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But as the Canaanites became powerful and stationary, the different bodies of the old tribes, who did not mix with them, probably fell into savage barbarism ; and hence all the names by which they were called in later times show that they were objects of terror and dislike, like the Ogres and Tartars of the middle ages. Og was one of these, Deut. The name Bephaim appears to be used in its larger sense, Gen. I xxv. The Anakim i. Their name became a proverb from the terror with which they had inspired the spies, Deut.

They were subdued at Hebron by Caleb Judg. If the Avim i. The Zuzims i. The Horim i. Seir, who is called the Horite, appears to have been regarded as the head of their race, Gen. The Amalekites, whose land is mentioned in Gen. The Kenites, Kenizzites, and Kadmonites Gen. We have no hint to throw light on their position, or on the race to which they belonged. These Kenites are generally distinguished from the Kenites who dwelt in the land of Midian, to whom Jethro belonged, and a branch of whom settled in the Holy Land Jud.

There are obscure but curious traces of the Zemarites or Zemaraim Gen. It has been the common opinion, from the time of Philo to our own day, that the meaning of the Bible history in the tenth and eleventh chapters of Genesis is, that only one language would have been spoken by the children of Noah had they been obedient to the Divine will, and that the existing diversity of languages is the result of the confusion of tongues at Babel. In order to make the narrative coherent, in accordance with this notion, we must suppose that the entire human race migrated in a body from Ararat to Shinar, and that they united in the design of building themselves a city and tower whose top should reach to heaven, and of making themselves a name lest they should be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.

But the several diffi- culties that are in the way of this view appear to have been more or less felt by all those who have treated the subject in detail, even by those who have been willing to accept the common opinion in the main. Com- mentators and divines, in different ages, have affirmed that the diversity of languages must be due to the working out of a natural law, in accordance with the purpose of God as implied in the formula used in the Table of Nations, that the whole earth was to be divided amongst the sons of Noah, every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.

Scaliger, M. From the shape into which Josephus has put the narra- tive, the extreme improbability of the whole race having been concerned in the building of Babel might well have occurred to his mind, had he not been enslaved to what seems to have been the common Jewish tradition. He says that Shem, Ham, and Japheth succeeded in per- suading the whole of their children to leave the highlands, where they had been tempted to remain through fear of another flood, and to come down into the plain ; that the ill-disposed multitude would not obey the command of God to diffuse themselves in colonies ; that it was Nimrod who led them to build the tower; that God punished them by causing them to speak different languages, and thus they were forced to separate from each other.

Now it should be noticed that the narrative of Map 3. If we imagine the tenth chapter to contain the account of what was the consequence of the event recorded in the eleventh chapter, we dislocate the order of the text. No such dislocation seems to be required to obtain a clear view of the purport of the history. In its proper place in this statement, there is a notice of the setting up of the first monarchy by a certain family of the children of Ham x. After the conclusion of the statement follows a narrative of the circumstances under which that monarchy took its rise, conveying a terrible example of the consequences of rebellion against the divine order — si.

According to that order every nation was to take possession of its own land, and to speak its own tongue. A portion of the children of Ham, who had come in a body from Ararat to Shinar, madly attempted to resist this, as far as they were concerned. They sought to make themselves a name, to set up a great central mon- archy and to build a lofty tower as a visible rallying point. But the chastisement of the Lord overtook them in the confusion of their counsels and in mutual misunderstand- ing.

The sinful confederates had now to separate from each other under a curse instead of a blessing. Those who remained with their half- built tower succeeded, indeed, so far as to found a mighty monarchy that lasted for ages : but it was the empire of wrong and violence with confusion at its root ; the enemy, not the point of union, of the families of mankind. After this wonderful narrative, the genealogy of the chosen race is resumed Gen. The sequence of the history, from the sixth chapter to the thirteenth, thus seems to be perfectly natural.

Philo, de Confus. Dei, xvi. Metro] , vol. Plate II. The chief names of natural features that are found in the Bible are shown in their places in this map. The colouring conveys a broad notion of the geological nature of the surface. The perennial streams are distinguished by continuous lines from the wadies that is, the water- courses that are dry for a portion of the year which are marked by broken lines. The section at the side shows the heights of the chief hills and table-lands, and the depths of the depressions, each of them standing imme- diately opposite to its place in the map.

The Peninsula of Sinai. But the name may with propriety be extended northwards to the coast of the Mediterranean, the peninsula thus defined being connected with each of tho great continents by what is strictly an isthmus. This region comprises two main features, — a table-land of sterile limestone on tho north, and a group of mountains of granite and sandstone on the south.

These are separated from each other, and are nearly surrounded, by a fringe of desert plain of sand and gravel. The table-land is called by the Arabs, et Tih, i.

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It may be regarded as nearly co-extensive with the ancient wilderness of Paran. It is described as consisting of rolling plains with a gravelly surface, inter- rupted here and there by masses of bare limestone. The elevation of the surface towards the south is from to feet. On three sides it is enclosed by monotonous ridges of limestone, rising to the average height of feet, which are called, on the west, Jebel BaJiah, and on the south ,Jebel et-Tih.

At its north- east corner it is geologically connected with the range of limestone highlands that pass through the Holy Land from north to south. The Mountain group on the south of the Tih assumes a triangular form, and consists in the main of ranges radiating from a centre. Several of the summits attain to the height of nearly feet. The two northern corners of the triangle are of sandstone and the other portions are of granite. A large proportion of the rocky surface has a thin coating of vegetation, consisting chiefly of aromatic herbs, that furnishes sustenance for the herds of the Bedouins.

Dean Stanley has given an unrivalled descrip- tion of this region in Sinai and Palestine p. It is doubted whether the whole group was generally named by the Hebrews Hoeeb or Sinai. It is called et- Tor i. Kespecting the ancient name, see note iv. The strips of desert plain that border the Tih and the Tor are what in ancient times bore the names of the Wildernesses of Zin, Sin, and Ethasi, with part of the wilderness of Shue.

