reform. In this book, Hess argues that many of the problems in urban education are the result of fragmented reform—or reforms that continually cycle through school systems, often with different incentives for various stakeholders. To combat this policy churn, Hess recommends institutional changes that allow schools to develop expertise in specific instructional approaches. Maryl, Damon.

Secular conversion: Political institutions and religious education in the United States and Australia, — New York: Cambridge Univ. In this book, Maryl investigates how the institutional structure of the state shapes secularization. Maryl analyzes the United States and Australia to explain how political structures have shaped religious education, specifically through their administrative structures, electoral systems, and legal procedures.

Payne, Charles. So much reform, so little change: The persistence of failure in urban schools. Payne argues that the majority of policy discussions are disconnected from what occurs in most urban neighborhoods and that neither the Democratic nor the Republican parties have improved educational reform.

Both of these parties exhaust their resources pursuing educational reforms that are not practical for urban districts. This book includes an examination of successes and failures of urban school reforms. School organization varies widely across settings and institutions. The institution can play an important role in the educational experiences and outcomes of students. The works included here offer a broad insight into the predominant educational institutions for a discussion of private schools and homeschooling, see School Choice.

Bidwell provides a conceptual foundation for analyzing schools as a unique type of formal organization that influences the education process. In Ramirez and Boli , the authors provide an exploration of the construction of mass schooling in Europe and worldwide. Baker and LeTedre discusses the similarities and differences between schooling in the United States and in other countries. Bryk and Schneider looks within the schools and articulates the role of trust relationships in school institutions.

Baker argues that the US education system is a primary institution that greatly influences the economy, politics, religion, and other aspects of society. See also Bryk, et al. Baker, David. The schooled society: The educational transformation of global culture. Stanford, CA: Stanford Univ. In this book, Baker argues that education is a primary institution that has transformed, influenced, and defined society.

Baker argues the effects of school on aspects of society, such as the economy, politics, and religion. Baker, David, and Gerald K. National differences, global similarities: World culture and the future of schooling. This book uses US schools as a reference point for providing a description of school as a global institution. Drawing on a four-year investigation in forty-seven countries, Baker and LeTedre show the implications of current trends in student achievement, school curriculum, and teaching practice.

Bidwell, Charles E. The school as a formal organization. In Handbook of organizations. Edited by James G. March, — Rand McNally Sociology Series. Chicago: Rand McNally. In this essay, Bidwell argues that teaching practice is resistant to new organizational routines, largely because teaching is idiosyncratic and highly autonomous. Although most schools have a set curriculum and other formal structures, Bidwell argues that schools are more likely to have relatively weak organizational ties between teachers and classrooms.

Bryk, Anthony S. Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. Rose Series in Sociology. Bryk and Schneider examine the role of relational trust in schools using quantitative and qualitative longitudinal data. They argue that the extent of trust and effective social relationships among teachers, principals, and parents are an important influence on the dynamics of school improvement. Organizing schools for improvement: Lessons from Chicago.

Analyzing seven years of comprehensive data from elementary schools in the Chicago Public Schools, the authors identify effective practices and conditions necessary for school improvement. These factors include school leadership, professional capacity of faculty and staff, and a student-centered learning climate. Bulkley, Katrina E. Henig, and Henry M. Between public and private: Politics, governance, and the new portfolio models for urban school reform. The authors discuss the strengths and limitations of this type of reform. Ramirez, Francisco O.

The political construction of mass schooling: European origins and worldwide institutionalization. This article explores the origins of large-scale educational systems in Europe and the subsequent institutionalization of mass education around the world. Ramirez and Boli argue that the political, economic, and cultural development of Europe in the 19th century led to a highly institutionalized society and educative process. Historically, education in the United States has focused on primary and secondary education.

Since the s, however, there has been an increased focus on the role of early childhood education prior to the age of seven for student success.

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Early childhood policies are often targeted as a means to improve educational equality. Magnuson and Waldfogel explores the gaps in school readiness among children of different racial and ethnic backgrounds in the United States. Vinovskis traces the history of early childhood programs in the United States, from the first program to earlyst-century policy, and discusses the implications of early childhood policies. Barnett examines several early childhood care and educational programs—highlighting their positive influence on child outcomes and future policy considerations.

Barnett, W. Long-term effects of early childhood programs on cognitive and school outcomes. The Future of Children 5. This article reviews thirty-six studies that examine the effects of model projects and public programs for children from low-income families. The findings suggest that early childhood programs can provide considerable short-term benefits in addition to long-term advantages, concluding with policy recommendations. Hart, Betty, and Todd R. The early catastrophe: The 30 million word gap by age 3.

