When most people think of American history, they picture the way events and changing social values affected the country on a national level. Each town, city, and neighborhood in America has its own piece of the puzzle to offer when it comes to the bigger picture. Step Back in Time with Images of America Images of America is an ambitious collection of chronicles that accurately capture the essence of what gives each American small town, neighborhood, and downtown its unique flavor.
Each one is penned by a seasoned local expert and features hundreds of vintage images, local memories, personal stories, and unique points of view in regards to a variety of iconic events. At present, the series encompasses thousands of volumes and counting. Follow the progression of historic Boston through an entire century of growth, industry, and progress. A reticent man, Bradley was first favorably brought to public attention by war correspondent Ernie Pyle , who was urged by General Eisenhower to "go and discover Bradley".
He was never known to issue an order to anybody of any rank without saying 'Please' first. While the public at large never forgot the image created by newspaper correspondents, a different view of Bradley was offered by combat historian S. Marshall , who knew both Bradley and George Patton, and had interviewed officers and men under their commands. Marshall, who was also a critic of George S. Patton,  noted that Bradley's 'common man' image "was played up by Ernie Pyle The GIs were not impressed with him. They scarcely knew him.
He's not a flamboyant figure and he didn't get out much to troops. And the idea that he was idolized by the average soldier is just rot. While Bradley retained his reputation as the GI's general , he was criticized by some of his contemporaries for other aspects of his leadership style, sometimes described as 'managerial' in nature.
One controversy of Bradley's leadership involved the lack of use of specialized tanks Hobart's Funnies in the Normandy invasion.
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However a later memo from the 21st Army Group is on record  as relaying two separate requests from the First Army, one dealing with the DD tanks and "Porpoises" towed waterproof trailers , the other with a variety of other Funnies. The second list gives not only items of specific interest with requested numbers, but items known to be available that were not of interest. The requested items were modified Shermans, and tank attachments compatible with Shermans. Noted as not of interest were Funnies that required Churchill or Valentine tanks, or for which alternatives were available from the USA.
Of the six requested types of Funnies, the Sherman Crocodile is known to have been difficult to produce, and the Centipede never seems to have been used in combat. Richard Anderson considers that the press of time prevented the production of the other four items in numbers beyond the Commonwealth's requirements. Given the heavier surf and the topography of Omaha Beach, it is unlikely that the funnies would have been as useful there as they were on the Commonwealth beaches.
President Truman appointed Bradley to head the Veterans Administration for two years after the war. He served from August 15, to November 30,  and is credited with doing much to improve its health care system and with helping veterans receive their educational benefits under the G. Bill of Rights. Bradley's influence on the VA is credited with helping shape it into the agency it is today.
He was a regular visitor to Capitol Hill and lobbied on behalf of veterans' benefits in testimony before various congressional veteran affairs committees. Due to his numerous contributions to the Veterans Administration, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs ' primary conference room at the headquarters of the Department of Veterans Affairs is named in Bradley's honor. Bradley became the Army Chief of Staff in After assuming command, Bradley found a U.
As Bradley himself put it, "the Army of could not fight its way out of a paper bag. After his initial plan to expand the Army and modernize its equipment was rejected by the Truman Administration, Bradley reacted to the increasingly severe postwar defense department budget cutbacks imposed by Secretary of Defense Louis A.
Johnson by publicly supporting Johnson's decisions, going so far as to tell Congress that he would be doing a "disservice to the nation" if he asked for a larger military force. In his second memoir, Bradley would later state that not arguing more forcefully in and for a sufficient defense budget "was a mistake On September 22, ,  he was promoted to the rank of General of the Army , the fifth—and last—person to achieve that rank. He remained on the committee until August , when he left active duty.
During his service, Bradley visited the White House over times and was frequently featured on the cover of Time magazine.
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In Bradley was elected as an honorary member of the New York Society of the Cincinnati in recognition of his outstanding service to his country. Parks stated that "Many who never lived to tell the tale had to fight the full range of ground warfare from offensive to delaying action, unit by unit, man by man Bradley was the chief military policy maker during the Korean War, and supported Truman's original plan of 'rolling back' Communist aggression by conquering all of North Korea.