These are, for the most part, covered with gravel and fragments of stone. It is covered with drifting sands like the African deserts. Dean Stanley has called attention to tho fact that the Pentateuch contains no reference to those sand-drifts which in ancient and modem times havo made such a prominent figure in tho narratives of African travellers. It would seem that a very small portion of the Debbet er-Ramleh was the only space of pure sand traversed by the Israelites. Two of the questions connected with the physical geography of the peninsula that bear upon the biblical narrative are those relating to the former extension of the Gulf of Suez, and to the former extension of the Gulf of Akabah.

In reference to the first question, it has been very generally held that the ancient Bitter Lakes, which are now only marshy tracts with an incrustation of salt and a few pools of salt water here and there, originally formed a continuation of the Gulf of Suez, so as nearly to meet the Bcdlah Lake, the south extremity of the Lagoon of Men- zaleh, and greatly to narrow the isthmus. The ground that was once the bottom of the lakes contains deposits of sea shells, and its surface is in places more than forty feet lower than the level of the sea at Suez, from which it is now separated by a very slight elevation, apparently the result of sand-drifts and silting.

The historical bearing of this view will be treated in the notes on the departure of the Israelites from Egypt [p. As regards the Gulf of Akabah, there appears to be no good reason to suppose that its extent has materially changed within the period of history [p. The Holy Land, west cf the Jordan. The great natural features of the land of Israel connect themselves geographically with the regions on the north rather than with those on the south.

The double range of heights that skirts the east coast of the Mediterranean, culminating in Libanus and Antilibanus, is interrupted for a short space at the foot of Mount Hermon by a plain that slopes towards the sea and is traversed by the upper stream of the Jordan, and the lower stream of the Litany, the ancient Leontes. From this plain a depressed strip, about ten miles wide, is continued southwards between two ranges of heights, with gradually increasing depth, and through this strip the Jordan makes its way.

The high- lands on the west are continued for miles, with an average breadth of eighteen miles, down to the wilderness of the Tih, with which they are geologically connected. Those on the opposite side consist of the same kind of limestone, but have in general a more fertile surface. They spread out to the east in the Hills of Bashan, and Map 3. The Arabah, the sunken strip of which we have spoken, reaching from the foot of Hermon to the Gulf of Akabah, has been pronounced to be the most remarkable depression on the face of the earth.

The Jordan, taking its rise in the slopes of Hermon, spreads out in the waters of Merom at the height of feet above the level of the ocean, and after about ten miles of rapid descent, it enters the sea of Chinnereth, the surface of which is feet below the ocean. From this point, the gorge holds its average breadth of ten miles, and the river flows in a course marked by sudden, short sinuations about a central line, until it is lost in the Dead Sea. The waters, which are fresh throughout their previous course, here feed the loss by evaporation of the saltest lake in the world, the surface of which is feet below the sea level, and the depth of which, in the deepest part, exceeds feet.

About eight miles south of the Dead Sea, the valley is crossed by a range of low cliffs, named in the map, the ascent of Akrabbim Maaleh Akrabbim, i. South of this, the valley slightly increases in width, and its bottom, as far as the latitude of Petra, gradually rises. Its eleva- tion in this part is more than feet, or according to some authorities, more than feet, above the ocean. It then gradually sinks till it reaches Akabah [p.

A notion used to prevail that the waters of the Jordan formerly held their course through the whole length of the Arabah into the Gulf of Akabah, and that a great convulsion cut off the connection by depressing the basin of the Dead Sea. It was imagined that it was at this time that the guilty cities of the plain were sub- merged, their position having been in what now forms the bottom of the south end of the Dead Sea, while Zoar was supposed to stand on the little peninsula now called the Lisan.

We have already noticed the arguments that seem to show that the plain, or circle, of Jordan, on which Sodom and Gomorrah stood, was at the north end of the lake [p. A strict examination of the country renders it more than probable that no great change has taken place in the relation in which the Dead Sea stands to the Gulf of Akabah within the period of history. The facts that we have mentioned regarding the level of the Arabah seem to show that no river could ever have passed through it from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Akabah.

Theoretical views of the formation of the Arabah are given by Mons. Lartet Bulletin cle la Societe Geologique de Finance, vol. Tristram Land of Israel, pp. There are no clear traces of volcanic action in this region, nor anywhere in, or very near, the Holy Land, except in the Leja, and its neighbourhood [p. The distinctions to bo observed between the limits originally assigned to the Land of Promise reaching from the Euphrates to the Nile Gen.

In the history of the conquest of the land, and elsewhere, we find the chief physical divisions of the Land op Canaan commonly recog- nised. In Josh. But smaller subdivisions are more fre- quently mentioned which more precisely accord with the nature of the land. The country of the Canaanites is described in Deut. Pieferenccs to the same mode of division occur again and again, not only in the Pentateuch, but in the later books of the Old Testament Num.

In some passages of the history, the Wilderness is also mentioned as a division Josh. We thus obtain the names of seven natural divisions, the positions of which, with a single exception, may be clearly identified. In the follow- ing enumeration of them, it should be observed that the first three names belong to sub-divisions of the Hill Region, that is, the table-land of limestone that runs from north to south, separating the Arabah from the low land that skirts the coast. The South Country, or Negeb was the ordinary designation of a well-defined region.

It has been very clearly made out except as regards its southern boundary and described by the Rev. The twenty-nine cities of the Negeb are named in Josh. The region of the Negeb appears to have extended from what is called in the map Mount Halak to a fine from north-east to south-west, commencing south of Engedi, which was in the Wilderness Josh. Map 3. Wilton docs not extend it further south than Ain el- Kudeirdt, in order to reconcile its limits with his view of the position of Kadesh-barnea [ p.

It was once the home of the Amaleldtes Num. The greater part of the Negeb is a dry and thirsty land, further removed from the fertilizing influence of the sea breezes than any other part of the Holy Land, and subject to land storms. These particulars are noticed Ps. The Wilderness Midbar , denotes, for the purpose of this division, tho wilderness of Judah, called in later times, the wilderness of Judina. It skirted the northern half of tho west coast of the Dead Sea. The six cities that it contained are enumerated in Josh. The desolation which marks it nearly throughout the year is but very slightly relieved here and there by a spot of scanty vegetation in the early summer.