American Educator This longitudinal study of forty-two families found different rates of vocabulary development for children of varying socioeconomic backgrounds. By age three, children from advantaged families have heard, on average, thirty million more words than children from disadvantaged families. Magnuson, Katherine A. Early childhood care and education: Effects on ethnic and racial gaps in school readiness. The Future of Children This article examines differences among the experiences of children of various racial and ethnic backgrounds regarding early childhood care and education.

Magnuson and Waldfogel argue that incremental changes in enrollment or quality of care and education will do little to narrow school readiness gaps. However, they argue that policies should focus on improving the experiences of black, Hispanic, racial and ethnic heritage, and low-income children.

The birth of head start: Preschool education policies in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. This book provides a historical perspective of early childhood policies, beginning with Project Head Start in Since the creation of this policy, a number of programs have appeared that support the development of young children. Vinovskis discusses the political implications and future of this policy area. The earlyst-century reauthorization of the law is called the No Child Left Behind Act of , which was the eighth such reauthorization.

Its ninth revision was the Every Student Succeeds Act of , maintaining the high accountability standards of No Child Left Behind while offering more control to states. Although primary and secondary school is universally offered in the United States, this is not necessarily the case internationally; Heyneman and Loxley and Alexander describe and examine the importance of primary education in the United States and internationally. Lucas explores how high schools can produce inequality of education through differential access to curriculum and student tracking.

Frank, et al. Crosnoe examines how adolescents navigate the complex social dynamics of American high schools. See also Oakes , Oakes and Saunders , and Rumberger Alexander, Robin J.

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Culture and pedagogy: International comparisons in primary education. Malden, MA: Blackwell. This book provides a comparison of primary and secondary elementary schooling in England, France, India, Russia, and the United States. Alexander explores how the teacher, school values and organization, local pressures, national policy, and political tension shape teaching and learning. Crosnoe, Robert. Fitting in, standing out: Navigating the social challenges of high school to get an education. Crosnoe explores the complex environment of American high schools from a sociological perspective.

Drawing on national statistics, interviews, and observations within a single school, this book examines how teenagers navigate the social dynamics of high school while transitioning into adulthood. Elementary and Secondary Education Act of , Pub. This legislation, signed in as a foundation of President Lyndon B.

This act has been renewed, with modifications, every five years after its adoption, under various names such as the No Child Left Behind Act and the Every Student Succeeds Act. Every Student Succeeds Act of , Pub. Accountability measures resulting from this act expanded from test scores to include needs assessments for schools and learning communities, plans for federal funding, program implementation, and monitoring protocols. Frank, Kenneth A. Schiller, et al. The social dynamics of mathematics coursetaking in high school. American Journal of Sociology Using data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement Study, Frank and his colleagues examine how peers within a similar social network contribute to differences in academic effort.

Heyneman, Stephen P. The effect of primary-school quality on academic achievement across twenty-nine high- and low-income countries. Heyneman and Loxley challenge the belief that student and family background characteristics are the biggest contributors to student achievement. Using student achievement data from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East, the authors assert that school and teacher quality are more salient, particularly for students in low-income countries.

Lucas, Samuel Roundfield. Tracking inequality: Stratification and mobility in American high schools. Sociology of Education Series. In this book, Lucas explores formal academic tracking in US high schools. Mittleman, Joel, and Jennifer L. Accountability, achievement, and inequality in American public schools: A review of the literature. In Handbook of the sociology of education in the 21st century.

Edited by Barbara Schneider and Guan Saw, — In this chapter, Mittleman and Jennings review accountability systems in US schools by reviewing the social science literature. The authors document the history of accountability in schools and review the impacts of the systems in terms of instruction, student outcomes, and policy feedback. This legislation is a standards-based education reform that significantly increased the accountability of schools. These federal statutes included guidelines for states to create rigorous curriculum standards and benchmarks for their students, in addition to standardized ways of measuring student achievement.

Oakes, Jeannie. Keeping track: How schools structure inequality. Oakes examines the role schools play in reproducing inequalities through the sorting of students into different academic tracks. Oakes, Jeannie, and Marisa Saunders. Beyond tracking: Multiple pathways to college, career, and civic participation. Continuing the discussion of tracking in high school, Oakes and coauthor Saunders offer an innovative alternative to tracking—a multiple pathways approach.

This approach is built on the notion that American high schools should provide both academic and real-world foundations for all students. Rumberger, Russell W. Dropping out: Why students drop out of high school and what can be done about it. This book asks the straightforward yet critical questions: Who drops out?

And what happens after they drop out? Vulnerable students can often be targeted early in their school careers and Rumberger argues for interventions that can keep students in school and away from a potential future of poverty, crime, and increased health problems. Literature on higher education includes the structure and policies of varying higher education institutions as well as examines the influence of higher education on outcomes later in life. MacLeod provides an ethnographic study of how teenagers from a housing project in the United States develop and attain their future aspirations.