When Chinese Communists entered North Korea in late and again drove back American forces, Bradley agreed that rollback had to be dropped in favor of a strategy of containment of North Korea. The containment strategy was subsequently adopted by the Truman administration for North Korea, and applied to communist expansion worldwide. Never an admirer of General Douglas MacArthur , Bradley was instrumental in convincing Truman to dismiss MacArthur as the overall commander in the Korean theatre  after MacArthur resisted administration attempts to scale back strategic objectives in the Korean War.
In his testimony to the U. Congress, Bradley strongly rebuked MacArthur for his support of victory at all costs in the Korean War. Soon after Truman relieved MacArthur of command in April , Bradley said in Congressional testimony, "Red China is not the powerful nation seeking to dominate the world.
Frankly, in the opinion of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, this strategy would involve us in the wrong war, at the wrong place, at the wrong time, and with the wrong enemy. Bradley left active military service in August but remained on active duty by virtue of his rank of General of the Army. He chaired the Commission on Veterans' Pensions , commonly known as the "Bradley Commission", in — In retirement, Bradley held a number of positions in commercial life including Chairman of the Board of the Bulova Watch Company from to Hansen who kept a day by day diary during the war  , appeared in ; a fuller autobiography A General's Life: An Autobiography coauthored by Clay Blair appeared in He took the opportunity to attack Field Marshal Montgomery's claims to have won the Battle of the Bulge.
On December 1, , Bradley's wife, Mary, died of leukemia.
He met Esther Dora "Kitty" Buhler and married her on September 12, ; they were married until his death. As a horse racing fan, Bradley spent much of his leisure time at racetracks in California and often presented the winners trophies. He also was a lifetime sports fan, especially of college football.
He was the Grand Marshal of the Tournament of Roses and attended several subsequent Rose Bowl games his black limousine with personalized California license plate "ONB" and a red plate with 5 gold stars was frequently seen driving through Pasadena streets with a police motorcycle escort to the Rose Bowl on New Year's Day , and was prominent at the Sun Bowl in El Paso, Texas, and the Independence Bowl in Shreveport, Louisiana in later years.
Bradley also served as a member of President Lyndon Johnson's Wise Men , a high-level advisory group considering policy for the Vietnam War in — Bradley was a hawk and recommended against withdrawal from Vietnam. In , Bradley served as a consultant for the film Patton , though the extent of his participation is largely unknown.
As the film was made without access to General Patton's diaries or any information from his family, it largely relied upon observations by Bradley and other military contemporaries when attempting to reconstruct Patton's thoughts and motives. Marshall, who knew both Patton and Bradley, stated that "The Bradley name gets heavy billing on a picture of [a] comrade that, while not caricature, is the likeness of a victorious, glory-seeking buffoon Patton in the flesh was an enigma. He so stays in the film Napoleon once said that the art of the general is not strategy but knowing how to mold human nature Maybe that is all producer Frank McCarthy and Gen.
Bradley, his chief advisor, are trying to say. Bradley attended the 30th anniversary of D-Day at Normandy, France on June 6, , participating in various parades.
Bradley was the keynote speaker at Pointe du Hoc , Normandy, France on June 6, for the 35th anniversary of D-Day, where in a wheelchair he performed an open ranks inspection of the U. Bradley spent his last years in Texas at a special residence on the grounds of the William Beaumont Army Medical Center , part of the complex which supports Fort Bliss. One of Bradley's last public appearances was as the guest of honor at the inauguration of President Ronald Reagan on January 20, Omar Bradley died on April 8, in New York City of a cardiac arrhythmia , just a few minutes after receiving an award from the National Institute of Social Sciences.
He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery , next to his two wives. General Bradley served on active duty continuously from August 1, until his death on April 8, — a total of 69 years, 8 months and 7 days. This was the longest active duty career in the history of the United States Armed Forces. Bradley's posthumous autobiography, A General's Life , was published in The book was begun by Bradley himself, who found writing difficult, and so Clay Blair was brought in to help shape the autobiography; after Bradley's death, Blair continued the writing, making the unusual choice of using Bradley's first-person voice.
The resulting book is based on interviews and Bradley's own papers. Bradley is known for saying, "Ours is a world of nuclear giants and ethical infants. We know more about war than about peace, more about killing than we know about living. The U. Two recent Bradley Leadership Symposia in Moberly have honored his role as one of the American military's foremost teachers of young officers.