The limestone abounds in caverns more here than in other parts of the Holy Land. The small number of cities ascribed to it in Josh. The Hills, The Mountain, and The Mountains, are the names in our version by which the Hill Country, the portion of the table-land extending from the Wilder- ness to the foot of Lebanon, is called. In the Hebrew, its name is uniformly liar i. A list of the cities in the southern part of it, the portion awarded to the tribe of Judah, is given Josh.

From the south to the north, the Hill Country gradually improves in fertility. The aspect of the highlands of Judah and Benjamin is very uninviting during a great part of the year. Masses of grey lime- stone on all sides push themselves up through a thin coating of soil, and the elevations have monotonous and unpicturesque outlines. It is not so much a region of hills as a gently undulating table-land cut into insulated portions by deep ravines.

The general configuration of the land is well illustrated by the representation of a portion of it on a larger scale in Map The season of spring gives some colour to the landscape, and the best of the valleys produce crops of corn, with figs, olives, and grapes. There are some few spots that may be called fertile.

But almost everywhere there are traces of the care and success with which the whole region was cultivated when the land was inhabited by the chosen people, and the blessing of the Lord rested upon it. Ruined towns and villages are found on every hill-top, and the hill-sides still show the broken-down terraces that once kept up the soil for the operation of the plough. Traces may be seen of ancient forests that have disappeared under the devastating influences of war and ages of reckless neglect.

The valleys that lead down to the Arabah are less savage and precipitous, and spots of verdure and plantations of olive-trees are of more common occurrence. The slopes of Mount Carmel have been noted for their park-like aspect. Beyond the plain of Jezrcel, the natural growth is said to improve at every step, and the valleys and uplands of Galilee, though they bear sad marks of decline from the condition in which they were when they were trod by the feet of the Son of God, are yet beautiful and attractive. The Hebrew is not incorrectly rendered 1 Chron. The Shephelah comprises the fertile region lying between the Hill Country and the coast, extending from Mount Carmel to the neighbourhood of Gaza.

It included the country of the Philistines on the south, and the beautiful district of Sharon which extended from Joppa to Mount Carmel in the north. A portion of The Shephelah was called The Land of Goshen perhaps from its fertility resembling that of the old abode of the people on the banks of the Nile , with a town of the same name situated on the edge of the Hill Country, the site of which has not been determined Josh.

The portion of it that lies north of Cape Blanco was never conquered by the Israelites, but remained in the hands of the Canaanites [p. In one place only Josh, xviii. The meaning of the word is a sterile, dried up place ; but whenever it occurs in the singular number, with the article, it appears to denote the depression which has been noticed containing the Jordan valley [p. The namo Arabah seems to be extended over the wilderness of Zin in Dcut. We may, therefore, consider it as the ancient name for the whole strip, from tho foot of Lebanon to the Gulf of Akabah.

But the Arabs call the northern part el-Ghor, and restrict the name Wady el- Arabah to the portion that lies south of tho Holy Land. Though the Arabah is named amongst the divisions of the Land of Canaan [p. It is not easy to determine what is the district that was called The Springs of Pisgah, or Ashdoth Pisgah. The word ashdoth means springs, or the places where water issues from the earth, and the name Pisgah seems clearly to identify the spot with the neighbourhood of the mountains that bear that name. But the western drainage of Pisgah seems to occupy too small an area to be regarded as one of the natural divisions of the land, co- ordinate with those that have been mentioned.

Might not the name have been extended over that portion of the Arabah, on both sides of the Jordan, which lies round the head of the Dead Sea, and which included the ancient Circle of Jordan? There is nothing said in the history of the conquest of the cities, either of the Arabah, or of Ashdoth Pisgah.

But in Joshua x. The East Side of the Jordan. The range of heights on the east of the Arabah are of a more decidedly mountainous character than the Hill Country of the Land of Canaan. References to this characteristic of the old Land of Edom are found Jer. It was sometimes called Gebal, Gebalene, or Gobolitis [p. The Hills of Bashan, called by the Arabs Jebel Hauran, attain the height of feet, and their western drainage waters the plain of the Hauran, of which the elevation exceeds feet. The remarkable district now called el-Leja is a table-land of triangular form, consisting of rough fragments of volcanic rocks tossed about in wild confusion.

This savage region is thickly studded with the ruins of ancient towns, which bear witness to the presence of a larger population in former times. There seems to be sufficient reason to identify el-Leja with Argob, a portion of the old territory of Bashan, ruled over by Og, the chieftain of the Rephaim. Yet, probably, the present state of Bashan and Gilead is just what Western Canaan was in the days of Abraham. Subsequently the Canaanites must have extensively cleared it, even before the occupation by the chosen people, and, while the slopes and terraces were clad with olive-groves, the amount of rainfall was not affected.

The terraces have crumbled away; wars and neglect have destroyed the groves, until it would be diffi- cult to find any two neighbouring districts more strangely contrasted than the east and west of Jordan; and this difference is simply caused by the greater amount of rain- fall on the east side, attracted by the forests, which have perished off the opposite hills. The area of drainage is about the same on each side, the ravines and wadys as numerous ; but few of the streams are perennial on the west ; all are so on the east.

Every stream draining from Moab and Gilead is filled with fishes and fresh- water shells. I never found living fresh-water shells but in two streams on the west side ; in other words, the brooks there are now but winter torrents. This simple cause has made east and west to differ, till Gilead, it has been remarked, as far surpasses Western Palestine as Devonshire surpasses Cornwall.

Lartct in the Bulletin de la Societe Geologique de France, vol. Plate III. The Migration or Abraham. Plate IIP, No. The situation of Ur of the Chaldees, the original home of the family of Abraham Gen. The LXX simply say, that Terah and his children came out of the Land of the Chaldees, without naming the exact place of their abode.


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The claims of four different spots to be identified with the city of Ur have been put forward. Two of these spots are in the lower valley of the Euphrates, and two are in the upper valley. It appears from inscriptions found amongst the ruins that its ancient name was Eur. The remaining vestiges of it show that it was a place of considerable importance in very early times.

That this part of the valley of the Euphrates, the south portion of the Babylonia of later times, was the original land of the Chaldees, is supported by the oldest recorded tradition that bears on the subject preserved by Eusebius, Prsep. Its name in the LXX. Accor- ding to what appears to be the true reading of Ammianus Marcellinus lib. It is the modern El Eathr, the name of which appears to represent the ancient Adur. The strength of its claims which have been urged by Pocock, Niebuhr, Ainsworth, and Stanley might be admitted if we could assume the upper valley of the Euphrates to be the old land of the Chaldees.