Schneider and Stevenson studies the educational and occupational ambitions of adolescents and argues that many lack support in planning and reaching their desired goals. Karabel explores how an administrative regime evolved in three leading organizations e. Espenshade and Radford explores persistent inequality in education at colleges and universities in the United States.

Arum and Roksa investigates what students are learning in college and argues that a sizable number of students are not learning essential knowledge and skills. Arum, et al. Finally, Rosenbaum describes the relationships between employers and high school, and preparing students for careers. See also Bowen, et al. Armstrong, Elizabeth, and Laura Hamilton. Paying for the party: How college maintains inequality. This book provides a longitudinal qualitative study that includes extensive ethnographic observation and interviews.

The authors also question current policymakers on whether our higher education provides a path to social mobility for all who wish for such mobility. Arum, Richard, and Josipa Roksa. Academically adrift: Limited learning on college campuses. Using data from more than twenty-three hundred undergraduates at twenty-four institutions, the authors found differences in academic learning, time on studies, and social activities among the students at different types of universities. Student experiences in college. In Handbook of sociology of education in the 21st century.

In this book chapter, Arum and colleagues argue for a broader view of college student academic and social experiences—one couched in historical and institutional contexts. These authors focus on the various college experiences of students from different demographic backgrounds, such as socioeconomic and racial groups. Attewell, Paul, and David E. Passing the torch: Does higher education for the disadvantaged pay off across the generations? Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. This book attempts to understand the college dropout crisis in the United States.

Using data from twenty-one state universities and four statewide higher education systems, the authors identify challenges that low-income and minority students face regarding the costs of college, lower graduation rates, and longer time-to-degree, and they describe several reforms that policymakers could adopt to improve these outcomes.

Espenshade, Thomas J. No longer separate, not yet equal: Race and class in elite college admission and campus life. This book raises the research question: are US elite colleges admitting and successfully educating a diverse student body? Using data from more than nine thousand students who applied to selective institutions, the authors investigate admission advantages for minorities as well as race- and class-related gaps in academic achievements, tuition costs, and satisfaction with college experiences.

Karabel, Jerome. The chosen: The hidden history of admission and exclusion at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. The author studies the history of college admissions at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton from to and provides both a view of institutional power and of the evolution of gatekeeping tools across organizations. This book also reveals the changing dynamics of power and privilege in America over the past century. MacLeod, Jay.

Boulder, CO: Westview. This urban ethnography follows a group of low-income teenagers through school and into adulthood, exploring how social inequality is reproduced from one generation to the next. MacLeod uses this study to argue how inequality is created, sustained, and legitimized in the United States. Rosenbaum, James E. Beyond college for all: Career paths for the forgotten half. This book focuses on this crisis in the American labor market. Rosenbaum describes findings from survey and interview data and argues that alignment in the perception and actions between students, educators, and employers is absent.

In contrast to countries such as Germany and Japan, misinformation, student disengagement, and lack of trust between schools and employers poses challenges to young adults in the United States. Schneider, Barbara, and David Stevenson. Schneider and Stevenson argue that American teenagers have ambitious educational and occupational expectations, yet often lack the ability to achieve their goals. The study includes seven thousand teenagers and offers specific guidance based on their findings for how parents and teachers can better support adolescents in their efforts to achieve their ambitions.

School choice policy is largely built on the economic theory of choice and free markets, where individuals choose their educational institution. A classic essay, Friedman proposes choice theory in education and discusses a free market system for schools. Hirschman further explores choice theory and the responses individuals have to their choices. Chubb and Moe argues for increased school choice and competition as a means to increase student achievement.

McEwan and Carnoy evaluates the use of voucher systems in Chile. Bryk, et al. Carnoy, et al. Bettinger evaluates the effects of charter schools, both on within-school student achievement and on the achievement of neighboring public schools. Cooper and Sureau discusses the politics of homeschooling in the United States, an increasingly popular educational choice for families.

Lubienski and Lubienski uses demographic information to claim public schools as more effective than private schools for creating gains in student achievement. See also Lubienski and Weitzel and Fabricant and Fine Bettinger, Eric P. The effect of charter schools on charter students and public schools. Economics of Education Review This article evaluates the changes in test scores of students attending charter schools as well as the effects of charter schools on students at neighboring public schools. Bettinger argues that there were no significant effects on test scores for neighboring public schools when charters were introduced.

Catholic schools and the common good. This book examines US Catholic high schools to understand if students are better educated there or in public schools. The authors argue that Catholic schools have a positive effect on student achievement, particularly in reducing disparities between disadvantaged students and their privileged counterparts.

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The charter school dust-up: Examining the evidence on enrollment and achievement. Carnoy and colleagues employ student achievement data to compare charter schools with traditional public schools. Using achievement gains, as opposed to static test scores, the authors determine that contrary to much public discourse, charter schools in New York City performed worse than comparable public schools.

