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Open Preview See a Problem? Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Contract of Defiance by Tammy Salyer. In a few hundred years, the Algol system becomes humanity's new home. The question is: Is it a better one? When a crew of arms smugglers botches their latest job, Corps-deserter and crewmember, Aly Erikson, is separated from her brother, the only person she can trust, and left behind to fight for her life. In the aftermath, as she tries to piece together what happened, a c In a few hundred years, the Algol system becomes humanity's new home.

In the aftermath, as she tries to piece together what happened, a crew of roughneck settlers pressgang her into a dangerous mission in the heart of Corps territory. With her enemies closing in, time is running out to get back everything she's lost: her crew, her brother, and her options.

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But no one is taking her gun. This is an alternate cover edition. Get A Copy. Published June 30th by Tammy Salyer first published April 11th More Details Original Title. Spectras Arise Trilogy 1. Other Editions 5. Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Contract of Defiance , please sign up. Lists with This Book. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order.

A freaking love triangle in book 2?! WTF is wrong with these SF series?! Bye bye Spectras Arise, I'm so glad I never got around to reading you. More space operas. This one was gooooooood. Contract of Defiance by Tammy Salyer Four and a half stars. They even decide who is human and who is not. Aly Erikson is on Obal 3 separated by her crew and being shot at with her brother David. In a selfless gesture her brother surrenders himself leaving Aly with time to run. Captain Eleanor Vitruzzi of the Sphynx has her own reasons for kidnapping Erikson.

Erikson has information that the captain desperately needs and will do anything to attain it, even if it does mean dealing with the devil. She knows what Aly was doing on Obal 3. Erikson and her brother David are part of a smuggling crew and while they were running a diversion the rest of the crew were stealing a holodisc containing plans for the Fortress, a space station.

The Fortress is a biological warfare research lab. Prisoners are held there and experimented on like lab rats. To keep it secret the Fortress was designed to be mobile, getting the coordinates was of vital importance to Captain Vitruzzi and her crew. He wants to steal the bomb and hold it to ransom. In Contract of Defiance you hit the ground running, thrust straight into the action and it never really lets up. Fast paced the plot keeps you reading chapter after chapter in order to find out what happens next.

The character of Aly Erikson is intriguing as she struggles with the choices she made in the past that bring her to the point she is at now. But for me Captain Vitruzzi really steals the book and makes it about her. Her duality of compassionate doctor and hard hearted captain make her a very compelling character. Contract of Defiance is part science fiction, action, mystery and all round excellent story telling. May 03, G. Jennsen rated it it was amazing Shelves: science-fiction , space-opera. Thrilling Roller-Coaster Ride of Military Sci-Fi Adventure I am generally cautious about novels written in first-person, especially first-person present narratives - but Contract of Defiance executes on it brilliantly.

It took only paragraphs for me to stop "noticing" the POV and start being "in" the story. One of the most difficult aspects of first-person narratives is conveying details about the larger world, but Salyer somehow manages to pull this off and make it look easy. Aly Erikson is one o Thrilling Roller-Coaster Ride of Military Sci-Fi Adventure I am generally cautious about novels written in first-person, especially first-person present narratives - but Contract of Defiance executes on it brilliantly.

Aly Erikson is one of the toughest characters I've ever read, male or female, all the more so because she's entirely unassuming about it. This is her life, these are her skills; she knows nothing else. Salyer's military background really shows in Aly's professionalism and military tactics and combat. But as compelling a character as Aly is, what truly intrigued me about this book was the larger story just in the background - a story of people fighting to not merely survive, but to live - live the lives they choose - under the thumb of a brutally oppressive regime.

I can't wait to read Books 2 and 3, because I can't wait to see these people rise up and fight for their freedom. Contract of Defiance is a thrilling, action-filled military sci-fi adventure. It's a story about loyalty, betrayal and impossible choices. But it's also a story about the human spirit. View 2 comments. David is captured by the Corps soldiers, Aly is kidnapped by a third party. This third party, Captain Vitruzzi and her crew, also wants the holodisc as it contains maps and coordinates for the Fortress, where some of their friends are kept prisoners.

