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He did propose to help them and retain their loyalty by allowing some of them to join the army, but he and William Marcy, the secretary of war, wanted the recruitment to take place after they arrived in California and not before. An ambiguous letter written by Secretary Marcy to Col. Stephen W. Kearney led Kearney, who needed troops, to send Capt. James Allen to Iowa immediately to recruit the Mormons.

In the absence of detailed instruction on the time and place of enlistments, Kearney misinterpreted Polk's intent. T h u s , a vaguely worded letter rather than a presidential plan led to the march of the Mormon Battalion. Luce is a doctoral candidate in history at the University of Virginia. Bailey, and J. See also Henry W. Bigler, "Extracts from the Journal of Henry W. Stenhouse, The Rocky Mountain Saints. New York, , chap. Manifestly it was done either as a distinct favor to the Saints or as a measure of military expediency. Leland H. Creer Salt Lake City, , T h e events leading to Allen's appearance in the Mormon camps began four months earlier in Nauvoo, Illinois.

Little, a thirty-one-year-old merchant who had earlier directed church operations in New Hampshire, was a happy choice for the assignment. Dedicated to the church, he worked tirelessly to fulfill Brigham Young's written instructions. T h e letter of appointment asked Little to help members of the church living in the East make the j o u r n e y to the still unselected place of refuge in the West.

It suggested that Little might outfit a ship to follow an earlier g r o u p led by Sam B r a n n a n a r o u n d the H o r n to California. T h e letter also instructed Little to accept any governmental aid: "If our government shall offer any facilities for emigrating to the western coast, embrace thosefacilities if possible. As a wise and faithful man, take every honorable advantage of the times you can. After receiving the letter he made a quick tour of the mission to visit local leaders in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, and d u r i n g May he held church conferences in the major branches of the mission to "take into consideration the most expedient measures for the removal and emigration of the saints in the Eastern States to California.

He discussed the project in all the cities he visited, and finally resolved to go to Washington and appeal to the president himself. He made careful preparations before going and obtained letters of introduction to various governmental officials. Steele of New Hampshire wrote a letter for him to George Bancroft, secretary of the navy, indicating that he had known Jesse Little since childhood. Little's report is reprinted in full in William E.

Berrett and Alma Burton, Readings in L. Church History, 2 vols. Salt Lake City, , , 2 : 2 0 4 - Little was going to Washington, Steele said, seeking a governmental contract to carry supplies to the West Coast to lower the cost of taking a ship to California. While visiting New York the Mormon leader obtained a letter of introduction from A. T h e Benson letter is important Jesse C. A few months earlier, in January , when Sam Brannan was preparing to take the shipload of Mormons to California, Benson had contacted him.

T h e r e were those in the government, Brannan was told, who opposed the Mormons and would not allow them to leave the country. Benson said he and Kendall could secure safe passage for all departing Mormons but, in return for the service, asked for every other section of land when church members settled in California. B r a n n a n signed the agreement and sent it to Brigham Young for church approval. Young refused to sign it, saying he would trust in the Lord for a safe departure. Despite the refusal of Brigham Young to sign the contract, friendly relations were maintained be6.

Berrett and Burton, Readings, - 5. Berrett and Burton, Readings, ; Brigham H. Salt Lake City, - 32 , - 9 1. Many questions about the Brannan-Benson agreement remain unanswered. A fairly close relationship between the two men appears to have continued for some time. More than two years after the abortive agreement, Brannan wrote Jesse C Little: "Many little bits of interest you will learn by calling Benson of New York, which will save me the trouble of writing them again. I want you to use all your influence in connection with Mr.

Benson with our people. Little was skeptical but said that if such feelings really did exist, the government could give them some monetary help. Following the first conference meeting, Thomas L. Kane, a young Philadelphian, asked to meet him. Kane, the twenty-four-year-old son of Judge John K. Kane and brother of the arctic explorer Elisha Kent Kane, proved to be a lasting friend of the Mormons.

For several years he served as an unofficial representative for the church in the East, and he would ultimately help to negotiate a settlement to the Utah War in He was active in many other enterprises, serving as a Union major general during the Civil War and as chairman of the Pennsylvania Free Soil party.

Kane told Little that he understood the church was going to California and that he wanted permission to go with them.

