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You miss the sacredness of a space that acknowledges your identity and caters to your tastes, wants, and needs in a world that was at best, ignorant, and at worst, hostile. In that space and time, a lot of the rainbow was closeted and "gay fiction" was a niche genre. But now there are queer authors who write about everything; there are queer authors who write about queer experiences; and there are authors who don't identify as queer but write about queer experiences straight women LOVE to write historical gay erotica, FYI.

What would your ideal section hold — all of them or only some? Where would you put a book like the Pulitzer-Prizewinning novel Less , which is about a gay man written by a gay man but has huge mainstream appeal? Times change, and bookstores change pretty fast with them because book people are among the most empathetic individuals in Sagan's big beautiful universe.

Fortunately for you, queerness has become more mainstream. Unfortunately for you, as the stream has widened, more people are going to wade in. A year ago , I had a lot of kind words for the new Nancy comic strip. Today, I just want to take a moment to remind you that the cartoonist who has taken over the Nancy comic strip under the pseudonym "Olivia Jaimes" is still killing it.

As she's getting more comfortable with the strip, Jaimes is starting to make her own mark on Nancy 's pacing and comedy. Look at the last two panels of the most recent Sunday Nancy strip:. The way that the giant pile of fries overlaps with the "THANKS" word balloon is a quiet act of genius; something about the visual impact between dialogue and object makes both elements more evocative.

It makes the pile of fries look even bigger than it otherwise would, and it imbues the word balloon with the sound of the fries: you can almost hear Nancy gulping down fries before and after saying "THANKS. Jaimes is also employing postmodern humor to great effect.

And the meta-comedy is drop-dead hilarious in its own right: this strip about optical illusions , for instance, has got to be an all-time classic of the series. Not every meta-commentary lands perfectly — this literal sight gag isn't quite perfect — but there's nothing lazy about any of them. It's almost impossible to remember now, but there was one time when the most inventive, interesting comics you could find were on the comics pages. Jaimes might not be reinventing the medium with Nancy , but she's putting more thought into the kind of weight each minimalist panel can carry without breaking than just about anyone in the medium today.

As she stretches and becomes more comfortable with the job, I expect to see more formal experimentation on Nancy. But what other baggage do they carry? As reported on NPR :. Harjo, 68, will represent both her Indigenous culture and those of the United States of America when she succeeds Tracy K. Smith as the country's 23rd Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry that's the official title this fall.

Her term, announced today by Librarian of Congress Carla Hayden, will make her the first Native American poet to serve in the position. But it's quite an honor I bear that honor on behalf of the people and my ancestors. So that's really exciting for me. Wonderful news. There are many poems to offer a quote from, but this, from " Speaking Tree ", has always stuck with me:. The deepest-rooted dream of a tree is to walk Even just a little ways, from the place next to the doorway — To the edge of the river of life, and drink —.

Apparently, author Suzanne Collins is writing a prequel to her Hunger Games trilogy. Let's be clear that I'm a fan of what Collins built with the Hunger Games. I loved the first Hunger Games novel and film, and I thought the second book was a decent extension of the universe. But I refuse to read any prequels set in this world, and I refuse to watch any movies set in this world.

Dystopian prequels are just about the least interesting plot known to humanity: things were bad, and then they got worse. The end. Perhaps it's possible for some genius to make a dystopian prequel worth reading — George Orwell's , maybe? Many years ago, in fact almost exactly a decade now, I interviewed author China Mieville. Even then, in the years before summers packed with inessential sequels and other franchise maintenance, Mieville argued that audiences needed to look corporate entertainment squarely in the eye and say, firmly but directly, "no thank you!

Because it's just shit. Of course, that Buffy reboot didn't happen, and most of these reboots are swiftly forgotten. I made a choice to not review the ghoulish To Kill a Mockingbird sequel that Harper Lee's estate forced out and that turned out to be the right choice. Everyone has forgotten about the book. I'm making the call, here, with apologies to Mieville for taking his idea and running with it: Let's Not Go back to the Hunger Games universe. Let it lie. We don't need any novels thick with dumb foreshadowing about stories we've already heard.

We don't need another plot that fills in gaps that no reader ever wondered about. We just don't need franchise fodder like this in our bookstores. The press release announced that Da' "will engage underrepresented communities to find out what they want and need in a writing center, making a point to listen carefully to voices that have traditionally been underserved by arts organizations. I interviewed Da' six months ago when she was a Seattle Review of Books poet in residence, and she told me that titles from institutions are helpful for her.

She thinks of her work as a piece of a community, and she always keeps that community in mind. As far as I'm concerned, that makes her an excellent choice for Poet in Residence. This August, Seattle will vote on a Library Levy renewal that will add 10, service hours to libraries around the city, pay for more materials and services, seismically update several neighborhood branches, and eliminate fines in the Seattle Public Library system. That's why our editorial board unanimously voted to endorse the Levy—our first-ever electoral endorsement. But let's play devil's advocate: Say you're skeptical about where your tax dollars are going.

If this describes you, I have some great news: the positive benefits of the Library Levy are incredibly easy to prove. Just head to your nearest Seattle Public Library branch and pay attention to what's happening there. It's likely that you'll encounter kids reading and studying, book clubs meeting, adults looking for work and taking classes, and people accessing any number of programs and services that will improve their lives for the better. The profound benefits of library service happen right there, in broad daylight, every single day.

I talked with three library patrons who meet for groups at two different branches around the city. Camille Jassny and Dan and Dave Ortner have known each other through the library for years. The location is a big part of the draw. The brothers have a degenerative disease and "we lost most of our vision about 9 years ago.

We started going to Camille's support group and then we started going to her book group, too. Today, the brothers are co-leaders of the book group, which Dan says means they "prompt questions and discussion. That group has only just started meeting at the Capitol Hill library this year after several locations fell through in the past. Camille says staff at the library "have been so wonderful to us. I mean, they make sure the room is available for us, and they organize everything. The librarians make sure we get up to the room and they make it a really welcoming experience.

Do Dan and Dave and Camille have anything they'd like to say to voters who are considering the Levy? When I had my kids that was the first place I ever took them — to the library storytime. People work such odd hours now these days and it's great to to be able to get to this great resource for anything you're looking for at any time. All three cite the library's kind workers, who'll go out of their way to make them feel welcome and provide resources personalized just for you.

Dan is especially fond of the library's Seattle Reads program, which brings an author to town to meet with audiences and book clubs. This year's selection, The Best We Could Do , "was a graphic novel, which was really unusual and different for for low-vision and blind readers. Of course, as with any discussion between avid readers, the conversation turns to books. Camille's favorite book from the last year of her book club selections was My Name Is Malala.

Everyone really gravitated to that. In college, Dave majored in English with a focus on nineteenth century novels, so Thomas Hardy's Far from the Madding Crowd was his favorite selection last year. They recently read The Good Earth trilogy. But after recommending titles, the conversation turns back to the Library Levy.

If you have any doubt, she concludes, "come in to the library yourself. Go to an event. Katy E. Ellis is our Poet in Residence for June. Are you writing, right now? Have you promised yourself you would start, soon?

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Are you taking the time to nurture that part of yourself? Wishing you could do a writing retreat, but getting away from everything for a week is just not possible? Sponsor Two Sylvias Press has a great solution for you. Their one-week online writing retreats combine the focus and teaching of the best retreats, with the opportunity to blend them into your daily life. Their sessions are starting soon — read more on our sponsor's page about the amazing guest poets they lined up to critique your work, and find out about how you can sign up for these cost-effective ways to make sure you're meeting your writing goals.

Thanks to Two Sylvias Press for sharing this message through us! You know you're part of the best book city in the world, and we want everyone to know who you are. Grab one of the last dates in June and July — we've just added a discount to them! Northern Alberta author Darrel J. McLeod is "executive director of education and international affairs with the Assembly of First Nations," and his award-winning first book from the amazing Milkweed Editions is a memoir about growing up Cree.

The bestselling author of Nappily Ever After will discuss her very successful and award-winning career as a writer, which includes a book becoming a Netflix film, an award from King County Library Foundation, and a "Books that matter" nod from Oprah's magazine. Seattle author and publisher Thomas Walton debuts his new poetry collection with "a celebration of grief and Gertrude Stein!

Local historian Frederick Brown reads from his latest book, which tells Seattle history through the story of the animals that helped shape the city. But his book, while not perfect, is still very interesting and Blanco is a sublime reader of his own work. After five years of readings, WordsWest, West Seattle's premier reading series, is coming to a close on Wednesday the 19th. Why, at a time when West Seattle is growing faster than ever, are the curators hanging up the series?

Ellis told me recently. Ellis started the series with local poets Susan Rich and Harold Taw, and the three have been curating ever since. I feel like I might hermit for a little bit. Is this garden party the end of WordsWest forever? Ellis refuses to shutter the whole thing permanently.

Settle in for a while; we saved you a seat. Moira Macdonald on a dispute over copyright, and the ethics of appropriation when a work is in the public domain — the UW Press has been publishing No-No Boy since it was first published in On Father's Day, I often think of this piece by local writer Scott Berkun about how this day can be hard for people who didn't know their father, or had a bad relationship with him. While Scott wrote a whole book "in part to redefine who I am, and how I relate or did not relate at all to the father of my birth" there are many who struggle more quietly, perhaps with less ability to frame or explain the hard feelings.