But the etymological argu- ment that connects the name of the province of Arrapa- chitis with Arphaxad, as the father of the Chaldees [notes on Arphaxad, p. At first sight, the migration to the Holy Land by way of Haran from Urfa, might indeed seem to be more probable than that from Mugeyer. But a closer examination of the facts seems to lead to a different con- clusion.

The position of Haran Gen. It seems that the spot has never changed its name, which takes the form of Charran in the New Testament Acts vii. It became a place of commercial importance, probably in very early times. See Stanley, Jewish Cli. It may have been for the sake of its trade that Terah chose it as his abode. Terah and his family, on then way from Mugeyer, may have crossed the Euphrates at, or near, Babylon, in order to avoid the hostile tribes of the desert and to secure a better supply of water and pasture.

Abraham may have re-crossed the river either at the ford used in ancient times, where the city of Tiphsah, or Thapsacus, was after- wards built, according to the track marked in the map ; or according to Dr. Stanley higher up the stream, near Bir perhaps the ancient Carchemish , where there is a ford to this day. From the Euphrates it would seem that he went to Damascus, and from thence entered the Land of Promise. SfwJr'm 7 iju Juuj.? It is likely that the residence of the king of Egypt at this time was Zoan [p. On his return from Egypt he again resided between Bethel and Ai, where he separated from Lot.

Limits op the Holy Land. The Hebrew word, rightly rendered river, is "ini! The same word is used Josh. There is no reason to doubt that the Irook or stream of Egypt as the word is correctly rendered Is. The true River op Egypt, otherwise called Sihor, i. In reference to Gen. But we may take with more strictness of meaning the words of Exod.

The promise as conveyed in these pas- sages was literally fulfilled in the time of Solomon, when he possessed Tiphsah, the old ford of the Euphrates on the north, with Ezion-geber and Elath, the Edomite ports of the Red Sea, on the south. The limits of what lay west of the J ordan, the Land op Canaan strictly so called, are given in a more closely defined manner in Num. The sites of many of the places mentioned in that passage are uncer- tain; but those which can be identified with probability are shown in the map, with the exception of the Entrance of Hamath, which lies beyond its northern border [p.

The eastern boundary was the Jordan with its lakes, and the Wilderness of Zin as far south as Kadesh- barnea [p. But it should be observed, that at no period of their history did the Hebrews possess the sea coast north of Accho, which continued to belong to the Phoenicians Judg. The sea coast from Accho southwards belonged to them after the Philistines were subdued by David. The northern boundary, beyond the limits of the map, the Entrance of Hamath, became theirs when David subdued the small Syrian kingdoms 2 Sam. In the map this mount is identi- fied with Jebel el-Mukrah, and the whole of the Negeb, the South Country of the English version, is thus included in the Land of Canaan.

But Mount Halak is placed by many authorities farther to the north, so as to make the boundary cross the Negeb not far from its middle. The question, however, is of less practical importance than it would else be, owing to the unprofitable character of the surface of the Negeb [p. The territories on the east of the Jordan, Gilead and Bashan, the regions of the Eastern Amorites and the Repliaim, were at once given by Moses into the actual possession of the two tribes and a half Num.

In this way was defined the Holy Land, consisting of its two portions on the right and left banks of the Jordan, which remained in the possession of the Hebrew race as long as the two kingdoms existed, and which was recovered after the captivity, under the kings of the Asamonasan and Ilero- dian families. But in the history of the Patriarchs certain fresh names are brought before us, which here claim our attention. The Kenites, of whom Jethro, the priest of Midian and father-in-law of Moses, was one, as they dwelt in the land of Midian, have been generally regarded as a branch of the Midianite stock descended from Abraham and Keturah Exod.

If, as some suppose, the Ethiopian Cushite woman whom Moses is said to have married Num. It may, therefore, be supposed that the old Kenites of the Holy Land disappeared after the time of Abraham, probably by fusion into other tribes, and that the Kenites of the book of Exodus were a portion of the Midianite race dwelling in the Sinaitic peninsula, to the east of Mount Horeb Exod. The Perizzites are first mentioned in Gen. In all these passages it would seem that the Canaanites and the Perizzites represent, in a general way, the aborigines of the land.

The Perizzites, according to the supposed origin of their name, appear to have been the dwellers in villages, the agriculturists, in distinction from the Canaanites, who were traders, dwelling chiefly on the sea coast and on the main lines of traffic [p. The position of the name in the map appears to be warranted by Josh. The Amorites had extended themselves to the east of the Jordan before the time of Moses, and inhabited the fertile region of Gilead with part of Bashan when they were ruled over by Sihon Num.

Hebron would seem to have been an Amorite city in Gen. The Hivites of Shechem appear to be identified with the Amorites in Gen. Jerusalem, which is plainly Jebusite in Josh, xviii. But this Kadesh was evidently not the same as Kadesh-barnea. But might not the three names, Amorites, Canaanites, and Perizzites, have all stood for confederations of tribes, each confederation being called by the name of its leading tribe? The Amalekites [p. The Philistines [p.

The Kenizzites — the Kadmonites — the Rephaim [pp. In the doubts that arise out of the notices of the tribes of Canaan in the Old Testament, the difficulties appear to be precisely of the same kind as those which occur in the early history of other nations ; such, for example, as that of our own country in reference to the names, Saxons, Angles, Jutes, and Frisians.

London Pub. Hitherto no one traveller has traversed more than one, or at most two, routes of the Desert, and thus the determination of these questions has been obscured ; first, by the tendency of every one to make the Israelites follow his own track, and, secondly, by his inability to institute a just comparison between the difficulties or facilities which attend the routes he has not seen.

This obscurity will always exist till some competent traveller has explored the whole penin- sula. The track which is marked in the map is, in the most important particulars, that which Kobinson has preferred. But such sites as will enable the reader to follow most of the routes which have been laid down by other authors are marked by their modern names. The entire route may be conveniently divided into four portions : 1.