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Little gave Kane the latest information he had received about the Mormon exodus from Nauvoo and told about his proposed trip to Washington. Kane, whose father was a friend of President Polk, gave the Mormon elder political informa-. Little, Circular to the Saints. Berrett and Burton, Readings, For additional material on Kane see Albeit I. Winther, ed. Kane immediately advised Little that such a threat would be the strongest possible a p p r o a c h in Washington. The possibility of joining England was heightened by the fact that more than fifteen thousand English had joined the Mormon church by , and of that number almost five thousand had journeyed to Mormon settlements in the United States.

The annexation of Texas had provoked ill feelings with Mexico; relations degenerated, and war was declared between the two countries while Little was visiting Philadelphia. The United States was also involved with England in a dispute over Oregon, and President Polk could not ignore the many ramifications of that diplomatic conflict. Understandably, the president was not eager to alienate a group with over twenty thousand members on the western borders of the country. The letter asked support for the Mormon leader and hinted that the Mormons might be forced to seek aid elsewhere.

But, Kane said, they would "not willingly sell themselves to the foreigner, or forget the old commonwealth they leave behind them. A manufacturer's fair had brought many to the city to see exhibits such as a telegraph connecting Washington with Baltimore. Residents and visitors alike were thrilled with the. Polk appointed the elder Kane a federal judge, and an earlier letter from Polk to Kane concerning the tariff was widely circulated during the presidential campaign of as Polk's official stand. L'sing the information he had. Little estimated the number at 40, in his letter to the president.

Polk during His Presidency. Chicago, , - 45, hereafter cited as Polk Diary.

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T h e day after arriving, he attended the president's public reception with a Mr. Dane and Daniel P. King, a congressman from Massachusetts. Little met the president and requested assistance. T h e meeting was certainly brief with little time to present a detailed plan. Polk made no mention of the meeting in his diary, commenting only that a large n u m b e r of people attended the reception, many of them volunteering their services or seeking commands in the army. T h e meeting produced a change in the direction of Little's request.

He had been seeking a naval contract to help lower the cost of chartering a ship to California, but Kendall told him that to assist the emigrants one thousand Mormon men might be enlisted in the war. This is the first recorded mention of a Mormon fighting group. T h e war excitement doubtlessly generated the idea, but it also appears that Kendall had inside information from the Polk administration. He promised to tell Little on Tuesday morning what could be arranged.

T h e mention of Tuesday morning, May 26, , is significant, because the first mention of a California expedition in Polk's diary is found in his description of a meeting he held Monday evening with Kendall and Gov. Archibald Yell of Arkansas. T h e president noted that both of them favored such a force. T h e president would present the plan to the cabinet later that day. T h e cabinet thoroughly discussed the plan before agreeing unanimously to send an expedition to California.

Kendall told Little the next day that plans had not been completed, but it looked as though two Mormon forces might be used: one thousand men to march to California and another thousand to ship military supplies to the West Coast. After five days he. Berrett and Burton, Readings, ; Quaife, ed. In a long letter he outlined the persecution the church had received, and he asked for assistance: They as well as myself are true hearted Americans, true to our country, true to its glorious institutions, and we have a desire to go u n d e r the outstretched wings of the American Eagle.

We would disdain to receive assistance from a foreign power, although it should be proffered, unless our government shall turn us off in this great crisis and will not help us, but compel us to be foreigners. Means for the gathering of poor we must obtain; thousands are looking to me for help and I cannot, yea, I will not, give myself rest until I find means for the deliverance of the poor. In this thing I am determined, and if I cannot get it in the land of my fathers, I will cross the trackless ocean where I trust I shall find some friends to help.

And should our territory be invaded, we hold ourselves ready to enter the field of battle, and then like our patriot fathers with our guns and swords make the battle field our grave or gain our liberty. T h e letter reached President Polk as final decisions were being made about the California expedition. During the week Little had been waiting the president had not forgotten the force.

It had, in fact, been one of his most pressing items of business. His diary records his search for a solution. He wanted a United States force in California before peace negotiations to further the country's claim to New Mexico and California. He was not sure, however, that enough time remained for a g r o u p to make the j o u r n e y overland before winter. He discussed the matter with a n u m b e r of people, including Sen.

T h o m a s H a r t Benton of Missouri who assured him that a g r o u p leaving from Independence, Missouri, would have time to make the trip. T h e president had already o r d e r e d some troops on the frontier to go to New Mexico to protect American traders there. Stephen Kearney could make the trip to California in time, Polk decided, and a new force of one thousand men recruited in Missouri could follow them to Santa Fe with the option of continuing to California.