Scott's tips on making it through are sound, but I especially like his first:. Ashley Fetters explores Dad jokes: what they are, why they are, and why we can't stop loving and hating them. I'm on the love side, myself as a Dad, so perhaps obligated , but I can see why so many find them, um, pun ishing. Casey Rae's new book about Burroughs and his influence on music is excerpted in this piece on Long Reads, centering around what Dylan learned from the cut-up writer.

Burroughs influence is hard to overstate, the most unique of the Beats — the group he is, by association and very poorly grouped with. Unlike the Beats, Burroughs was not down-and-out — he came from a great fortune, and lived his life as the son of incredible privilege that afforded him the ability to talk about things people of his station did not: drugs, homosexuality, just to name a few.

His genius was in the method of communication. And, of course, his influence. Ellis is a poet and educator. She's worked with Seattle Arts and Lectures' Writers in the Schools program, and is a co-founder and co-curator of WordsWest , a monthly literary series in West Seattle, which is ending its five-year run on Wednesday, June 19th read more in our interview with her. Planning to read something by Miriam Toews — not sure which one! And I want to explore poet Hannah Sanghee Park. Do you wish you could do a take-back on one of your answers? I actually don't have a favorite question — each question asked is both a surprise and a delight, as are my responses!

There are, however, two questions I generally avoid answering:. My taste in books is mercurial, perhaps because of all the mercury I ingest as a byproduct of my hobby handcrafting artisanal fluorescent light bulbs in preparation for the day the sun dies. I will say today, my favorite book is Idaho by Emily Ruskovich but who knows, tomorrow maybe I'll discover Shakespeare or some shit.

As for regretting an answer, I don't usually dwell on my actions long enough to form regrets, but I actually do have one: It was my response to this question about whether "good" literary translations can exist. What I failed to note in my response is that many of the works we consider classics already are translations — the Iliad and Odyssey , the Inferno , Brothers Karamazov , Les Miserables , and Crime and Punishment are some of my favorites depending on the day and how many light bulbs I've got in my system.

Ensler will appear in conversation with Amy Wheeler, the executive director of the amazing writing organization Hedgebrook. Every month, Nisi Shawl presents us with news and updates from her perch overlooking the world of science-fiction, fantasy, and horror. You can also look through the archives of the column. Actually, though, SFFH is written in over a score of languages, and it posits a myriad more.

Neil Clarke, editor and publisher of the online magazine Clarkesworld recently received the Kate Wilhelm Solstice Award for his work bringing stories in Chinese and Korean to Anglophone readers, and there are plenty of additional translations for us to enjoy — SFFH originally published in Spanish, Japanese, Nigerian, Italian, and many other human tongues. Though situated squarely within the SF genre, the Betty series harks back to fantasies aimed at children such as Dr. There are thriving communities dedicated to the creation and study of non-human-and-also-non-beast tongues.

Conlangers have imagined new grammars, syntaxes, even alphabets as part of their constructed languages, then made the fruits of their obsessions freely available to all. Will children learn them easily? How do you show different registers — formal elocution versus slang, intimate versus impersonal, and so on? How should they change over time? Because languages do change — swiftly, unexpectedly. Vowels shift and meanings mutate until translations become necessary not simply between nations but between generations.

ShakespeareanEnglish is semi-unintelligible to most modern English speakers. If humans years from now speak some new version of English, what will they understand of our own? Undying entity Chance known to the Senegalese people as a djombi , who at the end of Indigo was forcibly incarnated as a child of the wise cook Paama, joins forces with forensic therapist Miranda Ecouvo to ferret out the party ultimately responsible for a series of nasty murders.

As Dr. Ecouvo walks labyrinthine paths through futures that include her possible death and, alternatively, a severely limited, pain-filled life, paradoxes give way to passionate curiosity and stubborn good intentions. Strictly speaking, Erin K. In short, dense chapters, Wagner relates the encounters of Ward Miquita with the people of the planet her father conquered.

She encounters an unexpected obstacle: her hosts contend she has no right to access the sacred memories the injured AI holds. Gorgeous images of a richly strange world cover this ethical armature in a sweetly fleshy narrative, a joyful ferment of words. Once again I recommend attending Readercon which prides itself on being the antithesis of a media-focused convention. And a concert. However, those are only two events on top of the usual literary fare: panels, interviews, readings, and the small-group discussions with pros listed on your program as kaffeeklatsches.

In other words, Readercon is, as the name implies, pretty solidly text-oriented. The majority of the participants pictured are African descended, but other ethnicities represent as well, giving off a nicely inclusive, welcoming vibe. Wish I could say the same for Geektopia. I didn't enjoy the Silver Surfer as a kid, because as a kid I was interested in the plot of superhero comics — I was most interested in learning if good would triumph over evil spoiler alert: it would. But the older I get, the more fondness I find in my heart for the Silver Surfer. He's a silver Oscar statuette on a surfboard, soaring through outer space and musing aloud in huge, unselfconscious monologues about ideas like guilt and loneliness and destiny and forgiveness.

Every Silver Surfer comic is a journey into interiority. The bad guys and their motivations don't really matter. What matters most is if the Surfer can come to some kind of a comfortable understanding with his own place in the universe, even if that understanding lasts just until the next issue. It ties in to a whole bunch of current Marvel Comics, but narration catches up new readers with relative grace in the first few pages. The first thing any great Silver Surfer comic needs is a brilliant artist, and Moore is one of the best to handle the character since Moebius.

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Every page is stunning — gorgeously designed, sumptuously illustrated, and delightfully weird. It's rare to find a comic artist who appears to be raised in a vacuum — whose work doesn't feel like a retread or a generational step up from some other comic artist. Moore's pages feel unique. In a few layouts, the action flows smoothly in what most comics artists are trained to believe is the "wrong" direction, and it's as easy to follow for western readers as a Peanuts strip.

One page just looks like Surfer floating above a weird cosmic blanket, and Moore makes it twice as compelling as any superhero fight you'll find in a new comic this week. I have no doubt that Moore's art in black and white is beautiful on its own, but Stewart's coloring elevates the book. By contrasting the darkness of a black hole with the colors of the interstellar firmament, and by plunging the Surfer into a hostile pit of browns and oranges, Stewart divides the book into a few distinct sections that reflect the character's interior life.

And Cates seems to understand the character's need for internal monologues. The Surfer spends an early part of the book luxuriating in self-pity over his complicity in the death and destruction of his past. He comes face to face with an existential loneliness that leaves him shaken, and then, well, there's a concluding bit that reveals a villain and it ties back into something else that Marvel is doing right now and things appear to be getting a little crossover-y. The Silver Surfer is a character who almost always excels when he's left on his own. When he's thrown into a battle scene with dozens of other heroes he immediately becomes a generic powerful guy, albeit one who speaks in ten-dollar words.

But even if Cates can't manage that tightrope walk, though, Moore's art will be stunning enough to make Silver Surfer Black a must-read. It will happen at Greenwood Elementary from 11 am to 3 pm. Save the date! Matthew Inman, the east side cartoonist who found huge viral fame under the name The Oatmeal, just announced his retirement from regular cartooning.

He's signed a movie deal and will be working on that film for the foreseeable future. He didn't offer any details about the movie, but he did disclose that he worked on the recent animated feature The Secret Life of Pets 2. An author lost her book deal after she was publicly shamed for tattling on a public transportation worker for eating in pubilc. The response to the author from her book's distributor, Rare Bird, is a beauty.

You should read the whole thing:. Statement from Rare Bird pic. Our poet in residence for June, Katy E. Ellis writes narrative poetry that feels as lucid and as clear as a photograph. In "To Squamish Waters, , she tells a Duwamish man's story about the high cost of reincarnation, and "All Signs Are Dares" is the story of a bracing nighttime car ride that becomes more dangerous — even deadly — than it needed to be.

Both are complete stories that in prose wouldn't feel out of place in a story collection by a Northwest writer like, say, Raymond Carver. From the moment her very first creative writing teacher in 9th grade handed her books by Tom Robbins for inspiration, she has been an eager participant in the Northwest tradition. Ellis says the teacher was reticent to let her participate in his class because he believed that "freshmen can't write poetry," but her hard work and determination earned her a rare privilege: by the end of the year, the teacher ceremoniously announced to the class that he was wrong, and that freshmen were capable of being poets.

When I ask about how community informs her work, Ellis offers a jarring answer: "I was excommunicated from my childhood church," she says. She laughs and adds, "that is such rich fodder right there. The manuscript that Ellis is working on now, titled Stranger Land , explores that connection to place and to people. Additionally, the book is informed by Ellis's position as a local of a city that is growing at a ridiculous pace, "I do think about feeling like a stranger in Seattle now.

Ellis founded it with poets Susan Rich and Harold Taw,. After five years of readings, WordsWest is coming to a close next week, on Wednesday the 19th. Five years seemed like a good round number, and we wanted to end on a high. But Ellis is already putting out feelers for writing groups to join and artists to share work with. It's all part, she says, of her search for "a thing that's bigger than me and bigger than all of us. And Ellis refuses to close the door on WordsWest forever. Yesterday, news leaked that a book distribution company called Readerlink LLC is trying to best Elliott Management's offer.

I wouldn't trust a hedge fund to run a lemonade stand: they exist to extract money from real businesses, not to build communities or bring a new model to chain retail. I think the only options are giant world-crushing chains or customer-obsessed indie bookstore; anything in between is just begging to be crushed or bought and absorbed or liquidated.

Montana author Bryce Andrews's nonfiction book Down from the Mountain is a whodunnit about the death of a grizzly bear. In a way, we're all to blame. A Duwamish man told the story to my daughter at a school assembly. He drummed in a world of children who walk into the water and who return as Salmon for the villagers to eat.