While serving as a temporary lieutenant general in early , Bradley was notified that he would be promoted to permanent colonel with an effective date of October 1, At the time, promotions to permanent brigadier and major general had been withheld for more than two years, except for Delos C. Emmons , Henry H. Arnold , and Dwight Eisenhower. President Franklin D. Roosevelt lifted the moratorium after Bradley was notified that he would be promoted to colonel, but before the October 1 effective date. In determining whom to promote after the lifting of Roosevelt's moratorium, Marshall consulted with Eisenhower, and they agreed to promote Bradley and several others.
Marshall and Eisenhower then arranged the effective dates of promotion to brigadier general based on where they wanted each of the individuals selected to rank in terms of seniority. Bradley's date of rank for permanent brigadier general was then set as September 1, —even though this was before his October 1, effective date for promotion to colonel—based on where Eisenhower and Marshall wanted Bradley to fall in terms of seniority as a brigadier general. Bradley's and the other promotions to brigadier general on which Marshall and Eisenhower had conferred were not acted on until mid-October because Congress had to approve a waiver for those generals, including Bradley, who did not yet have 28 years of service.
As a result, his October 1, date for promotion to permanent colonel was allowed to remain in effect. When Congress acted in mid-October to approve Bradley's time in service waiver and promotion to permanent brigadier general, his effective date for brigadier general was backdated to September 1, The September 1, date for permanent brigadier general enabled Bradley to line up with his peers where Marshall and Eisenhower intended for purposes of seniority.
The effective postdated and then backdated date of rank for Bradley's promotion to permanent brigadier general—September 1, —thus came before the effective postdated date of rank for his promotion to colonel—October 1, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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United States Army general. For the American politician, see Omar Bradley politician. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. February Spencer C. Tucker January Archived from the original on November 10, University of San Diego History Department.
May 3, Retrieved on May 14, Kingseed, "Operation Cobra: Prelude to breakout". Military Review ; July , Vol. Eisenhower: A Soldier's Life. March 21, The Charleston Gazette. My own view of him [Patton] was that he was touched by the sun, as were Orde Wingate and Stonewall Jackson. Patton: A Genius For War. New York: HarperCollins.
University of North Carolina Press. Master of the Battlefield: Monty's Wary Years, — It had soul. The first year we battled to finish mid-table. In the second season we competed with Norwegian powerhouse Rosenborg until the final weeks before finishing third and earning a place in Europa League.
My players and I were proud of what we accomplished. I felt ready to take on another challenge. I went to France and took over Le Havre A. The team did well, but the last day of the season was a roller coaster. A mix of pride and disappointment. We finished tied with Metz for third place. The top three teams in Ligue 2 would be promoted to Ligue 1. We had the same points. The same goal differential. The next tiebreaker was goals scored. Every player pushed until the very end, but we fell one goal short. The night ended with supporters embracing players on the field. All those experiences led to my opportunity at Swansea.
The —17 season had already started at Le Havre, but I got word that Swansea might be interested in making a coaching change. I knew if I went there that I would be entering a tough — maybe impossible — situation. But managing at the top level of English football was the ultimate challenge.
I had worked hard to prepare for this opportunity. I had to go for it. As the first American manager in the Premier League, I fully understood how hard it was going to be to establish myself. Without the benefit of a preseason, the work to change the team would have to be done gradually. The key in the short run was to take enough points to satisfy critics and restore confidence with the players.
So I spoke candidly to them. We needed to get to work.
I have come to listen. To observe. To get to know you. For you to get to know me. To make you a better player and a better person. I have my ideas on how we should do things and what the team should be about, but this is about all of us. After 70 days with the club, I had dinner with the owners and the chairman. There was confidence and optimism that night following an important 3—0 win over Sunderland at the Liberty a few days earlier.
We had won a respectable eight points from my eight matches in charge and, more importantly, had two wins and a draw in our last four games. But in the week that followed we lost two away matches. The script was familiar. Playing from behind meant taking risks and opening up. Confidence dropped and we were not able to build on our positive results. My postgame interview after a 3—0 loss to Middlesbrough only made matters worse. By the time we returned home to the Liberty for our next match against West Ham, I knew the pressure was on.