T h e president faced a difficult situation. His plans called for a force to leave immediately from Missouri. T h e Mormons, who had just been driven from their homes and were now seeking aid, were in the area. Using the Mormons seemed to be the easiest solution; however, it would pose c e r t a i n p r o b l e m s. Many Americans disliked them, and settlers at Sutter's Fort in California were already alarmed that a large n u m b e r of them were coming to that area.

Polk feared their reaction if the first American troops arriving there were Mormons. T h e president was weighing these alternatives when Jesse Little's letter arrived, prompting Polk to ask Amos Kendall to have Jesse Little come see him. T h e president spent three hours with the Mormon leader the next day, J u n e 3.

Polk assured Little that he was friendly toward church members and would treat them the same as other citizens. He asked Little if the church would be willing to enlist five h u n d r e d men after they arrived in California and was advised that they would. T h e president did not tell him about the proposed California expedition and did not make a definite offer. He did say something would be done to help and that he would meet with the secretary of the navy before a definite proposal was made.

Little was asked to call back the next day. T h e second meeting was delayed one day, until J u n e 5, when the final offer was made to Little. T h e president had checked with the secretary of war, and they had decided to allow a battalion of Mormon volunteers to join Kearney after he arrived in California, if the war lasted that long. Jesse Little wanted to go immediately to the Mormon camps and recruit the men, but the president said no.

T h e offer was not all Little was seeking and he pondered it until that evening before writing a letter of acceptance. Kane in Philadelphia, asking him to come to Washington. Kane, who had been confined to bed for some time, arrived two days later. During the next two days he and Little visited a n u m b e r of high governmental officials.

T h e exact nature of their discussions is not clear, but it appears they were trying for an earlier enlistment while at the same time continuing to work for a contract to freight government supplies to California. This is borne out by a letter of introduction Kane wrote for Little to George Bancroft after arriving in Washington. Apparently, they were not successful in either of their objectives. At least Jesse Little made no mention of any change of plans in his detailed report to Brigham Young, and the president of the United States recorded no changes in his diary.

T h e letter from Marcy to Kearney which led to the formation of the Mormon Battalion had been mailed on J u n e 3, the same day Little had his first private interview with Polk and almost a week before Kane and Little left Washington. On its face the letter seems to authorize an immediate enlistment of the Mormons: It is known that a large body of Mormon emigrants are en route to California for the purpose of settling in that country.

You are desired to use all proper means to have a good understanding with them to the end that the United States may have their cooperation in taking possession of and holding that country. It has been suggested here that many of these Mormons would willingly enter into the service of the United States, and aid us in our expedition against California. You are hereby authorized to muster into service such as can be induced to volunteer not, however, to a n u m b e r exceeding one third of your entire force.

Berrett and Burton, Readings, - A careful reading of the letter, however, shows that neither time nor place was mentioned for the Mormon enlistments. A succeeding portion of the letter mentions enlistments in California, but again Marcy is ambiguous on such key points as who and when: It is understood that a considerable number of American citizens are now settled on the Sacramento river.

Should you, on your arrival in the country, find this to be the true state of things there, you are authorized to organize and receive into the service of the United States such portion of these citizens as you may think useful to aid you to hold the possession of the country. Polk also recorded in his diary that he had not told Little about Kearney's expedition or that "when Col. Kane arrived there after Captain Allen had already been ordered to proceed to the Mormon camps, and so any new message he may have taken arrived too late to bear on the action. All evidence, however, points to the fact that Kane's messages were for delivery in California.

In a letter to Kane's father written shortly after Kane left Washington Polk said, your son has "no doubt informed you of the object of his journey, and that he will be the bearer of dispatches to our squadron on the Pacific. Kane remains in Polk's papers. It says nothing about enlistments but, after mentioning the Pacific Coast, says Kane has the confidence of the president who hoped all government officers would show him every consideration.

Little mentions no change of plans d u r i n g his last interview with the president. Polk Diary, John Katie. June 11, , Folk Letterbook, Folk Papers. Kane, June 11, Polk Letterbook. Readings, - Additional support for a proposed California enlistment is found in Jesse Little's actions after parting with Kane in Saint Louis. Elements of the familiar story are correct.