Always the ocean down our street keeps up its chop and spit and rush and I pay bills, sack lunches, wash clothes in cycles spinning my hand-me-down story, the one I will not give her. She plucks each bone of a stolen story from the dish in her hands and feeds them to the waves that slosh against her legs like underpinnings of a miles-long pier. Previously: All Signs are Dares. The medical profession is an odd bird: intimately engaged with human life at its most joyful and most sorrowful and most messy — and also, somehow, always holding itself apart.

From William Carlos Williams to Henry Marsh, books by doctors betray that carefully guarded distance. Lawrence, who writes a different kind of doctor book. What we love about the Anchorage physician's novels is that they close the gap between doctors and the rest of humanity. Lawrence's second novel, House of Jesus , follows a jaded surgeon to Haiti, just after the earthquake. Seattle surgeon Phillip Scott we also love that Seattle setting! Check out the first chapter from Lawrence's book, which he's generously sharing on our sponsor feature page this week only — and we guarantee you'll be pulled in..

Grab one of the last dates in June and July and put your book, event, retreat, or class in front of our readers. Two great small business owners come together in conversation! It's about a woman who was born magic-free in a world full of magic. Seattle author Laurie Frankel joins Tara Conklin onstage to talk about The Last Romantics , Conklin's book about a poet who is asked about the meaning behind her most famous poem.

I reviewed this one back in February. Eve Ensler's latest book is a searing exploration of child abuse and forgiveness and memory. It's about the apology that Ensler always wanted, but never received, from her own father. Marshall, will read from and discuss their new play. It's pretty great that Deavel and Marshall are still creating new work together after all this time.

Maybe all aspiring playwrights should retire from the bookstore business? Fishes of the Salish Sea , a new book from UW Press, has supposedly been in production for four decades. Authors and Ted Pietsch and James Orr have been researching the fish in our region, studying their appearances and characteristics down to practically the molecular level. Orr and Pietsch have been collaborating with Joe Tomelleri, a painter who illustrated every single one of the fish featured in the book.

It's not often anymore that you see serious academic texts combined with a more abstract visual art like painting. Photography is generally the only accepted visual medium in science texts, but it's hard to capture meaningful details in photographs of sea life, which is why this book serves as such a unique blend of artistry and science.

Arundel's copy for the event refers to the book as an "important" and "extraordinary feat of scholarship, devotion to the natural world, and exquisite artistry. Okay, but why does a book about fish matter? Well, honestly, because of climate change those fish might not be around for much longer, so while this book was intended as a work of serious scholarship it might serve as a memory bank for future generations who have lived through a Great Extinction.

But I don't want to be such a Negative Nancy. This book is a huge accomplishment, and a beautiful piece of art. Why not celebrate its birth with the creators who wrote and illustrated it, and the staff who helped bring it into the world? You don't get the opportunity to celebrate the culmination of 40 years of work every day. Each week, the Sunday Post highlights a few articles we enjoyed this week, good for consumption over a cup of coffee or tea, if that's your pleasure. But do we truly understand that this company is failing, from a consumer perspective, while succeeding wildly at extracting subsidies and avoiding regulation?

Do read this, even if you think you know all about Uber, the geeky detail will make your brain bigger. Well, anyway, it did mine. Ceridwen Dovey brings the receipts. Speaking of self-medicating, British ish brand Calpol has pulled a sort of reverse Munchausen, soothing parents by helping them soothe their kids. A Calpol booklet offering an immunisation guide for parents depicts a blissed-out baby asleep with her arms outstretched and a smile on her face. Taking down The Second Mountain , which seems to be a book-length mixed metaphor, is like shooting monkeys in a barrel of worms.

Or something. Angela Garbes is a Seattle-based writer. Go see her speak, and bring all your questions about the astounding, wonderful, and strange biology — and sociology — of pregnancy. I'm in early research mode for my next project, a book of essays about bodies, so I'm reading widely, sometimes superficially, getting lost in ideas, pulling on threads, and thinking a lot about craft.

Pleasure Activism: The Politics of Feeling Good — a collection of essays, annotated works, and interviews by adrienne maree brown — has been at the top of my stack for a while because I am enjoying it as much as I am struggling to move through it! I feel like I'll just be happily living with this book for a while. I'd been wanting to shake up my relationship to my devices and social media for a while, and Odell's words and ideas were exactly what I needed to make that change.

Since reading it, among other things, I've put a dozen plants in the ground, spent more time dancing and rolling on the carpet with my daughters, connected with friends IRL, and started leaving my phone at home when I run errands or go on walks. Also I go on more walks. Shoutout to SPL's Peak Picks , which made it possible for me to pick it up at the library yesterday — no holds, no wait!! My guest post-it chooser for May was my littlest sister, the only family member not yet pressed into service thus far. I appreciated her decisive style, so unlike my own. I feel it is possible she should be in charge of many things.

My intended ritual was initially sporadic; many nights went undocumented. I also dabbled in the impossible, using impractically ephemeral materials like faint pencil, privately writing captions or dates on the back where no one could see. My now ex wife also poses a lurking risk in all the early years—exposing that familiar closeness feels so unseemly now, little relics like time bombs, our failed openness too naked to look at.

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I was still in grad school, where practicalities were tacitly treated as a bit shameful, small-time. An ideal artist has no limits. But museums have not come calling for us, so here I am, telling you what I wrote on the back. In retrospect, it appears broken heating was a real feature of life in England.

In early post-its I kept repeating the same kinds of treehouses I made obsessively as a kid, suddenly figured out why I love drawing so much. Carefully build my own safe world, logic is only darkly laughable, and the whole thing fits in the palm of my hand. The TV lesbians were on an otherwise unremarkable drama about finding missing persons.

I felt a shocked elation as the missing lesbian, unlike most missing characters on the show, actually escaped death—the usual fate of our dramatized queer brethren. But can we go back to Stockard Channing for a minute? This month I harbored fantasies of brevity, but let us instead swoon languorously over Stockard Channing. View this post on Instagram 8. One of the Seattle authors who was MeToo-ed last year seems to be angling for a comeback.

But I am curious about how thoughtful and deliberate it all seems. Cienna, do you think that shitty men can improve themselves? Has any man done a good job of responding to MeToo? Is it even possible? Or is fame a privilege that, once you abuse it by abusing women in not-illegal-but-not-right ways, you deserve to have taken from you forever? Whenever a human girlfriend invites me to her wedding, I like to take a voodoo doll of the groom as my date. This accomplishes two things: first, I am able to get fresh hair clippings and once a tooth!

It's the least I can do to counter the ceaseless waves of shit women endure. I won't get into the blah blah blahs of it because anyone reading this column is familiar with them, except to say that the metoo movement has shown that this isn't an issue of a couple of rapey apples, just as the anti-abortion movement isn't about preserving life. In that respect, can we blame men for treating us how they've been taught?

The answer is yes. Yes we can. And we can demand more than public apologies and rehab. We should expect sincere, personal apologies to victims, not blanket statements that try to deflect, explain, or minimize abhorrent behavior. We should expect to see these men ask pivotal questions like, "what can I do to begin to make amends for my actions?

Where do I start? I don't think fame can be revoked at will, and even if it was, I don't think it would be as satisfying as it sounds. But we should expect that shitty men want to improve themselves for the sake of being better people although I haven't seen convincing evidence of it yet. It would be a shocking but welcome evolution, like watching a whale shit out chic polar fleeces from all the plastic she's ingested. Seattle author Angela Garbes discusses her popular book about the biology and culture of mothering, which is now out in paperback.

Every month, Olivia Waite pulls back the covers, revealing the very best in new, and classic, romance. We're extending a hand to you. Won't you take it? And if you're still not sated, there's always the archives. Two characters sit at a table, chatting—when suddenly, the bomb beneath the table goes off!

Suspense is what you get when, first, the director shows you the anarchist planting the bomb beneath the table, then lets you bite your nails watching those same two people chatting in blithe ignorance of the threat, while the clock slowly ticks down explosion-ward. The characters themselves are still surprised, in the second scenario. But the viewer has more information, and a fuller sense of what is actually going on in the story.

In romance, what we have is people. Hearts and hands and a few stickier bits. Expectation is an end point. Romance characters exist to be thwarted, poor souls. They almost never get what they say they want at the start of the book. How many times do we see heroes state that they just want a string of casual partners, so as not to interfere with the safe, predictable course of their lives? Better people, better partners, better citizens of whatever world they inhabit. We require that happy ending.

We demand it as a right. Reading tons of romances, over the course of years or decades, fine-tunes expectations even further. The genre, like any genre, rewards repeat engagement—you start to notice narrative conventions and trends, and the kind of moments that look like nothing special to an outsider, but which to authors and frequent readers might as well be stages with spotlights burning down upon them. For instance: first kisses.

The first kiss in the first romance you read is a singular experience. The first kiss in the fiftieth romance you read? You start to recognize the machinery of the story. And you start to select for the mechanisms that gives you, personally, the most satisfying result. Literary fiction is the genre of surprise. Like a stage magician, pledging to pull a rabbit out of an empty hat.

The story is a fiction, but what you feel is real. Like Alex, our American hero, this book has heard about this thing called subtlety and wants absolutely nothing to do with it. Alex is a mesmerizing combination of discipline and impulsiveness.

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Henry, our royal prince, is by turns perfectly dry and deeply vulnerable, a tweedy type whose formality masks a wicked sense of humor and poetry. Their connection is electric, and irresistible, and unfolds with a remarkable view of the dizzy, dazzling hedonism of youth. If I could attend any one of the parties in this book I could die a happy woman.