This is where the admin develop weapons, and Rajcik is after one of them. This is also where Aly's brother is likely to be sent if the soldiers don't kill him immediately. This is a fast-paced, well written scifi novel, where Aly has to decide who she can trust, and who is more likely to help her free her brother.

Aly Erikson and Eleanor Vitruzzi are two strong female characters, as stubborn as each other, whom the readers get to know and learn to appreciate throughout this novel. They each have their reasons to turn their backs on the Admin. With 'Contract of Defiance' Tammy Salyer wrote an entertaining and captivating story with very likeable characters. There is great suspense throughout the book, intermingled with moments to relax with the characters while waiting for the next event to unfold.

In fact you might want to stay awake and read on through the night. Nov 14, Online Eccentric Librarian rated it it was ok Shelves: sci-fi , arc. Unlikeable cardboard characters, unbelievable science in the fiction, and odd logic holes mark this as too much a flawed indie fanfic attempt at a book rather than a diamond in the rough. Story: Aly is a kick butt female mercenary working with her brother when a job goes wrong. He is captured by the authorities and she ends up in an easy partnership with an odd smuggling crew.

When faced with betrayals all around, all she can do is curse and kill - a lot - to try to get her brother back. The thing about science fiction is that it's an imaginary world - you can pretty much put anything into the story and then shrug it off as "that's the future" rather than have to defend it.

But that doesn't necessarily mean you should; e. What Salyer has done is create a world where she can have a tough as nails female character but then neglected to really establish the world in any believable way. She transported a modern military woman to the future, gave the character simplistic fabricated situations so she can prove she's tough, and then completely avoided actually creating the science in the fiction. The milieu is as hollow as the main character.

The nitpicking below could be shrugged off as "hey, it's my universe, I can do what I want with it. And therein lies the problem for me - everything is so manufactured or forced just to create plot points or prove a point.


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It's both underwritten and overwritten at the same time. The outline for the story is this: kick butt heroine, give her lots of baddies to kill, let her mouth off a lot to prove she's bad even though she's in a dangerous situation and that should make it worse but doesn't , have all characters instantly fall in love with her or want to be her friend because she's so tough, and give her something to do so she can maim or kill everything in sight we have to prove she's tough! Would a girl born in space: a refer to distances in miles?

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We wouldn't measure how far we have flown from an airport in centimeters, right? Let's not get into things like saying to one's self that they are listening to a "Mid 21st century band called The Clash" Does anyone really think, "I think I'll go listen to a mid 17th century song by a bandleader called Beethoven? Plot issues include constantly being told that she's able to survive deserting the Admin army because their database was destroyed - yet she meets a character and he looks her up and gives her her military history in two minutes flat.

There just wasn't any attempt to build imaginative future into the future - it's all 20th century talk, lingo, tech. Really problematic for me is that this just wasn't fun to read. Firefly the TV series is a good example of making anachronisms work in a thoroughly conceived world. But this story wants to be Firefly so hard, it's difficult not to consider it more of a rip off than an homage.

Friendly captain, trustworthy but serious co captain, quirky hippy pilot, mysterious young doctor with hidden motivations and a history of human experimentation The character of Aly felt far too much like a Mary Sue fanfic. Everyone loves her - and even if they don't in the beginning, they start to soon after as they suddenly recognize her value in a firefight.

For no particular reason I can fathom since she is rude, has tried to kill several who smile it off later! All Aly's actions are trying too hard to show either that she is a tough girl or that she cares about her brother - and so none of her actions seem realistic or natural e. The only thing missing was a romance with a Nathan Fillion type character I guess he'll come in future volumes. So - the book has a lot of 5 star reviews and I seem to be a lone dissenter. So take what I've written in that perspective - you may like this a whole lot better than I did. There is a lot of action and Aly definitely gets to show she can kill and maim with the best of 'em.