T h e formation of the battalion did involve strongly conflicting groups. T h e claims of the Mormons were balanced not only by westerners who feared their arrival but by the electorates of states like Illinois and Missouri who had voted for Polk but might go Whig in the next election if the president gave too much aid to the church.

Jesse Little used all his persuasive ability, including an outright threat of disloyalty, to obtain some help from the federal government. T h e president could not ignore the Mormons, neither could he give them too much aid. Enlistment of a Mormon fighting group in California seemed like a delicately balanced solution which would retain Mormon loyalty while not alienating too many of their enemies.

T h e president's solution was not based primarily upon his personal feelings about the church but upon a variety of political considerations. While these various factors were important in bringing Polk to a position where he was willing to give some aid to the Mormons, they were not vital in the actual creation of the unit.

A carelessly worded letter changed a solution which aimed at political neutrality into a plan which not only materially aided the Mormons in their trek west but also led to the epic march of the battalion. Some Whig papers later did, in fact, claim that the battalion was recruited as payment for Mormon votes. Leonard J. Polk was quite candid in his diary about his motives.

T h e president was not antagnoistic to the church and may have been favorably disposed toward church members. Some sympathy is indicated by the fact that his wife helped raise money and clothing to relieve suffering among them in Millennial Star, 9 December , See also W. Perkins was confirmed as Postmaster of San Francisco, vice Parker, removed.

X i M of U M r t i l n i Another amendment, proposed to the Enrollment Bill of the House, yesterday, provides t h a t those physically exempted, b u t who have an income of twelve hundred dollars, shall p a y the Jfoto W o r k , regular Comnrotation of three hundred dollars. Bank Statement—Foreign News. The Comiher? The speech gives much satisfaction. Catharines, on Nov. Loyal citizens s a y they will be able to poll twenty thousand votes for the Constitution. They will be put in camps of instruction within ten days. Exploit of Col. Sun h a s it, from a Union cavalry, was sent in pursuit.

So complete w a s the rout that thorities. Upon Palmer's attack, the Federals who were prisoners drew have furnished substitutes. It w a s in this ivc officers can now hardly keep them fight t h a t the rebel Maj. Vance, n good running order, by all t h e means at their command. All the Virwas captured. Great economy is New York, J a n. Washington specials s a y that the The Sciitiitcl sees alarming signs of point raised by Pugh in Vallandigtrouble in North Carolina. S p e a k i n g ham's case, in the Supreme Court, is of the papers of that State, it says that the military commission has no those located at Raleigh, rarely fail to authority to t r y a citizen; having no publish every gloomy article and injurisdiction, except over persons of temperate accusation against the Govthe military and naval service.

Holt ernment which appears a n y where. The court has ntiments as their selections. I t conreserved its decision. In many cases these c a m p newspapers reveal the best a n d most complete picture of garrison life and soldiering in the American West. Of u n u s u a l significance a m o n g the publications of military posts was the Daily Union Vedette published at Fort Douglas, Utah Territory, from to , being the first daily n e w s p a p e r p u b lished in Utah. For two m o n t h s it was called the Union Vedette, not becoming a daily until J a n u a r y 5, It was then called the Daily Vedette until the title was c h a n g e d to the Daily Union Vedette J a n u a r y 27, T h e first editor a n d the father of the Vedette was Capt.

Charles H. H e m p s t e a d who r e m a i n e d in the editor's chair until December w h e n "pressing duties" forced him to step down. O t h e r editors included Frederick Livingston, George F. Price, Capt. Stephen E. Jocelyn, O. Goldrick, Rev. T h e o p e n i n g editorial m a d e fair promise in stating that "we have no ends to serve, save the public good, a n d o u r country's welfare; we have no enemies to punish; no prejudices to indulge; no private griefs to ventilate.

T o aid the right, oppose the wrong. Harris is also claimed as one of the founders and editors of the Vedette in Richard E. Lingenfelter and Richard A. Dwyer, The "Nonpareil" Press of T.

Harris Los Angeles, Pedersen, Jr.. Brigham Voting University, Located only three miles from the M o r m o n c a p i t a l of Salt Lake City, Fort Douglas, or C a m p Douglas as it was called until , was in an excellent position to reflect Mormon attitudes and problems during the troublesome d e c a d e of t h e s. Vedette, just as military Hempstead. Utah State Historical officials r e a d t h e Society collections. Deseret News, to see what new attacks were being made on them. On January 19, , the Vedette mentioned that "it is evident from the sermon delivered by Elder J o h n Taylor in the Tabernacle last Sunday that the polygamists are becoming constant readers of the Vedette r2 Between and , the period d u r i n g which the Vedette was published, some reference to the Mormons appeared in almost every issue of the camp paper.