So I liked it a great deal, even if parts of it made me wince a little when they poked my own particular sore spots. Others definitely are different! We all find hope in different things! I am very interested to see where the author goes next! The skin is soft, probably exfoliated and moisturized daily by some royal manicurist. The camera snaps nearby. His eyes are big and soft and blue, and he desperately needs to be punched in one of them. Pride and Prejudice retellings are never out of style in Romancelandia—see below—but despite some awkward moments this one is significantly more rewarding than most.

I am resisting the temptation to write you a full essay on exactly what changes Jalaluddin made to the original story and how brilliant her overall vision is. I mean, placing a story about hasty judgments and self-knowledge in the context of present-day Islamophobia and misogyny and how those systems intersect is already Full Galaxy Brain, but there are so many more aspects of this book that made me gasp and stop and scribble notes about parallels and contrasts.

For example: our less-than-impressive rejected suitor, Mr. Darcy is possibly the most well-trod territory in all of romance, but traditional and devout Muslim Khalid is the sharpest take on Darcy I have ever seen. What happens when your heart comes into conflict with your beliefs and traditions? Wickham figures often come off as merely inappropriately sexy, rather than actively predatory.

Modern retellings like The Lizzie Bennet Diaries and now Ayesha at Last translate this successfully by making the Wickham figure not merely a romantic rival, but also someone who trafficks in the worst aspects of online sexuality: revenge porn, coerced nudes, exploitative and misogynist sex sites. This book really puts the ick back in Wickham and gives us the proper emotional zing for the storyline.

Ayesha walked Khalid to the door, and he took his time putting on his shoes. When he stood up, she noticed he had flour in his beard, and she reached out and absently brushed it away. His beard was soft, like spun cotton, and her hand lingered. He clasped her wrist to stop her, and their eyes met—hers wide in sudden realization, his steady. Ayesha blushed bright red, embarrassed at violating their unspoken no-touch rule.

He looked at her for a long moment, then gently, reluctantly, dropped her hand. We have a brash chemist heroine, a golden-boy hero, and a great many female characters on the side, all chipping away at the foundations of the patriarchy. We know how that goes, in Romancelandia. She opened her mouth to protest, but stopped.

Everybody does. Harvard people have a way of working it into conversation. It makes for a lovely change of pace. Trisha is definitely a genius and devoted to her medical work even if she struggles with her bedside manner, her politically ambitious family, and pedestrian tasks like remembering to eat. Her lax approach to dining is one of the many ways she outrages DJ Caine, our British expat hero, an accomplished chef who worked his way up from nothing to a Michelin star—and whose sister needs a life-saving operation only Trisha can provide.

It means this book has some heavier angles that readers ought to know going in. But in the expert hands of Sonali Dev, all the angst and anguish is worth it. Also, my god, I could listen to DJ rhapsodize about food and flavor all damn day.

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Trisha Raje was without a doubt the most insufferable snob DJ had ever come across in his entire bloody life. But it had never bothered him. Not like this. Our heroine Polly Gowan is no debutante: she spends her days organizing strikes and supporting workers at a 19th-century Glasgow cotton mill. There are pub jaunts, and football games in the mud, and clashes with the tyrannical power of the law. And while we all love a good historical gown description some of us have even written whole romances about that, in fact!

The people on the ground, doing the actual labor, turning the great wheels of history one working day at a time. They—we—deserve happy endings at least as much as the nobs do. Rumors started spreading earlier this week that the adult imprint of DC Comics, Vertigo, was finally being shuttered. If you've only been reading comics for ten years or less, you might not think this is a big deal. But for people like me, who've been reading comics since the early s or before, this news carries with it a certain kind of wistfulness. It's hard to explain now how important Vertigo was in a lot of comics nerds' lives.

It's the only big-name comics publisher that would have given full support to Y the Last Man. A lot of the books that are now considered canonical came from Vertigo. But Vertigo had not produced a lot of work worth reading in recent years. Or rather, Vertigo couldn't be trusted to consistently publish excellent work. The imprint's track record became erratic, and then it basically disappeared from view. So what was Vertigo's secret? Why did the imprint succeed so well for so long? Yes, talent had a lot to do with it.

And so did a creative environment at DC that allowed creative teams to patiently build their worlds out without fear of immediate cancellation. But I think Vertigo's secret weapon was in its editors. Karen Berger founded the line, of course, and her stewardship was likely the single most important reason for Vertigo's early success.

Berger made space for other editors, like Tom Peyer and Stuart Moore, to follow their own dreams. And she allowed some exciting young editors, like Axel Alonso, to shepherd new and exciting projects through the imprint. Most people — hell, I'd be willing to bet that most comics readers — don't know what comic book editors do. It's especially tricky because a lot of comics editors don't do their jobs.

But a good comic book editor is as much a part of the collaboration process as a colorist or artist or letterer or writer. A good comics editor will help define a book, and ensure that the writer keeps to those themes throughout the book's lifespan. They will fight for the best ideas, and kill the worst ideas before they can fly out of control and endanger the whole project.

They'll help every member of the team do their best work possible. And when a good editor leaves, you can tell by the rapid decline in quality. These are books that are adult without being pornographic or overly violent. They aspire to literature, while still remembering what makes comics so damn fun in the first place.

They tell stories about characters and not just plot points. They make room for what's great in comics, in a package that doesn't insult the reader's intelligence. I refuse to believe that this is an endangered market. There will be more Vertigos out there sometime soon.

If you're reading it like literary fiction, the "character" we learn the most about in The Mueller Report is Robert Mueller himself.

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His character is throughout the book: intensely literal, a devout believer in the letter of the law, and an unquestioning devotee of the American experiment. As the world saw in his quietly outraged public appearance last month, Mueller has a profound sense of right and wrong, but even his G-Man morality is nothing compared to his devotion to the law. Mueller announced that he could not indict a sitting president, and that he would have cleared the president of indictable offenses if he could. The inference, of course, is that President Trump committed indictable offenses, but Mueller is bound by duty to not say that out loud.

The big question is if Mueller made the right call by sticking to protocol. Is it possible that our times are extraordinary enough that the lantern-jawed advocate of fair play should have broken character and spoken frankly about his findings? Is Donald Trump enough of an existential threat to the country that Mueller should have dropped the coyness and sounded the alarm? Only time can answer that question. It is a legal document, one which walks the reader — deliberately and with great detail — through the Trump campaign's connections with foreign agents and President Trump's attempts to kill the investigation into those dealings.

It's not a page-turner, nor is it exceptionally accessible. But it is important. Even though there aren't many new facts in the book, seeing all the details laid out in order, written in dry legal prose, is simply stunning. Nobody — not even Attorney General Barr — could read this report and come to the conclusion that Donald Trump is as innocent as a newborn child.

Members of last night's book club had plenty of questions that The Mueller Report could never answer — about Russian money being funneled into social media, about whether Trump would be indicted on leaving office, about whether the country could ever recover from the damage that Trump's destructive policies are unleashing.

The conversation repeatedly leaned toward darkness. But I found it heartening that the conversation always came back to facts. What does Mueller say? What doesn't he say? When did this event happen? Can we even prove that this event ever happened?

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  5. People kept trying to find solid ground on which they could stand. For all his real estate deals, solid ground is the one thing that Donald Trump and his cronies will never be able to buy. When you build a kingdom on lies, you're destined to spend the rest of your days trying to avert disasters. Every day, the chaos president sinks a little bit deeper into a trap of his own making. The best way to keep from drowning in lies is to only build on truth, and we have a lot more truth about Donald Trump this month than we did six months ago.

    Some good news about the state of independent bookselling from Publishers Weekly :. Cheatham wrote the poem that became Hi Blue Sky for himself, but he decided that he wanted to share it with children, to help them through the grieving process. Cheatham has brought the book to a number of young readers to make sure that Hi Blue Sky worked on its target audience.

    It could be a story for kids who lose a friend who moves away. On June 12th, Cheatham is celebrating the launch of Hi Blue Sky with a family-friendly happy hour reading at The Station coffee shop on Beacon Hill from 5 pm to to 8 pm , with pizza and chocolate. I lost my job.

    I had to move. I lost my car. And then a friend took him to The Station for the first time. I love them all to death. And once I was there, the owners embraced me as a part of their community and they allowed me to create. Last week, when Special Counsel Robert Mueller talked for less than ten minutes about the criminal accusations surrounding President Trump, the world reacted with shock and surprise. Which, really, is pretty damn weird considering Mueller offered no new information that couldn't already be found in the bestselling report that bears his name.

    It's been right there in his book this whole time. But even if you haven't read the book, you should join us for our conversation about the Report and what it all means. And I'm also taking this opportunity to announce a contest for attendees tomorrow night: if your copy of the Mueller Report is more beaten than mine but still somehow readable, I promise to buy you a drink.

    View this post on Instagram My copy of the Mueller Report was in my backpack when I got caught in a rainstorm and now I have the most metal copy of the Mueller Report on the planet. It's free and you don't have to have read the entirety of the book to take part in the discussion. Join us! Show up for the series, and you'll get a tasting menu of what's current in verse.

    The question of whether poetry matters is a tired old argument. Poetry is endlessly adaptable to the needs of whatever time we're in. Poets adapt endlessly, and serve up language with infinite variety. And SAL has a lens on it all. Check out the full list of names for this year's Poetry Series on our sponsor feature page , then reserve your seats today.