Chubb, John, and Terry Moe. Chubb and Moe, in this book, argue that reforms for educational change in the s did not address the core of the problem they aimed to solve. Chubb and Moe recommend a dramatic change; that school choice and competition should be the basis for school improvement and increased student achievement. The politics of homeschooling: New developments, new challenges. Educational Policy In this article, Cooper and Sureau describe the rapid growth of the homeschooling movement in the United States.

Fabricant, Michael, and Michelle Fine. The authors analyze empirical data to determine whether charter schools are an authentic alternative to public schools. Fabricant and Fine discuss the history, politics, and economic motivation behind the charter school movement and its effects on student outcomes. Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and freedom. In this classic economics text, Friedman argues that competitive capitalism serves as a mechanism for economic choice and as a necessary condition for political freedom.

He outlines a free market system for schools, using vouchers as a means to exercise choice and competition with the primary goal of enhancing school quality. Originally published in Hirschman, Albert O. Exit, voice, and loyalty: Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states. Hirschman describes several ways dissatisfaction is expressed in firms—through exit leaving the organization and voice exerting influence for change from within the organization. This argument can be applied to school choice, where schools are firms and students and their families represent members.

Lubienski, Christopher, and Sarah Lubienski. The public school advantage: Why public school outperform private schools. Influenced by recent debates regarding market-based school solutions such as school choice and increased privatization of schools, Lubienski and Lubienski argue against the belief that private schools are superior to public schools, offering evidence that public schools are better-performing.

These authors argue that superior performance by private school students is attributable to demographics, and they correct for demographic measures to show that gains in student achievement are higher in public schools. Lubienski, Christopher, and Peter Weitzel. The charter school experiment: Expectations, evidence, and implications. This book examines the unintended impacts of charter schools over the last twenty years. In this comprehensive exploration, the authors discuss how the purpose of charter schools evolved from their original goals of introducing competition into the education system to encouraging innovation and providing more equitable access to quality education.

McEwan, Patrick J. This article evaluates the comparative effectiveness and efficiency of private and public schools in Chile. Findings show that nonreligious voucher schools are marginally less effective than public schools in the fourth grade. When assessing student achievement, Catholic voucher schools are somewhat more effective than public ones. Educational reform presents similar challenges in the United States as in many developed and developing countries.

A comparative perspective in educational research highlights shared patterns and diverse solutions, and can lead to an enhanced understanding of how to improve education. Carnoy introduces the relationship between globalization and education, examining how globalization influences the quality and financing of education, in addition to labor market outcomes.

  • How Racially Diverse Schools and Classrooms Can Benefit All Students.
  • Stratagem: Journey to Nyorfias Book 3.
  • The Game of the Creators?
  • 87. Secret Love (The Pink Collection).
  • Introduction.
  • Play the Man?

In Levin and Lockheed , the authors analyze case studies from eight different countries to inform strategies that can improve education for children in low-income communities. McPherson and Willms examines the effects of a comprehensive reorganization initiative on reducing social class inequalities in Scotland. Comparing the Finnish educational system to other developed countries, Sahlberg provides a detailed description of the success of educational reform in Finland.

The authors of Schmidt, et al. Torney-Purta, et al. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization highlights success and challenges of the international effort to provide education for all. Carnoy, Martin. This book examines the concepts of equality, class, culture, work and leisure and explores their A collection of key papers given at three international conferences in Britain, the United States and Canada on race relations and multiculturalism are drawn together in this book.

The first section includes three papers on the state of theory in race relations; the second contains papers on educational themes, examining in particular the pitfalls A collection of key papers given at three international conferences in Britain, the United States There has always been considerable debate about the best solutions to deal with disruptive behaviour in schools. On the one hand is the strategy of segregating disruptive pupils while on the other is a commitment to keeping such pupils in the ordinary school.

This book advocates the latter philosophy and examines the best ways of coping with the There has always been considerable debate about the best solutions to deal with disruptive behaviour The first part of the book discusses aims, who should determine them and how they might be determined. The second part discusses some more specific topics of learning and teaching, such as learning how to learn, the integrated day and the use of competition.

The author distinguishes three broad levels of thought in looking at schools: the details The first part of the book discusses aims, who should determine them and how they might be The time has passed when learning was identified purely as a process involving the ability to store and recall knowledge and facts, and the competence to produce them when required.

The time has passed when learning was identified purely as a process involving the ability to store School and home are seen as the separate yet overlapping worlds of childhood — for some children more uncompromisingly separated than for others. In the social development of the child, school functions as This volume looks at the social and intellectual forces which the child encounters in class-room and The author provides a clear guide to the basic issues in the debates over language deficit, standard English and classroom language, and in this edition he shows how work in sociolinguistics can The role of language is central in education — but there is much debate about the exact relation