It made good reading for both Mormons and non-Mormons, though for different reasons and from different points of view. T h e subjects most often attracting comment from the editor's pen were polygamy, the question of loyalty, and the future of the army in Utah, although a variety of other subjects appeared as well. On a personal basis the most frequent targets for the columns of the Vedette were Heber C. Kimball -Daily Union Vedette, January 19, See also Millennial Star, 26 February 20, , , for Mormon reaction to the publishing of the Vedette. Mormon sermons, if they were particularly harsh against the military or if they had an unpatriotic ring to t h e m , might well find room in the camp newspaper.

Kinney: A patriotic cuss who keeps an ice house in the city, who claims to own a small bridge which crosses a slough near the J o r d a n , would not permit the Government teams engaged in hauling ice to C a m p Douglas, to cross his institution, and actually commenced tearing up the bridge while some of the teams were on the opposite side. A week later the "patriotic cuss," not named in the first article, answered in his own defense. In April Brigham Young was quoted as saying: T h e boys can go u p Parley's Canyon some fine morning and clean out the troops before breakfast.

T h e troops are no better than members of Congress. Naturally, a good deal was written about the Mormon militia, and even General Connor recognized the ability of that organization, if determined to do so, to destroy the command on the Wasatch front. Despite this knowledge, a considerable n u m b e r of lines were written depreciating Mormon preparedness. Both usually exercised caution and j u d g m e n t , although neither hesitated to engage in verbal combat. Editing and publishing a newspaper was not to interfere with parades and inspections required of all members of the garrison, and on February 29, , it was announced that the camp paper.

April 1 1 and 15, For other charges of disloyal statements being made by Brigham Voting and ohn Taylor sec issues of April 1 1 and April 15, Some publications outside the territory expressed hostility toward the Vedette. Sometimes these criticisms appeared within its columns but usually with an accompanying retort. Just a few months before the last issue of the original Vedette appeared, the Lafayette Courier of Oregon charged that the Vedette had "gone under.

T h e opinion of the Oregon paper provides an interesting contrast to other articles praising the paper. T h e Salt Lake Vedette, a Black Republican paper published at Government expense for the last three or four years at Salt Lake City, and which proved meanwhile particularly annoying to the Mormons, has finally s u r r e n d e r e d.

It has passed into Mormon hands, and it will probably be a long time ere another paper is maintained there at the expense of the taxridden, to spout radicalism and stir u p unnecessary strife among the people inhabiting the Great Salt Lake Valley. It would have worked a saving to the people of this country of a vast a m o u n t of money had the Mormons destroyed the Vedette office as soon as it arrived a m o n g them. T h e voice of C a m p Douglas was usually quite loud and clear in dealing with any controversy between the Mormons and small splinter groups in the vicinity.

Editorials concerning the Josephites and their conferences in contrast to the "Brighamites," as the paper chose to style them, continually recurred. T h e issue of April 11, , commented on both conferences, although the paper frequently carried the full text of the Josephite meetings. T h e paper also followed the Civil War, of course, giving in some detail r u n n i n g accounts of battles and military strategy. Great enthusiasm prevailed among the officers and men in camp.

During the following November the Vedette published a list of blockade r u n n e r s destroyed or captured from August to September Suffice it to. This order was carried out at Camp Douglas April 12, Two weeks before the election of the paper expressed sadness at having to say farewell to a large number of volunteers departing from the service. In addition to voicing regret, the following advice was given. Let your motto be Union and Liberty, and let your vote be Lincoln and Johnson.

T h a t you may each and all be prosperous and happy, is the wish and prayer of the comrades you leave behind you. In the election which followed in November, the Vedette recorded that of the votes cast by the Nevada Volunteers at Camp Douglas, were for Lincoln, with only 5 for McClellan. T h e following note entitled " T h e Young Ladies of Atlanta," came from a soldier in Atlanta who disclosed: T h e young ladies don't seem at all afraid of the Yankees, for they may be seen p r o m e n a d i n g the streets, well dressed, and many of them very refined and pretty.