    I find it shocking how few people know that Neal Stephenson is a Seattle-area author — particularly since his books are very obviously influenced by the nature and culture of the Pacific Northwest. His latest book, Fall, or Dodge in Hell , a stealth sequel to his thriller Reamde , is a book that imagines what the Singularity might mean for our concepts of life and death.

    Orlando de Lange, a plant molecular biologist at UW, will discuss 26 "plants, people and places that define the green landscape and history of our city. Plus: Drinks! Fred Wildlife Refuge, Belmont Ave. A native of the seaside town of Limbe, Cameroon, Imbolo Mbue is the author of the bestselling debut Behold the Dreamers, the story of a young Cameroonian couple whose new lives in New York are upended by the Great Recession.

    A large and fun panel of cultural landscape specialists, historians, drag queens, and small business owners will discuss what it means for a traditionally gay neighborhood to face gentrification and massive construction. How do we preserve important places while still allowing new people to move in? Seattle Public Library, 4th Ave. First, there was the Intruder comic magazine, a free tabloid-sized comics newspaper that was delivered to comics shops and other cool locales around town. Intruder closed up shop and was followed by a similar publication called Thick as Thieves.

    Given so much of the editorial staff is overseeing the transition from Thick as Thieves to Hair Flip , you probably won't see too much of a difference in this new first issue. And in fact, casual readers likely might not even be able to spot a negligible difference between Intruder and Hair Flip. That's okay. These new identities and frequent reinventions are part of what makes our local comics scene so vibrant. Print media is something different now than it used to be — it's simultaneously less valuable to advertisers but more valuable to readers.

    If you can't make something new, bring a new attitude to a print publication, why aren't you just running a fucking blog or something? Better to keep things new and interesting, to keep handing the vision off to a new group every few years. Comics in this town have the energy and excitement of a thriving rock scene right now — best to harness that kind of energy with an of-the-moment magazine that might not exist a few years from now because it's too busy evolving into something else. That's how the really great scenes keep alive. Kudos to all of them for treating Bezos, as much as possible, as just another novelist.

    The Elliott Bay Book Company hosted a reading of Ms Bezos' second novel in — and Mr [Rick] Simonson recalls some people questioning why an independent book shop would want to host a book associated with Amazon. However, he says: "I felt you can invite the other side in - and she's a legitimate writer who deserved a fair reading". Glenn Nelson expertly eviscerates David Shields's new documentary screening at SIFF , which returns to the ham-handed examination of race and sports Shields last attempted in his also eviscerated Black Planet.

    You can read this article in much less time and with much greater pleasure than either Shields's book or Shields's movie. It builds on the time-honored colonialist tradition of the white man or, sometimes, woman feeling uniquely qualified i. Yancy Strickler isn't the first to worry about what happens when the good guys exit social media stage right. Is social media a dark forest that needs heroes to tame it?

    Or is it the tiresome party we'll all be happy to leave? Do we get to choose? It appears from the proof in these causes that Alexander Graham Bell was the first discoverer of the art or process of transferring to, or impressing upon, a continuous current of electricity in a closed circuit, by gradually changing its intensity, the vibrations of air produced by the human voice in articulate speech in a way to cause the speech to be carried to and received by a listener at a distance on the line of the current, and this discovery was patentable under the patent laws of the United States.

    In order to procure a patent for a process, the inventor must describe his invention with sufficient clearness and precision to enable those skilled in the matter to understand what his process is, and must point out some practicable way of putting it into operation; but he is not required to bring the art to the highest degree of perfection. Bell's fifth claim under his patent of March 7, , No. Bell's fifth claim under his patent of March 7, , also covered his invention of an apparatus to make useful his discovery of an art or process for electrical transmission of speech, and this invention was patentable under the laws of the United States.

    The discovery and invention patented to Bell by his patent of March 7, , were not described in the publication made by Charles Bourseul in Paris in , nor in the publication in Germany in respecting the experiments and inventions of Philipp Reis, nor in the publication in Germany in of what are known as the Reis-Legat experiments, and they were not anticipated by the experiments of Dr.

    Van der Weyde in New York in , nor by the invention of J. Varley of London, June 2, , nor by the invention patented to said Varley in England, October 8, For reasons stated in its opinion, the Court holds that the alleged invention of the telephone by Daniel Drawbaugh prior to Bell's discovery and invention patented to him March 7, , is not made out. Section of the Revised Statutes does not invalidate an American patent which bears a different date from that of a foreign patent for the same invention, but only limits its term to the term of the foreign patent.

    Letters patent No. In equity. The bills were filed in circuit courts of the United States by the American Bell Telephone Company and others, as owners of two patents known as the Bell telephone Patents, to enjoin the several defendants against infringements of those patents. The two patents thus alleged to have come into the ownership of the complainants and to have been infringed were:. I have also therein described a form of autograph-telegraph based upon the action of the above-mentioned instruments. This armature, in vibrating, makes and breaks the plain circuit, producing an intermittent current upon the line wire.

    I have found, however, that upon this plan, the limit to the number of signals that can be sent simultaneously over the same wire is very speedily reached, for when a number of transmitting instruments having different rates of vibration are simultaneously. The current produced by the latter method I shall term, for distinction sake, a 'pulsatory current. The electrical movement, like the aerial motion, can be represented by a sinusoidal curve or by the resultant of several sinusoidal curves.

    When, therefore, a permanent magnet is caused to vibrate in front of the pole of an electromagnet, an undulatory current of electricity is induced in the coils of the electromagnet, the undulations of which correspond in rapidity of succession to the vibrations of the magnet in polarity to the direction of its motion and in intensity to the amplitude of its vibration.

    Let the interval between the two sounds be a major third; then their rates of vibration are in the ratio of 4 to 5. Now when the intermittent current is used, the circuit is made and broken four times by one transmitting instrument in the same time that five makes and breaks are caused by the other. A and B, Figs. The line A and B shows the total effect upon the current when the transmitting instruments for A and B are caused simultaneously to make and break the same circuit.

    The resultant effect depends very much upon the duration of the make relatively to the break. In Fig. The combined effect, A and B, Fig. Electrical undulations, induced by the vibration of a body capable of inductive action, can be represented graphically without error by the same sinusoidal curve which expresses the vibration of the inducing body itself and the effect of its vibration upon the air, for, as above stated, the rate of oscillation in the electrical current corresponds to the rate of vibration of the including body -- that is, to the pitch of the sound produced.

    The intensity of the current varies with the amplitude of the vibration -- that is, with the loudness of the sound, and the polarity of the current corresponds to the direction of the vibrating body -- that is, to the condensations and rarefactions of air produced by the vibration. Hence, the sinusoidal curve A or B, Fig.

    The vertical distance b d or c f of and portion of the curve from the zero line expresses the intensity of the positive or negative impulse at the part observed, and the horizontal distance a a indicates the duration of the electrical oscillation. The vibrations represented by the sinusoidal curves B and A, Fig. Thus, when electrical undulations of different rates are simultaneously induced in the same circuit, an effect is produced exactly analogous to that occasioned in the air by the vibration of the inducing bodies. Hence, the coexistence. A few of the methods that may be employed I shall here specify.

    When a wire through which a continuous current of electricity is passing is caused to vibrate in the neighborhood of another wire, an undulatory current of electricity is induced in the latter. When a cylinder, upon which are arranged bar magnets is made to rotate in front of the pole of an electromagnet, an undulatory current of electricity is induced in the coils of the electromagnet. Electrical undulations may also be caused by alternately increasing and diminishing the resistance of the circuit, or by alternately increasing and diminishing the power of the battery.

    The internal resistance of a battery is diminished by bringing the voltaic elements nearer together, and increased by placing them farther apart. The reciprocal vibration of the elements of a battery therefore occasions an undulatory action in the voltaic current. The external resistance may also be varied. For instance, let mercury or some other liquid form part of a voltaic circuit, then the more deeply the conducting wire is immersed in the mercury or other liquid, the less resistance does the liquid offer to the passage of the current. Hence the vibration of the conducting wire in mercury or other liquid included in the circuit occasions undulations in the current.

    The vertical vibrations of the elements of a battery in the liquid in which they are immersed produces an undulatory action in the current by alternately increasing and diminishing the power of the battery. I shall show and describe one form of apparatus for producing the effect. I prefer to employ for this purpose an electromagnet, A, Fig. A steel spring armature c is firmly clamped by one extremity to the uncovered leg d of the magnet, and its free end is allowed to project above the pole of the covered leg.

    The armature c can be set in vibration in a variety of ways, one of which is by wind, and, in vibrating, it produces a musical note of a certain definite pitch. So long as the armature c remains at rest, no effect is produced upon the voltaic current, but the moment it is set in vibration to produce its musical note, a powerful inductive action takes place, and electrical undulations traverse the circuit g b e f g.

    The vibratory current passing through the coil of the electromagnet f causes vibration in its armature h when the armature c h of the two instruments A I are normally in unison with one another; but the armature h is unaffected by the passage of the undulatory current when the pitches of the two instruments are different. When the armature of any one of the instruments is set in vibration, all the other instruments upon the circuit which are in unison with it respond, but those which have normally a different rate of vibration remain silent.

    Thus, if A, Fig. So if Bl is caused to emit its musical note, the instruments B B2 respond. They continue sounding so long as the mechanical vibration of Bl is continued, but become silent with the cessation of its motion. The duration of the sound may be used to indicate the dot or dash of the Morse alphabet, and thus a telegraphic dispatch may be indicated by alternately interrupting and renewing the sound. When two or more instruments of different pitch are simultaneously caused to vibrate, all the instruments of corresponding pitches upon the.