From Kameses to the Bed Sea. From the Eed Sea to Sinai. From Sinai to Kadesh-barnea. From Kadesh-barnea to the Plains of Moab. From Rameses to the Reel Sea. This region was not only of great importance on account of its fertility, but also on account of its position in reference to commerce and traffic of all kinds. The most available lines of intercourse between the Nile and the western arm of the Red Sea lay through it, as well as the best direct line from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. On this account, from the earliest times since Egypt became a great nation, the country appears to have been intersected by canals, and the towns spoken of in the history of the Exodus were essentially connected with the canal traffic.

From the friable nature of the ground the canals required constant repairs, and when they were neglected for a time, their banks fell in and they became useless. Hence they were in several cases reconstructed with a greater or less deviation from their original course, either according to the judgment of the engineer, or in order to meet changes in the distribution of the neighbouring population.

Some traces of the old canals still exist, and their entire lines are filled up in this sketch map as nearly as they can be from historical testimony. A thorough examination of the region would probably bring to light other traces that have not yet been observed. The modem names in this index to the map are in italics, the classical names in common type, and the Scripture names in small capitals.

San — Tanis — Z oan. Tel Basta — Bubastis. Mitraniek — Memphis. Matarieh— Heliopolis — O n. Tel el-Kebir — Thoum. Abu Kesheib or Abu Kesheid. Bejum el-Khail. Birs Suez. Suez — Klysma — Baal - ze- phon. Probable route of the Is- raelites from Rameses to Piha- liirotb, assuming the time to have been more than three days. It was a great object with the Egyptian kings to connect the Red Sea with the Nile. It is nearly certain that, till after the time of the Exodus, the waters of the ITeroopolitan gulf covered the space now known as the old bed of the Ritter Lakes, which is a salt marsh with a surface in some parts from forty to fifty feet below that of the gulf.

Robinson i. It is likely that the portion of the gulf above the site of Suez was for the most part shallow, adapted only for the navigation of small boats and rafts, of which we know the Egyptians to have made much use. The changed condition of the surface has evidently been produced by gradual silting up near Suez [p. The earliest canal of which we know anything appears to have connected Heroopolis with the Nile, join- ing the river a little above the city Bubastis, the modern Tel Basta.

It is marked in the sketch map a a a. According to Strabo, it was constructed by Sesostris before the time of the Trojan War. Another tradition, accepted by Herodotus and mentioned by Strabo, ascribes it to Necho, theson of Psammeticlius a. But ruins on its banks prove that it must have existed at a very early period, and there is reason to believe that it was dug in the time of Osirtasen, the great king of the twelfth dynasty who must have lived before the time of Joseph.

If Heroopolis was situated either at Abu Kesheib or at Mulcfar [p. This continuation is marked b in the sketch map. It would seem that the Bitter Lakes had become dry before the time of Herodotus, most likely before the time of Necho. We may ascribe to him the portion of the canal dug through the dry bed of the Bitter Lakes, which has been traced in its south part by Pocock and later travellers.

Both Herodotus and Strabo say that the work was carried on by Darius Hystaspes : the former adds that it was completed by that monarch. This state- ment is said to be confirmed by the discovery of an inscrip- tion at what appears to have been the mouth of the canal near Suez. Herodotus describes the canal as wide enough for two triremes to row upon it abreast, and says that the voyage from the Nile to the Red Sea occupied four days.

It appears from this that the canal must have been in use in the time of the historian throughout its whole length ; but it must have fallen into decay before the time of Aristotle Meteorolog. We may in this way understand what is said by Strabo xvii. The canal continued in use under the Roman emperors. Trajan formed a new connection between Heroopolis and the Nile by a cutting that commenced at Babylon Baboul , sometimes called Old Cairo.

This was known as the Amnis Trajanus Ptol. The whole line from the Nile to the Gulf was restored in the seventh century by the Khalif Omar, and was in use for nearly a century and a half. The work of Necho included a canal from the head of the gulf to the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile Diod. Of this considerable traces exist. As the level of the Nile at Bubastis must have been above that of the Red Sea, the waters flowed towards the latter, except when they were restrained by locks. The desiccated bed of the Bitter Lakes in the time of Strabo became in this way filled with fresh water, and contained the fish of the Nile xvii.

But at the time of the Exodus we may infer that the shallow lagoons that then occupied this area were connected with the Red Sea by the narrow strait on which Suez now stands, which seems not to have undergone much alteration. There seems no good reason to doubt that the residence of the Egyptian court, when Moses was negotiating for the liberation of the Israelites, was at Zoan, the old royal city of the Delta. See Num. The tradition, expressed in Ps.

The neighbourhood of Zoan Tanis is noticed by Pliny H. It may have been on the shore of the Tanitic branch of the Nile near Zoan that Moses was exposed by his mother in the ark of bulrushes, and found by the Egyptian princess. Zoan is now proved to have been the Avaris of Manetho Jos. The Hyksos were driven out from the Delta by the dynasty that had ruled in Upper Egypt, to which the oppressors of the Israelites appear to have belonged. These words would be more appropriately spoken in Zoan, in its relation to Goshen, than in any other chief city of Egypt. Various opinions have been held regarding the situa- tion of Ii ameses, the city from whence the Israelites com- menced their march Exod.

Map 7. This view has been taken by Jablonski, Mr. Donne Smith's Did. Kurtz Hist, of 0. Ewald, Hengstenberg, Bunsen, Kiepert, Keil, Robinson, Stanley, and the best Egyptian scholars, agree that the approximation to the site of Rameses which is thus indicated, cannot be far wrong. The narrative seems plainly to set aside the claims of the other places that have been mentioned. We must certainly look for the site somewhere in the land of Goshen : neither Letopolis nor On could have come within its limits ; if Belbeis did so, it must have been at its south-east extremity, the part most remote from the direction which the Israelites w T ere to take, and from the places where most of them dwelt.

It has been inferred from Exod. This was the view of Josephus. Assuming that the host took nearly the course laid down in map No. The halting places between Rameses and the gulf are inserted in the map in spots which seem most nearly to meet the requirements of the narrative, if we thus understand it. But there is no positive evidence respecting the site of either of them. The name of Succotk, the first place of encampment, is put in the map.