I noticed a bevy of young misses dancing on the grass behind a very fine residence, to the lively airs played by General Slocum's band. They seemed to have quite forgotten the fearful carnage of the past month. Although finding many complaints about the internal structure of Zion, the Vedette usually afforded space for favorable comments from visitors upon the physical beauty of Salt Lake City. Such an observation from a correspondent of the New York Independent was printed in J a n u a r y His description of Salt Lake Valley is reminiscent of W. Prescott's dazzling description of the Valley of Mexico and the Aztec capital.

It is impossible to conceive of any sight more beautiful and refreshing than when the traveler having trudged his weary way for more than a thousand miles, with only sage brush to relieve the scene from stark, savage desolation, emerges from the deep gorge in the mountains, and for the first time looks down upon Great Salt Lake City. T o the right, twenty miles distant, the lake itself stretches far aw7ay to the north. Twenty-five miles across the valley of the Jordan is a high range of mountains, for miles, north and south the valley is covered with splendid farms; while at your feet, with its broad streets, and houses embowered in trees, is the far famed city of the Saints.

As you enter it, you observe a p u r e stream of water sparkling along each side of all the streets, from which each thrifty Mormon, as it babbles along, leads a little treat into his garden and a r o u n d among his fruits and flowers forming a perfect paradise of beauty. Seen in J u n e , as we saw it, Salt Lake is certainly one of the most delightful cities u p o n the continent. For the warm season it is far pleasanter than any building. T h e congregation numbered fully 3, in which women largely predominated. They were neatly but very plainly dressed; kid gloves were few, silks and satins were far between.

Hoops abounded in all their amplitude. At first, as I am told, the preachers denounced them very bitterly from the pulpit. But female persistency t r i u m p h e d as it generally does, and crinoline proved more potent than the thunderbolts of the Church. Among the apostles, elders and bishops on the platform were Heber C. Kimball, 64 years old, tall and stout, with bald, massive head and ruddy, sensuous face, and Dr.

Bernheisel, former delegate to Congress, slender, venerable looking with mild countenance, bald crown and thin silvered locks. Many infants at the breast were present, and all were permitted to quaff the water freely. T h e poor babies were thirsty enough, but it detracted a little from the solemnity of the ceremony.

N u m e r o u s issues of the Vedette recorded the progress of mining in Utah which the volunteers had helped to initiate, a n d articles bore such stirring titles as " H o for the Mines. Huntsville, Utah, is named for him. Bidwell was a California pioneer of and that state's most noted agriculturist.

Artemus Ward was the pen name of the noted humorist Charles Farrar Browne. Bowles was editor of the Springfield Republican Mass. He left Saint Louis when a mere boy and when that place was but a French village, in consequence of ill health, since which time he has spent his life among the Indians and has acquired many of their habits which, with his s u n - b r o w n e d c o m p l e x i o n , gives h i m t h e a p p e a r a n c e of a half-breed. He seems thoroughly acquainted with the country from Mexico to the British possessions, relating many interesting experiences attending his explorations of these vast regions d u r i n g a period of over forty years, which if written, would make a volume quite as romantic and eventful as any that have come from the pens of Cooper or Irving.

Even more incredible is the quotation, or more than likely the misquotation, from the Fort Kearney Herald which described the old mountain man Jim Bridger who was then residing at the Overland House at Fort Kearney as "perhaps sixty years old, fully six feet eight, raw boned, blue eyes, a u b u r n hair now somewhat gray , and very active and communicative.

T h e Vedette was no exception.

While one may smile at both the product and message of many such advertisements, the practical approach to problems of the day seems remarkable in its straightforward exaggeration. Readers searching for medicinal relief found glowing descriptions of Newell's Pulmonary Syrup; Dr. Miner's Wizard Oil for rheumatism, neuralgia, nervous and sick headache, sore throat, diphtheria, sprains, lame back, cuts, bruises, burns and scalds, spinal infections, and contracted cords and muscles.

Equally interesting is a quotation from the Montana Post. See Vedette of September 27, Miscellaneous notices which are difficult to categorize include objections to the "vulgar use" of opera glasses at the Salt Lake T h e a t r e , descriptions of scenery on the moon and vegetation along the Amazon, advance notices of the Young Men's Literary Association, and complaints that mail sent from C a m p Douglas was not reaching Nevada.