    Thus, the signals of A, Fig. Hence, by these instruments two or more telegraphic signals or messages may be sent simultaneously over the same circuit without interfering with one another. Thus, when c vibrates with little amplitude, a very soft musical note proceeds from h , and when c vibrates forcibly, the amplitude of the vibration of h is considerably increased, and the resulting sound becomes louder.

    So if A and B, Fig. Another mode is shown in Fig. A cone A is used to converge sound vibrations upon the membrane. When a sound is uttered in the cone, the membrane a is set in vibration, the armature c is forced to partake of the motion, and thus electrical undulations are created upon the circuit E b e f g.

    These undulations are similar in form to the air vibrations caused by the sound -- that is, they are represented graphically by similar curves. The undulatory. A similar sound to that uttered into A is then heard to proceed from L. I include in the category of bodies capable of inductive action brass, copper, and other metals, as well as iron and steel.

    A system of telegraphy in which the receiver is set in vibration by the employment of undulatory currents of electricity, substantially as set forth. The combination, substantially as set forth, of a permanent magnet or other body capable of inductive action, with a closed circuit, so that the vibration of the one shall occasion electrical undulations in the other or in itself, and this I claim whether the permanent magnet be set in vibration in the neighborhood of the conducting wire forming the circuit or whether the conducting wire be set in vibration in the neighborhood of the permanent magnet, or whether the conducting wire and the permanent magnet both simultaneously be set in vibration in each other's neighborhood.

    The method of producing undulations in a continuous voltaic current by the vibration or motion of bodies capable of inductive action, or by the vibration or motion of the conducting wire itself, in the neighborhood of such bodies, as set forth. The method of producing undulations in a continuous voltaic circuit by gradually increasing and diminishing the resistance of the circuit, or by gradually increasing and diminishing the power of the battery, as set forth.

    The method of and apparatus for transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically, as herein described, by causing electrical undulations similar in form to the vibrations of the. A separate instrument is therefore employed for every pitch, each instrument being capable of transmitting or receiving but a single note, and thus as many separate instruments are required as there are messages or musical notes to be transmitted.

    E represents a speaking tube, by which sounds may be conveyed to or from the plate A. F is a bar of soft iron. G is a coil of insulated copper wire, placed around the extremity of the end H of the bar F. I is an adjusting screw whereby the distance of the end H from the plate A may be regulated. When two or more musical signals are being transmitted over the same circuit, all the telephones reproduce the signals for all the messages, but as the signals for each message differ in pitch from those for the other messages, it is easy for an operator to fix his attention upon one message and ignore the other.

    In this way, he is enabled to direct his attention to the signals for. The vibrations of the membrane may be made to operate a circuit breaker which will actuate a Morse sounder or a telegraphic recording or registering apparatus. Hence, by this plan, the simultaneous transmission of a number of telegraphic messages over a single circuit in the same or in both directions with a single main battery for the whole circuit and a single telephone at each station is rendered practicable. This is of great advantage in this, that for the conveyance of several messages or signals or sounds over a single wire simultaneously, it is no longer necessary to have separate instruments correspondingly tuned for each given sound, which plan requires nice adjustment of the corresponding instruments, while the present improvement admits of a single instrument at each station, or, if for convenience several are employed, they all are alike in construction, and need not be adjusted or tuned to particular pitches.

    To convey an articulate message, it is only necessary for an operator to speak in the neighborhood of his telephone, preferably through the tube E, and for another operator at a distant station upon the same circuit to listen to the telephone at that station. If two persons speak simultaneously in the neighborhood of the same or different telephones, the utterances of the two speakers are reproduced simultaneously by all the other telephones on the.

    All the effects noted above may be produced by the same instruments without a battery by rendering the central bar F H permanently magnetic. Another form of telephone, for use without a battery, is shown in Fig. It is therefore by no means necessary or essential that the transmitting instrument should be of the same construction as the receiving instrument.

    Any instrument receiving and transmitting the impression of agitated air may be used as the transmitter, although, for convenience and for reciprocal communication, I prefer to use like instruments at either end of an electrical wire. I have heretofore described and exhibited such other means of transmitting sound, as will be seen by reference to the proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Volume XII. This may be arranged so as to ring first when the.

    The first is done to call attention; the second indicates when it is necessary to readjust the magnet, for it is important that the distance of the magnet from the plate should be as little as possible, without, however, being in contact. I have also found that the electrical undulations produced upon the main line by the vibration of the plate A are intensified by placing the coil G at the end of the bar F nearest the plate A, and not extend it beyond the middle, or thereabout. The union upon and by means of an electric circuit of two or more instruments, constructed for operation substantially as herein shown and described, so that if motion of any kind or form be produced in any way in the armature of any one of the said instruments, the armatures of all the other instruments upon the same circuit will be moved in like manner and form, and if such motion be produced in the former by sound, like sound will be produced by the motion of the latter.

    In a system of electric telegraphy or telephony consisting of transmitting and receiving instruments united upon an electric circuit, the production, in the armature of each receiving instrument, of any given motion by subjecting said armature to an attraction varying in intensity, however such variation may be produced in the magnet, and hence I claim the production of any given sound or sounds from the armature of the receiving instrument by subjecting said armature to an attraction varying in intensity, in such manner as to throw the armature into that form of vibration that characterizes the given sound or sounds.

    The combination, with an electromagnet, of a plate of iron or steel or other material capable of inductive action which can be thrown into vibration by the movement of surrounding air or by the attraction of a magnet. In combination with a plate and electromagnet, as before claimed, the means herein described, or their mechanical equivalents, of adjusting the relative position of the two. The formation, in an electric telephone such as herein shown and described, of a magnet with a coil upon the end or ends of the magnet nearest the plate.

    The combination, with an electric telephone such as described, of a sounding box substantially as herein shown and set forth. In combination with an electric telephone as herein described, the employment of a speaking or hearing tube for conveying sounds to or from the telephone substantially as set forth. In a system of electric telephony, the combination of a permanent magnet with a plate of iron or steel or other material capable of inductive action, with coils upon the end or ends of said magnet nearest the plate, substantially as set forth.

    The complainants alleged infringement of claim five of the first patent by all the defendants below, and infringement of claims three, five, six, seven and eight of the second patent, or of some of them, by some of the defendants below. The respondents all contested the validity of both of Bell's patents. They also contested the scope of claim five of the first patent. The question of infringement turned upon the scope of this claim, as none of the defendants used instruments which were identical with the forms shown in the drawings of that patent. Dolbear's instrument differed from those of the other appellants, and his contention as to the scope of this claim varied from that of the others, as will appear more fully in the report of the arguments infra.

    All the respondents denied that Bell was the original and first inventor of the things patented, as the patents were construed by the complainants' counsel, and by the courts below, and all maintained that if the construction given below to the fifth claim of the first patent was correct, it covered matters not patentable. Dolbear, the Molecular Company, the Overland Company, and the Clay Commercial Company, in their respective answers, set out long lists of printed publications and patents [ Footnote 1 ] prior to. In the arguments in this Court, those known as the Bourseul and Reis publications were chiefly relied upon, either to defeat.

    The counsel for the People's Company referred to these, though not set up in their. The Bourseul publication there were several in the records chiefly cited in argument was the original communication from M. The moment the current stops, the piece of iron ceases to be a magnet. This magnet, which takes the. Sometimes this movement is directly utilized and is made to produce dots or dashes on a strip of paper which is drawn along by clockwork.

    The conventional signals are thus formed by a combination of those dots and dashes. This is the American telegraph, which bears the name of Morse, its inventor. Sometimes this to-and-fro movement is converted into a movement of rotation. In that way we have either the dial telegraph used on railroads or the telegraph used in the government system, which by means of two line wires and two indicating needles reproduce all the signals of the aerial telegraph or semaphore which was formerly used.

    One can understand that the principle we have stated can be used to choose at a distance such and such a character, and to determine its movement, and consequently to print it on a sheet of paper appropriately placed for this purpose. This is the printing telegraph. By the employment of the same principle, and by means of a mechanism rather complicated, it has been possible to reach a result which at first would seem to be almost a miracle. Handwriting itself is produced at a distance, and not only handwriting, but any line or any curve, so that, being in Paris, you can draw a profile by ordinary means there, and the same profile draws itself at the same time at Frankfort.

    Attempts of this sort have succeeded. The apparatus has been exhibited at the London Exhibition. Some details, however, remain to be perfected. It would seem impossible to go beyond this in the region of the marvelous. Let us try, nevertheless, to go a few steps further. I have asked myself, for example, if the spoken word itself could not be transmitted by electricity -- in a word, if what was spoken in Vienna may not be heard in Paris? The thing is practicable in this way:". But the intensity of the vibrations diminishes very rapidly with the distance, so that even with the aid of speaking tubes and trumpets, it is impossible to exceed somewhat narrow limits.

    Suppose that a man speaks near a movable disk sufficiently flexible to lose none of the vibrations of the voice; that this disk alternately makes and breaks the connection with a battery; you may have at a distance another disk which will simultaneously execute the same vibrations. It is, moreover, evident that the sounds will be reproduced at the same pitch. The mode in which these syllables are produced has not yet been sufficiently investigated.

    Reproduce precisely these vibrations, and you will reproduce precisely these syllables. Everything tends to show, on the contrary, that there is such a possibility. When the application of electromagnetism to the transmission of messages was first discussed, a man of great scientific attainments treated the idea as Utopian, and yet there is now direct communication between London and Vienna by means of a simple wire. Men declared it to be impossible, but it is done.