This position could only be ap- proved on one of the improbable suppositions, either that the Bitter Lakes in the time of Moses had become dry, or that they were considered as a part of the wilderness. Robinson and Keil prefer to place Etham at the south extremity of the Lakes ; Kurtz, probably with better reason, at its north extremity, at or near the ruins of Serapium. Besides this, the narrative appears to suggest another objection to such a short period.

It is hardly to be imagined that Pharaoh could have obtained his information, and effected his arrangements for pursuit, within three days. But there seems to be no sufficient reason why we should adopt this limitation. There is a Jewish tradition that prolongs the time to seven days.

The text of Scripture itself would certainly allow of any reasonable extension. In the narrative of the marches of the Israel- ites two distinct terms are used, one signifying the breaking up of a camp that has been regularly pitched massah , which is rendered journey in our version in Exod. Now, neither of these terms is used in reference to the marches in Egypt. There appears to he nothing whatever in the text to hinder our taking Succoth, Etham, and Pikakirotk, as the places w r here regular encampments were made, without regard either to the time spent on the march from place to place or to the duration of the halt.

The critics who have pre- ferred some one of the more distant starting points on the Nile, have of necessity assumed a longer period for the journey. Kurtz, Yon Raumer, Ac. Rut it should be kept in view that the Tartar tribes are distinguished by migratory habits, and have their apparatus for encampment always ready. Moving from place to place is their normal mode of life. It was quito different with the Israelites in Egypt. They were not, at tho time of the Exodus, of nomadic habits. They had been settled in Goshen for many generations, and whatever care and sagacity may have directed their preparations for depar- ture, they must now for the first time have put to prac- tical test their arrangements for the march.

Larcher, and some of the old editors, so punctuated the passage as to make it signify that the canal which took its rise from the Nile at Bubastis, ran into the Bed Sea at Patumos. There seems to be no objection to this reading as far as the language is concerned. The im- pression, however, became general that Patumos must be the Thoum of the Itinerary of Antoninus, which appears to have been situated either at some ruins, now called Tel el-Kebir where Pithom is placed in Map 7 , or, according to some, at Abbdseh, a little farther to the north Ivitto, Kurtz.

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In accordance with this interpre- tation of the passage, Gaisford, Balir, and most other recent editors, have pointed the passage so as to express that the canal flowed out of the Nile, at Bubastis, near Patumos. Sir Gardiner Wilkinson at first followed the old editors, but has now altered his opinion. See note on Herod, ii. Lepsius, adopting this reading, supposed Pithom to have been at the west end of the old canal of Sesostris, and Bameses at its east end.

Egypt and Sinai, p. Canon Cook has applied to the illustration of Exodus what they and others have collected, and to his kindness we are indebted for such of the following particulars as are derived from Egyptian sources. That Etham and Pithom may be variations of the same name is shown by the facts that the Egyptian characters used to spell the words are exactly the same, except in the first syllable, and that Rameses is called indifferently in Egyptian documents, Pi-Rameses and A- Rameses.

Assuming, then, Pithom to be the same as Etham, it may be remarked that the words of Exod. The Hebrew verb rendered turn 2W, shuv , means to turn away from a course that one has commenced. The march of the Israelites had commenced on tho high road from Rameses to the land of Canaan, and had advanced to the edge of the wilder- ness [p. J The host had now to turn from the main road, and to march southwards, taking the way that skirted the gulf till they came to the place appointed for tho crossing. The particulars that have been gathered from very ancient papyri regarding Pithom and Rameses are interest- ing.

The name Pithom, or Pei-tlium, appears to mean the abode or house of Turn. The word Turn, like Ba, in Rameses, is one of the names of the sun god, but it is distinguished by more strictly belonging to him as the setting-sun, or the sun below the horizon.

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The city consisted of two parts, separated by the canal, but connected by a bridge. Near it was a lake abounding in fish, and some great reservoirs to which, on the occasion of a great drought, certain Edomite chiefs were permitted to bring their cattle. The city is said to have stood at no great distance from a royal fortress of great importance, called, at the date of the papyrus, Pi-Mernephtah, after the successor of Rameses II.

The evidence of the papyri is doubtful as to whether Rameses was as ancient as Pithom. It was certainly situated on the canal to the west of Pithom. Its full name was Pi-Rameses Meiamun. Whether it took its name from Rameses II. It was certainly a royal residence in the time of Rameses II.

All joys were contained in it. Produce of all kinds came to it from distant lands. No one, small or great, who dwelt in it ever spoke of priva- tions. In the time of Joseph it is probable that the land of Rameses was rich pasture, mainly in its natural condition, with but few inhabitants, often, it might be, visited by the wandering tribes of the wilderness; but before the time of Moses, ages of cultivation, and the thrift of the Israelites, who formed a large part of the population Exod.

It was in this state when the new king arose who knew not Joseph, and who was the representative of the Theban dynasty that Map 7. TTis jealous fears induced him to coerce the Israelites into slavery and so to bring about the divine purpose of leading them out of Egypt. From what has been stated there seems no room to call in question that the march of the Israelites was at first along the south bank of the canal upon the highroad to the land of Canaan.

Succoth, the place of the first encampment, was probably at a very short distance from Raineses. Although the Israelites may have availed them- selves to the utmost of the long notice they must have had to make their arrangements, the first movement of a vast mixed host of men, women and children would hardly have taken place without a careful review of their gear for the march, and such a review may have been made at Succoth.

They advanced, still keeping the road by the canal, to Pithom Etham , on the edge of the wilder- ness, where the road towards Syria was carried over a bridge. It is probable that a large number of Hebrews dwelt in and around Pithom. These could not have joined the main body, and taken their appointed posi- tions, without some delay. The supposition that the camp had on this account to remain more than a single night at Pithom, as well as at Succoth, is by no means inconsistent with the statement that their march was, for the circumstances, a hasty one.

If we adopt the prevailing opinion that Rameses was in the immediate neighbourhood of Abu Keslieib [p. It is most likely that Arbek was then, as it is now, dry land Robinson i. This would agree with the statement of Herodotus ii. From thence to Suez Baal-zephon the distance is about thirty-six miles. A different view has, however, been taken by some Egyptologers of the position of the two treasure cities from the one here given.