Reviewed from an e-copy provided by the publisher. Apr 02, Steph Bennion rated it really liked it Shelves: space-opera , sci-fi. Marvellous stuff. This is proper all-guns-blazing space opera in the vein of Firefly or Blake's 7 , or maybe even Stars Wars , though thankfully it doesn't have the mystic silliness of George Lucas' offerings. The plot revolves around a bunch of renegades who all distrust one another but need to work together to pull off a rescue mission, all whilst trying to avoid another bunch of renegades led by a complete psycopath, not to mention 'the Admin' insert evil government trope here.

The first-pers Marvellous stuff. The first-person present-tense narrative took some getting used to and in first person you know the hero will live through to the last page, which lessens the impact of some scenes and some of the internal musings of hero Aly were a little long-winded, but on the whole the action kept up a cracking pace, especially towards the end.

A little bit of humour might have been nice to counterbalance some rather dark scenes. Recommended for lovers of action-packed science fiction. I plan to read the sequels Oct 08, R. This was one of the most well written books I've read this year. I don't normally read sifi, but I must tell you, the writing in this novel should overcome any reticence to grab a copy of this great read and dig in. Salyer is a wizard with language and the depth and richness of her apparent knowledge simply makes this a riveting read. You want pure adventure? You want depth of character development and place?

You want to be entertained non-stop? There is not enough wonderful to say about this wr This was one of the most well written books I've read this year. There is not enough wonderful to say about this writer. Do yourself a favor. Get a copy of this novel. Grab a glass of wine and settle back for a wonderful ride. And if you're anything like me Just a great read and a wonderful voice. What a delight! Congratulations to Ms. Kind Regards, R. There's enough space-based science to keep geeks happy while the action ropes in those who love a wild ride.

There's a good bit of mystery in the plot line and I don't want to give away any of the major points, but this is one book that will keep you reading. That there is a strong female protagonist who still manages to be relatable and very human, helps solidify "Contract of Defianc "Contract of Defiance" will appeal to lovers of science fiction and those who typically shy away from the genre.

That there is a strong female protagonist who still manages to be relatable and very human, helps solidify "Contract of Defiance" as a must-read sci-fi novel. Apr 12, Conal rated it really liked it Shelves: read-owned. What a fun and enjoyable story. Lots of action and some real kick butt characters!!! I really love a book that keeps you involved and interested throughout the story and this one really lives up to that. Aug 28, Ceri London rated it it was amazing Shelves: sci-fi , science-fiction , space-opera , speculative-fiction , scifi , military-science-fiction , military-action-adventure , science-fiction-thriller , military.

This is a well-written book, clean, with fast-paced action that rarely stops for breath and great description that doesn't fear blood and gore. The military setting benefits from the author's military background and there are interesting science and medical details science fiction readers will appreciate. Told in the first person a point of view I don't usually like this one pulled me into the protagonist's mind.

Aly Erikson is a hard-ass soldier-turned-criminal and a mixed up mess. When a job This is a well-written book, clean, with fast-paced action that rarely stops for breath and great description that doesn't fear blood and gore. When a job goes badly wrong and her brother David gets captured by the Admin, she wakes up in the medical facility on the wrong ship with a crew who has their own objectives. All Aly cares about is finding her own crew so she can rescue David.

The story that follows slowly reveals the political set up in this part of the universe providing a wide space opera backdrop for the rest of the series. Aly Erikson's development is great and distinctive for the amount of conflict she inspires. She's impatient, aggressive, and just so slow to work out who to trust with her loyalty. A romantic angle is understated and although I would have enjoyed more emphasis on this, the plot develops the relationship well. I loved how Aly got so many backs up, and connected with so many others.

She had to prove herself, demonstrate her true motivations by her actions and the choices she made. This girl has intelligence, guts, and grit. Language delays may contribute to poor peer relations that, in turn, result in aggression Campbell, a. The long-term impact of cognitively oriented preschool programs on the reduction of antisocial behavior is a more direct indication that fostering early cognitive development can play an important role in the prevention of juvenile delinquency Schweinhart et al.

It is important to note that since poor cognitive abilities and problem behaviors in the preschool years also. Executive functions refer to a variety of independent skills that are necessary for purposeful, goal-directed activity. Executive functions require generating and maintaining appropriate mental representations, monitoring the flow of information, and modifying problem-solving strategies in order to keep behavior directed toward the goal. Several mental health disorders of childhood have been found to put children at risk for future delinquent behavior.