    Anyone who is not deaf and dumb may use this mode of transmission, which would. In many cases -- as for example in large establishments, orders might be transmitted in this way, although transmission in this way will not be used while it is necessary to transmit letter by letter and to make use of telegraphs which require use and apprenticeship.

    However this may be, it is certain that in a more or less distant future, speech will be transmitted by electricity. I have made some experiments in this direction. They are delicate and demand time and patience, but the approximations obtained promise a favorable result. Of the Reis publications the record contained over sixty separate papers, from to , and also a large amount of expert testimony concerning them.

    It is not practicable to reproduce most of this evidence, except as it is referred to by counsel in the synopses of their arguments. The following are the translations of some of the principal publications under this head, which were referred to in argument in this Court. It appeared that Reis delivered two lectures before the "Physikalischer Vereins" of Frankfort. The first of the following papers was written by him as a report of those lectures. Published in Experiments made in this direction could not,. To a person having only a superficial knowledge of physics, the problem presents far less difficulties simply because the most of them are unperceived.

    About nine years ago, I also having an extraordinary enthusiasm for what was new, and an insufficient knowledge of physics had the boldness to attempt the solution, but was soon forced to desist because the very first experiment convinced me of the impossibility of its solution. I could never get rid of the thought of that first experiment and its occasion, notwithstanding all that reason says to the contrary, and thus, half unwillingly, this project of my youth was reviewed in hours of leisure; the difficulties and the means for overcoming them were weighed; but for the present, at least, no experiment was made.

    This was always the cardinal question; finally I got the notion of putting the question in another way:". Or, more generally,". If this occurs in the same medium in which we are, the membrane of the ear is at each condensation forced toward the middle ear, to be moved at the subsequent rarefaction in the opposite direction. These vibrations produce a synchronous raising and falling of the hammer upon the anvil according to other authorities, an approach or receding of the earbone particles , and a similar number of tremors in the fluid of the cochlea, in which the filaments of the auditory nerve are distributed.

    The greater the condensation of the sound-conducting medium at any given moment, the greater is the amplitude of vibration of the membrane and hammer, and consequently the more powerful the blow upon the anvil and the vibration of the nerves by means of the fluid. But the office of the auditory nerve is to bring to our consciousness the vibrations of matter which have occurred in a given time, both as regards number and amplitude. Here, for the first time, certain combinations receive a name; here, certain vibrations are tones or noises [ Toene oder Misstoene ].

    This represents exactly what our ear perceives of the three simultaneous tones. The fact that the musician can distinguish the three tones need not surprise us any more than the fact that anyone acquainted with the theory of colors can in green discover blue and yellow, but the combination curves in Plate I show that this difficulty is a slight one, for in these curves all the relations of the components successively recur.

    In the case of chords of more than three notes, the relations are not so readily seen from the drawing, Plate II, for example. In the case of such chords, however, the skilled musician also finds difficulty in recognizing the separate notes. Why discords impress us unpleasantly I will leave my readers to judge at this time, though I may perhaps return to the subject subsequently in another paper. Every tone [ Ton ] and every combination of tones, on striking our ear, causes vibrations on the drum of the ear, the succession of which may be represented by a curve.

    The succession of these vibrations alone gives us a conception sensation of the tone, and every alteration changes the conception sensation. It is very simple, and by means of the figure will be easily understood from the following explanation:". Dieses steht mit der Klemme p in Verbindung ].

    From the binding screw n another thin strip of metal [ ein duennes Metallstreifchen ] extends until over the middle of. By means of the projecting ends, the coil rests upon two bridges of a resonant case. All this part can, of course, be replaced by any other apparatus by means of which the well known 'galvanic tones' can be produced. At the first condensation, the hammer-like wire d is pushed back; at the rarefaction, it cannot follow the retreating membrane, and the current traversing the strips remains broken [ Strom bleibt so lange unterbrochen bis, etc.

    In this way, each sound wave causes a breaking and closing [ ein Oeffnen und ein Schliessen ] of the current [ Stromes ]. II, fifth edition ; on breaking the circuit [ beim Unterbrechen des Stromes ], these atoms seek to regain their position of equilibrium. When this happens, in consequence of the reciprocal actions of elasticity and inertia, a number of vibrations are produced, and they give the longitudinal sound of the rod see as above.

    This is the case if the making and breaking of the current [ Unterbrechungen und Schliessungen des Stromes ] occur with comparative slowness. If they occur more rapidly than the oscillations of the iron core, due to its elasticity, the atoms cannot complete their course. The paths described become shorter in proportion as the interruptions are more frequent, but then are just as numerous as these. The intensity also of this tone is proportional to that of the original one, for in proportion as this is more intense, the motions of the membrane are greater; the motions of the hammer, also, and finally the time during which the circuit remains opened, is greater, and consequently, up to a certain limit, the motions of the atoms in the reproducing wire are greater, we perceiving them as greater vibrations in just the same way as we would have perceived the original sound wave.

    This is very easily done by making a momentary short circuit immediately in front of the coil by which means its action is temporarily interrupted. The consonants are for the most part reproduced pretty distinctly, but the vowels as yet not in an equal degree. The cause of this I will attempt to explain. Two vowels having the same pitch would differ in about the way represented by the curve Figs. But in the case of these generally small vibrations, the difference between large and small vibrations is more difficult to perceive than in the case of the original waves, and the vowel is therefore more or less indistinct.

    Telephony by means of the electric current. On the middle of the membrane and parallel with it is a thin strip of platinum cemented fast at one end, whilst the other end is held by a binding post. From another binding post q extends a similar thin strip of metal as far as over the center of the membrane, and carries a little platinum wire directed toward the membrane at right angles to the strip and the surface of the membrane.

    From binding post p , a conductor leads through a battery to a distant coil, which again is connected by another wire to binding post q. By these protruding ends, the coil is supported on two bridges of a soundboard. If now tones or combinations of tones are produced in the vicinity of the large opening of the conical cavity so that sufficiently strong waves enter it, these waves will set the membrane into vibration; by the outward motion of the membrane, the platinum strip cemented on it is pressed against the hammer-shaped wire d and the galvanic current [ Strom ] is closed [ geschlossen ]; by the inward motion of the membrane, the current is reopened.

    The alternate magnetizings and demagnetizings of the core of the coil resulting therefrom will bring forth, if the alternation is slow, the longitudinal tone of the core, and if the alternation [ aufeinanderfolge ] is quicker, a longitudinal vibration of the same, the period of which corresponds to the period of the interruptions of the current [ Unterbrechungen des Stromes ] or of the vibrations of the membrane, and consequently to the rate or pitch of the tone which entered the conical cavity.

    That means, according to the author, that 'The rod [ Stab ] reproduces the tone which was impressed upon the interrupting apparatus [ Unterbrechungsapparat ]. This was ascertained very simply by establishing for a given time a good shunt circuit directly before the coil, in consequence of which, of course, the activity of the latter ceased for that time. Philip Reis. Schliessen a galvanic circuit, connected with a distant station by a metallic conductor. If this operation occurs in the same medium in which the ear is placed, then at.

    Hence it is evidently the function of the auditory apparatus to impart with faithfulness to the auditory nerves every condensation and rarefaction which occurs in the surrounding medium. On the other hand, the function of transmitting to our consciousness both the number and amplitude of the resulting vibrations occurring within a given time devolves upon the auditory nerves. For if several tones are generated simultaneously, then the sound-conducting medium is influenced by several forces, acting at the same time and subject to mechanical laws.

    I might observe at the outset that the arrangement of the instruments for sending backwards and forwards is omitted for greater clearness, and likewise, as the whole thing is not presented as a completed fact, but only to call to the notice of a wider circle what has been already ascertained, the possibility of the working of the apparatus at a distance greater than the limited direct working allows at present is left out of consideration, since these points are easily accomplished by mechanical arrangements, and since the most important facts of the phenomena treated are not influenced thereby.

    This on the one hand is connected by that metallic conductor with the tone receiver, Fig. The tone transmitter, Fig. An enlargement of the diameter of the tube impairs the working of the apparatus, and it is desirable that the inner surface of the tube be as smooth as possible. The smaller or rear end of the tube is closed by a collodion membrane o , and upon the center of the circular surface of this membrane rests one end c of the lever c d , the supporting point e of which is sustained by a bracket and is kept in electrical connection with the metallic conductor.

    The proper lengths of the respective arms c e and e d of this lever are regulated by the laws of the lever. It is advisable to make the arm c e longer than the arm e d in order that the least motion at c may operate with greatest effect at d. It is also desirable that the lever itself be made as light as possible, that it may follow the movements of the membrane.

    Any inaccuracy in the operation of the lever c d in this respect will produce false tones at the receiving station. When in a state of rest, the contact at d g is closed, and a delicate spring n maintains the lever in this position. When the air, which is in the tube a b of the apparatus, Fig. The lever c d follows the movements of the membrane, and opens and closes [ oeffnet und schliesst ] the galvanic circuit [ Kette ] at d g , so that at each condensation of the air in the tube, the circuit is opened, and at each rarefaction the circuit is closed [ ein Oeffnen and ein Schliessen erfolgt ].

    But the beam [ Balken ] i attached to the armature communicates these corresponding vibrations of the armature to the air surrounding the apparatus Fig. It must not be ignored, however, that while the apparatus described reproduces the exact number of the original vibrations,. Quilting, of Frankfort-a-M, according to which the capacity of the apparatus to transmit tones to a considerable distance clearly and with their characteristic timbre Klang-farbe is fully established.