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In J u n e a dispatch from Julesburg, Colorado, noted that in the previous twenty days more than four thousand wagons had passed over the trail. O n July 31 the Vedette mentioned the arrival of a mule train with thirteen wagon loads of freight for Ransohoff and Company of Salt Lake City. Another train of forty wagons with merchandize for the same company was expected to arrive several weeks later. O n October 17, , the voice of C a m p Douglas described the old pioneer c a m p g r o u n d west of the city. T h a t lively place known as Immigration Square, or now, Corral, is thronged with trains and teams unnumerable.

Forbes' train of thirty or more wagons, were preparing to roll out from there this morning to Montana. It is laden with flour and staples for the subsistence of Virginia and Helena folks. McCann's train of thirty-seven wagons, and Overton's train of twenty or thirty more, got in here yesterday from Nebraska City freighted with goods for several of our merchants. Another transportation article excitedly listed a record stage time of " miles in 3 days, 12 hours, and 10 minutes" from San Francisco to Salt Lake City, including meals, delays, etc.

T h e last issue of the paper appeared on November 27, , four years and one week after its commencement. T h e publishing of the Deseret News as a daily at that time was a factor in the Vedette closing. T h e d e p a r t u r e of General Connor and his family for California may also have contributed to its demise. Financial problems were always present as well. Outside pressure for the discontinuance of the. Less than two months before the last issue appeared, editor Daniel McLaughin denied r u m o r s that he had been o r d e r e d to leave the city or that he had ever received any threat or personal affront.

He made it clear that the title of "persecuted editor" would not apply to him.

C a m p Douglas became Fort Douglas and lived on to maturity and old age. However, Evenson has stated that he intends any philosophical elements to be fully integrated into his fiction rather than promoting any particular viewpoint, and has argued that reading philosophical works directly is more rewarding than reading philosophy that is veiled as fiction. Some of Evenson's work explores his Mormon heritage, often from a critical perspective or examining controversial subject matter.

For example, the main character of The Open Curtain becomes preoccupied with a murder committed in the early s by William Hooper Young , a grandson of 19th century Mormon leader Brigham Young , while Immobility takes place in a post-apocalyptic Utah and features some esoteric elements of LDS theology. Nonetheless, Evenson has asserted that he maintains a measure of respect for devout believers in the LDS Church and does not intend to casually offend or provoke them.

Evenson's work has been compared to that of J. Brian Evenson born August 12, is an American academic and writer of both literary fiction and popular fiction, some of the latter being published under B. His fiction is often described as literary minimalism, but also draws inspiration from horror, weird fiction, detective fiction, science fiction and continental philosophy.

Father of Lies is a novel by Brian Evenson. This psychological thriller describes moral corruption in a conservative religious sect which shares some of the characteristics of the LDS Church. Father of Lies is written from three perspectives: from Provost Fochs, from his analyst Dr Alexander Feshtig and from the text of letters exchanged between Feshtig and his superiors in the church hierarchy.

Plot Eldon Fochs is a year-old accountant and lay provost. He is happily married with four children. Feshtig works as a therapist in an Institute of Psychoanalysis funded and controlled by the church. Fochs is persuaded to go to Feshtig by his wife, who has a growing suspicion that her husband harbours dark secrets. Fochs slowly reveals the contents of his dreams and his "disturbing thoughts" about children to Feshtig. He reveals two dreams; one when he strangles and dismembers a girl and another of a year-old boy. In the dream, the boy comes into his office and Fochs brutally sodomises him.

He frighten. Evenson is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: Alexander Evenson — , Russian chess master Brian Evenson born , American academic and writer of both literary fiction and popular fiction Dean Evenson, New Age musician and producer Jim Evenson, running back who played seven seasons in the Canadian Football League Tom Evenson — , English athlete who competed for Great Britain in the and Summer Olympics.

His written work spans and fuses genres, and contributed importantly to a trans-genre tendency in contemporary French letters. The game was released in October The player controls Isaac Clarke, a ship systems engineer who must fight his way through a mining starship infested with an alien scourge. The crew has been slaughtered, and their corpses reanimated into creatures known as "Necromorphs". Various types of Necromorphs appear throughout the game,. Black Clock was an American literary magazine that lasted twelve years and twenty-one issues.

Edited by Steve Erickson and published semi-annually by CalArts in association with its MFA Writing Program,[1] the magazine was "dedicated to fiction, poetry and creative essays that explore[d] the frontier territory of constructive anarchy. Produced by writers for writers, Black Clock encourages risk and eschews editorial interference. Delany, Mark Z. History Tyrant Books was created to publish books worthy of acclaim but less suited to large publishing houses, often because they are incendiary or avant garde. The magazine had immediate success and generated a following for the Tyrant brand, which benefitted Tyrant Books when.