Conduct disorder is often diagnosed when a child is troublesome and breaking rules or norms but not necessarily doing illegal behavior, especially at younger ages. This behavior may include lying, bullying, cruelty to animals, fighting, and truancy. Most adolescents in U. Many adolescents, in the period during which they engage in these behaviors, are likely to meet formal criteria for conduct disorder. Behavior characterized by willful disobedience and defiance is considered a different disorder oppositional defiant disorder , but often occurs in conjunction with conduct disorder and may precede it.

Several prospective longitudinal studies have found that children with attention and hyperactivity problems, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, show high levels of antisocial and aggressive behavior Campbell, b; Hechtman et al. Early hyperactivity and attention problems without concurrent aggression, however, appear not to be related to later aggressive behavior Loeber, ; Magnusson and Bergman, ; Nagin and Tremblay, , although a few studies do report such relationships Gittelman et al.

Another disorder that is often associated with antisocial behavior and conduct disorder is major depressive disorder, particularly in girls Kovacs, ; Offord et al. In girls, conduct disorder may be a kind of manifestation of the hopelessness, frustration, and low self-esteem that often characterizes major depression. For juveniles as well as adults, the use of drugs and alcohol is common among offenders. In , about half of juvenile arrestees in the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program tested positive for at least one drug.

In these same cities, 2 about two-thirds of adult arrestees tested. Data on adults are collected in 35 cities altogether. Of course, drug use is a criminal offense on its own, and for juveniles, alcohol use is also a status delinquent offense. A number of studies have consistently found that as the seriousness of offending goes up, so does the seriousness of drug use as measured both by frequency of use and type of drug see Huizinga and Jakob-Chien, In the longitudinal studies of causes and correlates of delinquency in Denver, Pittsburgh, and Rochester see Thornberry et al.

In addition, about three-quarters of drug users in each sample were also involved in serious delinquency Huizinga and Jakob-Chien, Similarly, in the Denver Youth Survey, serious offenders had the highest prevalence and frequency of use of alcohol and marijuana of all youth in the study. Nevertheless, only about one-third of serious delinquents were problem drug users Huizinga and Jakob-Chien, Although there appears to be a relationship between alcohol and drug use and criminal delinquency, not all delinquents use alcohol or drugs, nor do all alcohol and drug users commit delinquent acts other than the alcohol or drug use itself.

Those who are both serious delinquents and serious drug users may be involved in a great deal of crime, however. Johnson et al. Neverthless, it would be premature to conclude that serious drug use causes serious crime McCord, Whatever characteristics individuals have, resulting personalities and behavior are influenced by the social environments in which they are raised. Characteristics of individuals always develop in social contexts. Children's and adolescents' interactions and relationships with family and peers influence the development of antisocial behavior and delinquency.

Family interactions are most important during early childhood, but they can have long-lasting effects. In early adolescence, relationships with peers take on greater importance. This section will first consider factors within the family that have been found to be associated with the development of delinquency and then consider peer influences on delinquent behavior.

Note that issues concerning poverty and race are dealt with under the community factors section of this chapter. Chapter 7 deals specifically with issues concerning race. In assigning responsibility for childrearing to parents, most Western cultures place a heavy charge on families. Such cultures assign parents the task of raising children to follow society's rules for acceptable behavior.

It should be no surprise, therefore, when families have difficulties with the task laid on them, that the product often is juvenile delinquency Kazdin, Family structure who lives in a household and family functioning how the family members treat one another are two general categories under which family effects on delinquency have been examined. Before embarking on a review of the effects of family structure, it is important to raise the question of mechanisms Rutter et al. It may not be the family structure itself that increases the risk of delinquency, but rather some other factor that explains why that structure is present.