    Reis was connected, two remote parts of the city were united, and although it was not possible with the present construction of the apparatus to transmit spoken words [ gesprochenen worte ], they succeeded so well with the tones that were. Q, adds, who availed themselves of the opportunity of witnessing the experiment, agreed that the possibility is before us of making one's self understood verbally at any distance in the way shown by Mr.

    Ladd, Member:". Albert's, by whom I have been informed that you have purchased one of my newly invented instruments telephone , though I will do all in my power to give you the most ample explanations on the subject. I am sure that personal communication would have been preferable, specially as I was told that you will show the apparatus at your next scientific meeting, and thus introduce the apparatus in your country. By every condensation the tympanum of our ear is pressed inwards, by every rarefaction it is pressed outward, and thus the tympanum performs oscillations like a pendulum.

    The smaller or greater number of the oscillations made in a second gives us, by help of the small bones in our ear and the auditory nerve, the idea of a higher or lower tune. However, these were the principles which guided me in my invention; they were sufficient to induce me to try the reproduction of tunes at any distance. It would be long to relate all the fruitless attempts I made until I found out the proportions of the instrument and the necessary tension of the membrane.

    The apparatus you have bought is now what may be found most simple, and works without failing when arranged carefully in the following manner:". In the middle of the latter is fixed a small platina plate to which a flattened copper wire is soldered, on purpose to conduct the galvanic current. Within the circle you will further remark two screws; one of them is terminated by a little pit in which you put a little drop of quicksilver, the other is pored. The angle, which you will find lying on the membrane, is to be placed according to the letters, with the little hole a on the point a , the little platina foot b into the quicksilver screw, the other platina foot will then come on the platina plate in the middle of the membrane.

    From here it goes through the conductor to the other station B, and from there returns to the battery. A second little box is fixed on the first one, and laid down on the steel. On the small side of the lower box you will find the corresponding part of the complementary telegraph.

    The stream will be reestablished at every rarefaction. In this manner the steel axis at station B will be magnetic once for every full vibration, and, as magnetism never enters nor leaves a metal without disturbing the equilibrium of the atoms, the steel axis at station B must repeat the vibrations at station A, and then reproduce the sounds which caused them.

    Any sound will be reproduced if strong enough to set the membrane in motion. At every opening of the stream, and next following shutting, the station A will hear a little clap, produced by the attraction of the steel spring. Another little clap will be heard at station B in the wire spiral. By multiplying the claps and producing them in different measures, you will be able as well as I am to get understood by your correspondent.

    Albert, mechanician at Frankfort. I have enabled him to offer them at the prices of 21 and 14 florins 12 and 8 Prussian thalers in two qualities, which differ only in the external outfit. The instruments can also be had directly from me at the same price by cash payment. Every apparatus is examined by me before being shipped, and has attached my name, the serial number and the date of construction. These two parts are to be placed at such a distance from each other that singing or the sound of a musical instrument can be heard in no other manner except through the apparatus from one station to another.

    The battery must be sufficient to produce at station A the attraction of the armature of the electromagnet placed at one side three or four six-inch Bunsen cells are sufficient for several hundred feet of distance. From here the current goes through the small telegraph apparatus e f , then to the key of the station C and through the coil surrounding i back to B. By placing the cover tightly over the axis of the coil, the tones at C are greatly strengthened. Besides the human voice [ menschlichen stimme ] there can be reproduced according to my experience just as well the tones [ toene ] of good organ pipes from F to C and those of the piano; to that end the box a must be placed on the sounding board of the piano; out of thirteen chords, a skilled experimenter could make out ten clearly.

    The telegraph apparatus placed on one side is evidently unnecessary for the reproduction of tones, but it is a very useful addition for convenient experimenting. With its aid, it is. Therefore I put a dactyl for every 5 strokes, hence". The trials made in this direction had, till now, produced no satisfactory results because the vibrations of sound-conducting bodies soon diminish so much in force that they are no more perceptible for our senses. Those who are but superficially acquainted with natural science do not see the many difficulties this problem offers, if they are at all acquainted with it.

    Thus, about eleven years ago, a young man, Mr. Philipp Reis, at present teacher of natural science at the Gamier Institute for Boys at Friedrichsdorf, near Homburg, had the hardihood to work at the solution of this problem. But soon he was obliged to desist from it because his very first effort seemed to convince him of the impossibility of a solution. Later, however, after further studies and many experiments, he saw that his first effort was but a rudimentary one, and by no means convincing.

    However, he did not recommence to attack the question seriously for some time, not feeling himself strong enough to vanquish the obstacles on his road, although he never banished his early idea entirely from his thoughts. Later he put this question more methodically: 'How does our ear perceive the composite vibrations of all the organs of speech acting at the.

    A body made to vibrate through any impulse affects the surrounding air and causes waves in it which follow each other at the same rate as the vibrations of the body. As those rings on the water consist in swellings and depressions, so also the vibrations of the air consist of alternate condensations and rarefactions. If they reach our ear, every condensation presses the tympanum toward the interior of the cavity and puts in motion the adjacent group of small bones which communicates the motion to the liquid of the cochlea, in which the auditory nerves terminate.

    The latter are excited and produce the sensation of sound. The latter is the higher the quicker the condensations follow each other and the louder the stronger or higher the waves rise, as it were. And nevertheless we receive the most varied auditory impressions, we distinguish the sound of the voices, we hear at the same time in quite different directions and can distinguish the different sources -- nay, in a complete large orchestra, each of the numerous instruments is specially noticed by its peculiar sound, so that we decompose at every moment the total impression into its several parts according to the height and depth, strength and weakness, or according to the timbre or quality [ Klangfarbe ].

    The wave lines cross each other, strengthen each other at some points, weaken each other at others, and the surface has a ruffled,. But nevertheless, our eye can detect the different systems of rings and can trace them back to their several causes. If we succeed in transmitting with the galvanic current the oscillations of a sounding body to a distance, so that there another body is put to equally rapid and, in respect to each other, equally strong oscillations, the problem of 'telephoning' is solved.

    The ear will distinguish at the distant points not only the single tones, according to their varying height and depth, but also to the proportionate force of the vibrations, and not only single melodies, but the performance of a whole orchestra -- yes, even speech must be heard at the same time in places very distant from each other. Reis was the first one to prove by experiments the possibility of solving this problem. He has succeeded in constructing an apparatus to which he gives the name Telephone, and which enables one to reproduce tones with the aid of electricity at any given distance.

    Already, in October, , he made rather successful experiments with a very simple, rudely made apparatus before a numerous audience at Frankfort. On July 4th of the present year, he presented an essentially improved apparatus at an assembly of the 'Physical Union' which transmitted by closed doors and windows a melody sung moderately loud, to a distance of about three hundred feet, so that it could be heard plainly.

    These wonderful results are obtained with the following simple apparatus, which we show here in one-fourth of its size:". The latter is closed with a fine membrane skin from the intestines of a hog tightly stretched. A narrow strip of plating m , connected with the screw post d , touches directly the membrane on its center; a slender plating point k , attached to the angle a b , touches the strip of plating which rests on the membrane.

    If one sings into the mouthpiece S by filling the same entirely with the mouth , the thin membrane vibrates and the attached plating strip receives likewise a vibrating motion so that it is alternately pressed against and leaves the plating point k. At every vibration of the membrane, an interruption of the electric current [ unterbrechung des electrischen Stromes ] takes place by the plating point parting from the plating strip. This is the reproducing apparatus.

    If the motions follow with a certain rapidity, they produce a tone which is rendered audible by the sounding box. As the rate of the interruptions depends on the pitch of the tone that has been sung into the mouthpiece, the same tone is sounded with the same pitch from the sounding box. The length of the circuit has no influence upon this. It is true the electric current loses force the farther it goes, but there is no reason why relays should not be employed, the same as in telegraphing, and with their aid any number of reproducing apparatuses be set into simultaneous vibrations.

    Reis has endeavored to give to his improved apparatus a form which should also be pleasing to the eye, so that it might fill worthily its place in any physical laboratory. He has applied, moreover, to the side of the telephone, as well as to the reproducing apparatus, a small telegraph arrangement, which is a very good addition for convenient experimenting. It is indicated in the drawing by the letters e f h g.

    Reis himself manufactures the principal parts of the telephone, for which no small amount of physical knowledge and experience is necessary. The mechanician, Wilhelm Albert,. Reis of Friedrichsdorf in the instrument which he invented and named 'the telephone,' for transmitting tones telegraphically by means of the periodic impact of the sound waves of the same against an elastic skin. An exact reproduction of the sounds does not take place, however, but only an imitation; for this reason it cannot be questioned here of transverse vibrations [ transversal.

    Schwingungen ]. A phenomenon [ Erscheinung ] has otherwise been heard of, which belongs to the aforementioned class, in which the intensity and the timbre [ Klang ] of the sound accompanying it the phenomenon depend, among other things, on the strength of the current [ Stromstaerke ] and on the number of breaks of the same, and in which, as it seems, the pitch of the tones also can vary under different circumstances. We can, however, hardly imagine by what arrangements it could be feasible to coax tones of any given height or depth out of an iron or metal tube split on one side, while it the tube is affected by the alternate currents of an induction apparatus the coil Rolle of which surrounds it.

    Yet the possibility cannot be controverted that the principle of Neef's circuit breaker [ Unterbrecher ] might contribute to the solution of the problem in question. It has been employed for local purposes either with or without modifications in the study and investigation of acoustic phenomena.