Known as 4W8W or Four Walls, the company was notable for its dual commitment to progressive politics and adventurous, edgy literary fiction. Wood, Jr. History Four Walls debuted in the fall of , under the direction of two young editors, John G. Oakes and Daniel Simon. Simon had previously had an imprint under the.

Lovecraft, pictured in Weird fiction is a subgenre of speculative fiction originating in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This is a list of some not all notable writers in the horror fiction genre. Note that some writers listed below have also written in other genres, especially fantasy and science fiction.

Ballard — Nathan Ballingrud born L. Benson — Ambrose Bierce —? Its title character is a large-headed, childlike children's clown who undergoes one horrifying affliction after another. The story is a dark, humorous mix of genres and features scatological humour, sex, body horror, extreme graphic violence, and blasphemous religious imagery. Central to the plot are a man who cannot stop defecating; the head of a miniature, other-dimensional Ronald Reagan attached to the head of Ed's penis; and a female vampire who seeks revenge on her adulterous lover who had murdered her to escape his sins.

The surreal, largely improvised story began with a series of unrelated short strips that Brown went on to tie into a single narrative.

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Shortly after, Brown became unsatisfied with the direction of the serial; he brought it to an abrupt end in the eighteenth iss. During the first fifty years of the church's existence, —, fiction was not popular, though Parley P. Pratt wrote a fictional Dialogue between Joseph Smith and the Devil. With the emergence of the novel and short stories as popular reading material, Orson F.

Whitney called on fellow members to write inspirational stories. During the home literature movement, church-published magazines published many didactic stories and Nephi Anderson wrote the novel Added Upon. The generation of writers after the home literature movement produced fiction that was recognized nationally but was seen as rebelling against home literature's outward moralization.

In the s. Lists of notable alumni, faculty, and visiting artists of the California Institute of the Arts. He is one of the leading promoters of contemporary American literature in France. His translations in French include works by William T. Vollmann, Thomas Pynchon and Mark Z. Danielewski, amongst many others. References Wikimedia Commons has media related to Christophe Claro. Archived from the original on 24 December Retrieved 28 October CS1 maint: Archived copy as title link. The following is a list of novels based on video games. As with his first novel it is a tragi-comedy with an unnamed narrator dealing with apparently simple but increasingly sinister situations.

Plot introduction The narrator is spending a few weeks camping in the Lake District before setting out on a motorcycle trip to India. He agrees to help the campsite owner, Tom Parker by performing a simple chore, painting a gate. One thing inexorably leads to another and he finds himself drawn into a succession of disparate tasks, each more complex and time-consuming, and from which there appears to be no escape. Reception The Complete Review's assessment was that the story is "not entirely credible, but enjoyable and creepy", and noted that aggregated reviews from other publishers "enjoyed it, and some are very enthusiastic":[1].

Carey Harrison in the San Francisco Chronicle commented, "It's not out of idle amusement that the sweetly fiendish author has na. Underland Press is a publishing company founded by Victoria Blake. Victoria Blake is a writer and the former prose editor for Dark Horse Comics. Underland Press was sold to Resurrection House in September Antoine Volodine Antoine Volodine born is the pseudonym of a French writer. His works often involve cataclysms and have scenes of interrogations.

Des anges mineurs trans. Kalich was born and lives in New York City where he co-directs a film company[2] with his twin brother, Robert. Tales to Terrify is a weekly horror fiction podcast produced and owned by Host Drew Sebesteny. Former hosts include: Stephen Kilpatrick, who hosted from episode aired July 4th, until episode aired November 23, ; and founding host Lawrence Santoro, who hosted from episode 1 aired January 13, until episode aired June 27, Larry died on July 25, of cancer.

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Thank you for notifying us. The page you are attempting to access contains content that is not intended for underage readers. Paperback, Pages. This item has not been rated yet. Nephi Gass wants only to be a prophet of God but can't rise above pushing a broom for pay. He falls into the sign trade, and so his adventures begin as he falls in love with a woman who won't have him, stumbles upon a bottle of magical whiskey that gives him the gift of astral projection, and literally carries the ghost of a dead girl to Heaven, the journey fraught with demons and angels with which he must contend.

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