Alternatively, a certain family structure may increase the risk of delinquency, but only as one more stressor in a series; it may be the number rather than specific nature of the stressors that is harmful. Historically, one aspect of family structure that has received a great deal of attention as a risk factor for delinquency is growing up in a family that has experienced separation or divorce. For example, longitudinal studies have found an increased level of conduct disorder and behavioral disturbance in children of divorcing parents before the divorce took place Block et al.

Capaldi and Patterson showed that disruptive parenting practices and antisocial personality of the parent s accounted for apparent effects of divorce and remarriage. Thus, it is likely that the increased risk of delinquency experienced among children of broken homes is related to the family conflict prior to the divorce or separation, rather than to family breakup itself Rutter et al. In their longitudinal study of family disruption, Juby and Farrington found that boys who stayed with their mothers following disruption had delinquency rates that were almost identical to those reared in intact families.

Many discussions of family structure treat single-parent households and divorced families as the same. In this section, the literature on single-parents is reported separately from that on separated and divorced families because there may be considerable differences in the experiences of children born to single parents and those whose parents divorce.

Being born and raised in a single-parent family has also been associated with increased risk of delinquency and antisocial behavior. Research that takes into account the socioeconomic conditions of single-parent households and other risks, including disciplinary styles and problems in supervising and monitoring children, show that these other factors account for the differential outcomes in these families.

The important role of socioeconomic conditions is shown by the absence of differences in delinquency between children in single-parent and two-parent homes within homogeneous socioeconomic classes Austin, Careful analyses of juvenile court cases in the United States shows that economic conditions rather than family composition influenced children 's delinquency Chilton and Markle, Statistical controls for the mothers' age and poverty have been found to remove effects attributed to single-parent families Crockett et al.

Furthermore, the significance of being born to a single mother has changed dramatically over the past 30 years. In , Census Bureau, By , births to unmarried women accounted for Gorman-Smith and colleagues found no association between single parenthood and delinquency in a poor, urban U. Nevertheless, children in single-parent families are more likely to be exposed to other criminogenic influences, such as frequent changes in the resident father figure Johnson, ; Stern et al. Single parents often find it hard to get assistance Ensminger et al. If they must work to support themselves and their families, they are likely to have difficulty providing supervision for their children.

Poor supervision is associated with the development of delinquency Dornbusch et al. An analysis of children born in and in Washington state found that being born to a mother under age 18 tripled the risk of being chronic offender. Males born to unmarried mothers under age 18 were 11 times more likely to become chronic juvenile offenders than were males born to married mothers over the age of 20 Conseur et al.

What accounts for the increase in risk from having a young mother? Characteristics of women who become teenage parents appear to account for some of the risk. Longitudinal studies in both Britain and the United States have found that girls who exhibit antisocial behavior are at increased risk of teenage motherhood, of having impulsive liaisons with antisocial men, and of having parenting difficulties Maughan and Lindelow, ; Quinton et al.

In Grogger's analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Study of youth, both within-family comparisons and multivariate analysis showed that the characteristics and backgrounds of the women who became teenage mothers accounted for a large part of the risk of their offsprings' delinquency Grogger, , but the age at which the mother gave birth also contributed to the risk.

A teenager who becomes pregnant is also more likely than older mothers to be poor, to be on welfare, to have curtailed her education, and to deliver a baby with low birthweight. Separately or together, these correlates of teenage parenthood have been found to increase risk for delinquency Rutter et al. Nagin et al. Children raised in families of four or more children have an increased risk of delinquency Farrington and Loeber, ; Rutter and Giller, It has been suggested that large family size is associated with less adequate discipline and supervision of children, and that it is the parenting difficulties that account for much of the association with delinquency Farrington and Loeber, Work by Offord points to the influence of delinquent siblings rather than to parenting qualities.

Rowe and Farrington , in an analysis of a London longitudinal study, found that there was a tendency for antisocial individuals to have large families. The effect of family size on delinquency was reduced when parents' criminality was taken into account. Even in intact, two-parent families, children may not receive the supervision, training, and advocacy needed to ensure a positive developmental course.