Following the opinion of Lepsius that Heroopolis is to be placed at Mukfar, Heroopolis is identified, not with Rameses, but with Pithom. Rameses, in this case, must have been situated at some spot on the canal to the west, and the Syrian road must have crossed the canal in the Wady Seba Biydr. Though our present knowledge may not bo sufficient to lead us to any very satisfactory conclusion regarding the exact site of either of the treasure cities, it is no small matter to be enabled to establish, on highly probable grounds, the identification of Pithom with Etham, and its position on the east of Rameses rather than on the west.

For this we are indebted to recent Egyptology. The situation of Heroopolis is a question of great interest in its connection with these inquiries. The Egyptian name of the city was Heroon ; but the Greek writers, misled by a fancied etymology, called it Heroo- polis. According to the LXX Gen. From the way in which it is mentioned in con- nection with the canals [p.

It must have been either upon, or connected with, the gulf that was named from it Strabo xvi. But it should be observed that the designation of the gulf by no means proves that the city actually stood upon its shore. The connection of the gulf with the city by means of the canal would sufficiently account for its name. In this way Heroopolis seems to have been sometimes spoken of as being upon the Nile 7 rpo? Our own use of the name Bristol Channel is a case in point. The city may therefore have been either at Abu Keslieib or at Mukfar, and the position thus given to it substantially agrees with Antoninus, who makes its distance from Serapium to be eighteen Roman miles.

Migdol i. But some, on better ground, would rather identify it with Birs Suez i. It must not be confounded with the other Egyptian Migdol mentioned by Jeremiah xliv. See margin of the English Bible on Ezek. In a curious papyrus deciphered by Chabas it is said that Pehir which seems to be the same as Pihahi- rotli was the place from which Baineses was supplied with garlands of beautiful flowers. The spot may rea- sonably be identified with Ajrud, now a watering place for caravans. Bobinson i. Baalzepiion was, according to Eusebius, the same as the Klysma of the classical writers Ptol.

It has been generally supposed by old as well as by recent writers, that the Israelites crossed the sea at the narrow strait of Suez, where the distance from one shore to the other is feet, about two-thirds of a mile. The miracle, therefore, is represented as mediate ; not a direct suspension of, or interference with the laws of nature, but a miraculous adaptation of those laws to produce a required result.

It was wrought by natural means supernaturally applied. For this reason we are here entitled to look only for the natural effects arising from the operation of such a cause. In the some- what indefinite phraseology of the Hebrew, an east wind means any wind from the eastern quarter, and would include the N. Now, it will be obvious, from the inspection of any good map of the gulf, that a strong N. Thus the waters would be divided, and be a wall or defence to the Israelites on the right hand and on the left. Nor will it be less obvious, from a similar inspection, that in no other part of the whole gulf would a N.

As regards the place of the passage, all the best autho- rities may be said to agree, including Niebuhr, Laborde, Ewald, Kurtz, Tischendorf, Bunsen, Iviepert, Stanley, and Davidson. Some few writers have, however, imagined that the point at which the host entered the sea was lias Atulcah , the cape at the south-east foot of Jebel Atdkah, about twelve miles below Suez, where the sea is ten miles in width.

Kitto supposed that they marched along the sea from the north ; but others, who agree w T ith him as to the place of crossing, conceive that they approached the Bas Atulcah by the Wady TmvdriJc, having started from Babylon or On. Yon Baumer, Paldstina, p. From the Bed Sea to Sinai. There can be no doubt as to the route which the Israel- ites took immediately after crossing the Bed Sea, but w T e are unable to determine with exact certainty any of the sta- tions which are mentioned in Exod.

They passed through the south portion of the Wilderness of Etham. In questions of this kind, between places with similar natural advantages, very near each other, there seems to be no ground for fair argument, unless the name may furnish it. More probably the stations, as enumerated, refer rather to the headquarters of Moses and the Elders, with a portion of the people who kept near them ; while other portions preceded or followed them at various distances, as the convenience of water and pasturage might dictate.

The host, according to the nature of the ground, could have passed only on the east side of Jebel Hummdm to the head of the Wady Taiyibeh Bobinson i. From thence they advanced to the Wilderness of Sin, where the supply of manna commenced Exod. From the Wilderness of Sin, three possible routes to the spot where the Law was given have been marked out by travellers ; and the positions which have been given to the intermediate stations, Dophkah, Alush Num.

Maps 7, 8. But essentially connected with the inquiry regarding the route, is the great question in the topography of the Sinaitic peninsula — Which is the true Sinai, the summit from which the voice of God gave the law to Moses? There are four heights to which this distinguished honour has been, with more or less confidence, ascribed by different travellers. The sacred narrative appears to require that there should be a mountain, or cliff, with a plain in front of it sufficiently large for the encampment of a great host.

There are at least three summits in the group which are said to answer pretty well to these conditions. But there is also a question as to the relation between the names Horeb and Sinai. The use of these in the Bible is puzzling. It is not necessary here to go into the matter at length ; but it may be stated that the general impres- sion of travellers and critics has been that one of the names belongs to a region more or less extended, and the other to the one summit in which the interest of the question centres. This view, on the w'hole, seems to present the least difficulty cf.

Others have supposed that each name denotes the mountain, but that Sinai may have been the native name used by the inhabitants of the wilderness, and Horeb the Egyptian one Kurtz. There is a quadrangular mass of table-land near the middle of the entire group of mountains, the length of which is about five miles, and the width about two. Its length runs from north-west to south-east. It is bounded at the sides by narrow ravines. At each end it rises into a summit, which precipitously slopes down to a plain of considerable extent. It is between these two summits that the suffrages of the greater number of critics are divided.

It is called by the Arabs Jebel Musa i. The name of the plain is Sebdiyeh. The spot has been described by several German travellers. Their descrip- tions have convinced Bitter, Kurtz, Keil, and Kalisch that this was the scene of the giving of the law.

There is not a single spot in the whole peninsula in which the topographical data given in the Bible can all be found united more perfectly than they are here. But Dr. It is rough, uneven, and narrow. The only advantage which it has is, that the peak from a few points of view rises in a more commanding form than the Bus es-Sussdfeh. But the mountain never descends to the plain. No ; if we are to have a mountain without a wide amphitheatre at its base, let us have Serbal.

Tischendorf, who, like Dr. Stanley, favours the claims of the northern summit and plain, speaks of the great difficulty of the approach to the plain of Sebdiyeh. Robinson, Dean Stanley and others, and its identification with Sinai has been accepted v r ith favour by the greater number of modern critics. It is called Horeb by the monks in the neighbourhood. The approach to it from the north is by the Wady esh-Sheihh, which opens out into the Wady er- Bahah, a plain yards in length, and yards in breadth, above which the mountain rises abruptly to the height of nearly feet. The plain is not quite so extensive as that of Sebaiyeh, but its surface is much more level and less encumbered.

The defile on the east side of the tableland is called the Wady Shueib, i. The awful and lengthened approach, as to some natural sanctuary, would have been the fittest preparation for the coming scene. He supposes that the encampment of the Israelites was in the Wady Feirdn, at a very considerable distance from the summit of the mountain. Robinson appears to have argued the matter successfully B.

It should, however, be observed that Jebel Fureia [Map 8], is situated with perhaps equal advantage in relation to the Wady er-Bdhah, and Dr. Stanley has remarked that the name by which it is sometimes called, Jebel Sina, is very probably allied to Sinai. No traveller has yet fully described it.

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Rephtdim has been placed by most travellers in the Wady Feirdn, not far from the ancient city Paran, which was the see of a bishop in the fourth century, and to which the wady owes its modern name. This would involve the necessity of our extending the name Horeh considerably to the north-west of Bds es-Sussdfeh Exod. They are not, therefore, inserted in the map. From this point, the regular itinerary of the route ot the Israelites, given in Num.

Assuming, on grounds that will pre- sently be mentioned, that the encampment at Kadesh- barnea was the same as that spoken of as the encamp- ment at Rithmah in Num. The first of these, Kibroth-iiattaavah, evidently appears to be the same as Taberah Num. It seems that the Israelites could have travelled northward only through the Wady ez-Zulalcah. The way by the shore of the AElanitic gulf, which is marked as their route in some maps, and is approved by Robinson, is asserted to be impassable for a large host Stanley, S.

That the march was to the north, in the direction of the Wilderness of Paran, seems to be clearly indicated in Num. We must therefore look for the position of Kibroth-hattaavah to the north of the Jebel et-Tih, and no place seems to suit the case better than that now called El-Ain, i.

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Edinburgh district : showing dates of opening of railways. John C. Eestimaa teede kaart : Estonia : chart of communications. Survey department, Egypt. Survey of Egypt. English Tourist Board. England and Wales : diagram of London, Middlesex and surrounding districts. Ministerio de obras publicas. Espana : mapa general de carreteras : general map of roads in Spain. Ministero de informacion y turismo. Esso Petroleum Co. Edicoes poseidon. RV Reise und Verkehrsverlag. RV Reise und Verkhersverlag. RV reise - unde verkehrsverlag. Panstwowe Przedsiebiorstwo Wydawnictw Kartograficznych.

Committee of Tourism. Exkursionskarte : 1: 50 : Map of hiking trails : Zermatt. Zermatt tourist office. Arctic Institute of North America. Explanation of the legend to accompany the general soil map of Ireland first edition. An Foras Taluntais. Explore Canada's Yellowhead : Western Canada's new interprovincial highway. Yellowhead Interprovincial Highway Association.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Faerdselskort : Danmark 1: : geodaetisk institut. Falkland Islands , : surveyed and drawn by No. Svy Coy. Royal Engineers. Falkland Islands base map, U. Misc Falkland Islands dependencies : D. Overseas Survey Directorate.

Balfour Beatty. Federal department, trigonometrical and topographical survey. Educational productions. Fermanagh local government district : map showing wards, townlands and the disposition of Irish grid , sheets and , plans : scale one inch to one mile : enlarged insets two inches to one mile.

Fifteen year comprehensive recreation plan for Columbus, Georgia. Department of Community Development. Scottish Film and Television Archive. Centro de Estudos Geograficos. Italian state tourist department. Johnston and W. George H. Beans Library. The American Geographical Society. Petroconsultants SA. Foreign trade in European ports and the inland transport network. Stockholm School of Economics. Winther and Winther. Forest Service, U. Department of Agriculture. Forth Bridge in its various stages of construction, and compared with the most notable bridges of the world.

Comissao Nacional de Geografia. Depot de la Guerre. France : Bartholomew international travel map and guide. France : route planning, journey times, alternative routes, motoring information. Recta foldex. American Automobile Association. Verkehrsamt Frankfurt am Main. Free city map and guide to Cambridge : issue 12 winter City Explorer Enterprises.

French railways : main lines; railways and road services. Freytag and Berndt. Freytag-Berndt Wanderkarte : Tourist map eastern Dolomites. Frontier of British Somaliland and the Frencg Somali coast. Gaia Books. Gal Oya Development Board. Galbraith Wrightson. War Department, Army Map Service. General Map of England and Wales: showing county boundaries, railways, rivers, canals, roads, and principal parks.

General atlas, containing maps illustrating Cover title: Cabinet Atlas General chart exhibiting the discoveries made by Capt. General highway map : State of West Virgina. West Virginia Dept. Department of Transportation. General map of railways : Islamic Republic of Iran and its transit corridoors. Iranian Islamic Republic Railways. General map of the Gold Coast and its dependencies and that part of Togoland mandated to Great Britain.

Mairs geographischer. Mairs Geographischer Verlag. Institute of Geography, Slovak Academy of Sciences. Danish Journal of Geography. Svenska Sallskapet for Antropologi och Geografi. Geographia sales managers population map of Great Britain incorporating the preliminary reports of the census. The Association of Japanese Geographers. Geographical, topographical and railroad map of California. California Development Board. Librairie Armand Colin. Geography of Ayrshire with coloured map and illustrations. Geography of Dumbartonshire with coloured map and illustrations.

Geography of Kirkcudbrightshire with coloured map and illustrations. Geography of Lanarkshire with coloured map and illustrations. Geography of Selkirkshire with coloured map and illustrations. Geography of the County of Berwick with coloured map and illustrations.