A number of studies have found that poor parental management and disciplinary practices are associated with the development of delinquent behavior. Failure to set clear expectations for children 's behavior, inconsistent discipline, excessively severe or aggressive discipline, and poor monitoring and supervision of children predict later delinquency Capaldi and Patterson, ; Farrington, ; Hawkins et al. As Patterson , indicates through his research, parents who nag or use idle threats are likely to generate coercive systems in which children gain control through misbehaving.

Several longitudinal studies investigating the effects of punishment on aggressive behavior have shown that physical punishments are more likely to result in defiance than compliance McCord, b; Power and Chapieski, ; Strassberg et al. Perhaps the best grounds for believing that family interaction influences delinquency are programs that alter parental management techniques and thereby benefit siblings as well as reduce delinquent behavior by the child whose conduct brought the parents into the program Arnold et al.

Consistent discipline, supervision, and affection help to create well-socialized adolescents Austin, ; Bender, ; Bowlby, ; Glueck and Glueck, ; Goldfarb, ; Hirschi, ; Laub and Sampson, ; McCord, ; Sampson and Laub, Furthermore, reductions in delinquency between the ages of 15 and 17 years appear to be related to friendly interaction between teenagers and their parents, a situation that seems to promote school attachment and stronger family ties Liska and Reed, In contrast, children who have suffered parental neglect have an increased risk of delinquency.

Widom and McCord both found that children who had been neglected were as likely as those who had been physically abused to commit violent crimes later in life. In their review of many studies investigating relationships between socialization in families and juvenile delinquency, Loeber and Stouthamer-Loeber concluded that parental neglect had the largest impact.

Child abuse, as well as neglect, has been implicated in the development of delinquent behavior. In three quite different prospective studies from different parts of the country, childhood abuse and neglect have been found to increase a child's risk of delinquency Maxfield and Widom, ; Smith and Thornberry, ; Widom, ; Zingraff et al. These studies examined children of different ages, cases of childhood abuse and neglect from different time periods, different definitions of. The findings are true for girls as well as boys, and for black as well as for white children.

In addition, abused and neglected children start offending earlier than children who are not abused or neglected, and they are more likely to become chronic offenders Maxfield and Widom, Victims of childhood abuse and neglect are also at higher risk than other children of being arrested for a violent crime as a juvenile Maxfield and Widom, There are problems in carrying out scientific investigations of each of these components as predictors of juvenile delinquency.

First, these behaviors are not empirically independent of one another. Parents who do not watch their young children consistently are less likely to prevent destructive or other unwanted behaviors and therefore more likely to punish. Parents who are themselves unclear about what they expect of their children are likely to be inconsistent and to be unclear in communications with their children.

Parenting that involves few positive shared parent-child activities will often also involve less monitoring and more punishing. Parents who reject their children or who express hostility toward them are more likely to punish them. Parents who punish are more likely to punish too much abuse. Another problem is the lack of specificity of effects of problems in childrearing practices. In general, problems in each of these areas are likely to be associated with problems of a variety of types —performance and behavior in school, with peers, with authorities, and eventually with partners and offspring.

There are also some children who appear to elicit punishing behavior from parents, and this may predate such parenting. Therefore, it is necessary to take account of children's behavior as a potential confounder of the relationship between early parenting and later child problems, because harsh parenting may be a response to a particular child's behavior Tremblay, It is also possible that unnecessarily harsh punishment is more frequently and intensely used by parents who are themselves more aggressive and antisocial.

Children of antisocial parents are at heightened risk for aggressive, antisocial, and delinquent behavior e. Where a family lives affects the nature of opportunities that will be available to its members. In some communities, public transportation permits easy travel for those who do not own automobiles. Opportunities for employment and entertainment extend beyond the local boundaries.

In other communities, street-corner gatherings open possibilities for illegal activities. Lack of socially acceptable opportunities leads to frustra-. Community-based statistics show high correlations among joblessness, household disruption, housing density, infant deaths, poverty, and crime Sampson, , Community variations may account for the fact that some varieties of family life have different effects on delinquency in different communities Larzelere and Patterson, ; Simcha-Fagan and Schwartz, In general, consistent friendly parental guidance seems to protect children from delinquency regardless of neighborhoods.

But poor socialization practices seem to be more potent in disrupted neighborhoods McCord, Neighborhoods influence children's behavior by providing examples of the values that people hold, and these examples influence children's perception of what is acceptable behavior. Communities in which criminal activities are common tend to establish criminal behavior as acceptable. Tolerance for gang activities varies by community Curry and Spergel, ; Horowitz, In sum, family life influences delinquency in a variety of ways. Children reared by affectionate, consistent parents are unlikely to commit serious crimes either as juveniles or as adults.

Children reared by parents who neglect or reject them are likely to be greatly influenced by their community environments. When communities offer opportunities for and examples of criminal behavior, children reared by neglecting or rejecting parents are more likely to become delinquents. And delinquents are likely to become inadequate parents. A very robust finding in the delinquency literature is that antisocial behavior is strongly related to involvement with deviant peers. One longitudinal study reported that involvement with antisocial peers was the only variable that had a direct effect on subsequent delinquency other than prior delinquency Elliott et al.

Factors such as peer delinquent behavior, peer approval of deviant behavior, attachment or allegiance to peers, time spent with peers, and peer pressure for deviance have all been associated with adolescent antisocial behavior Hoge et al. In other words, the effects of deviant peers on delinquency are heightened if adolescents believe that their peers approve of delinquency, if they are attached to those peers, if they spend much time with them, and if they perceive pressure from those peers to engage in delinquent acts.

There is a dramatic increase during adolescence in the amount of time adolescents spend with their friends, and peers become increasingly. Moreover, peers appear to be most important during late adolescence, with their importance peaking at about age 17 and declining thereafter Warr, Thus the decline in delinquency after about age 18 parallels the decline in the importance of peers, including those with deviant influences. Consistent with this view, in the longitudinal research of antisocial British youth by West and Farrington , deviant youth reported that withdrawal from delinquent peer affiliations was an important factor in desistance from offending.

Peer influences appear to have a particularly strong relationship to delinquency in the context of family conflict. For example, adolescents ' lack of respect for their parents influenced their antisocial behavior only because it led to increases in antisocial peer affiliations Simmons et al. Patterson et al. And 6th grade association with deviant peers, in turn, predicted delinquency in 8th grade.

In adolescence, susceptibility to peer influence is inversely related to interaction with parents Kandel, ; Kandel and Andrews, ; Steinberg, Other research suggests that adolescents usually become involved with delinquent peers before they become delinquent themselves Elliott, b; Elliott et al. In those cases in which an adolescent was delinquent prior to having delinquent friends, the delinquency was exacerbated by association with deviant peers Elliott, b; Elliott and Menard, ; Thornberry et al.

The influence of peers varies depending on the influence of parents. In general, peer influence is greater among children and adolescents who have little interaction with their parents Kandel et al. Parents seem to have more influence on the use of drugs among working-class than among middle-class families, and among blacks more than whites Biddle et al. Parents also appear to be more influential for the initial decision whether to use any drugs than for ongoing decisions about how and when to use them Kandel and Andrews, Patterson and his coworkers emphasize both family socialization practices and association with deviant peers as having strong influences on the onset of delinquency.

Adolescents report an increasing admiration of defiant and antisocial behavior and less admiration of conventional virtues and talents from age 10 to age They also consistently report that their peers are more antisocial and less admiring of conventional virtues than they are. At age 11, boys report peer admiration of antisocial behavior at a level that is equivalent to what peers actually report at age 17 Cohen and Cohen,. Adolescents may be more influenced by what they think their peers are doing than by what they actually are doing Radecki and Jaccard, Not only may association with delinquent peers influence delinquent behavior, but also committing a crime with others—co-offending—is a common phenomenon among adolescents Cohen, ; Reiss and Farrington, ; Reiss, ; Sarnecki, Much of this behavior occurs in relatively unstable pairings or small groups, not in organized gangs Klein, ; Reiss, The fact that teenagers commit most of their crimes in pairs or groups does not, of course, prove that peers influence delinquency.

Such an influence may be inferred, however, from the increase in crime that followed successful organization of gangs in Los Angeles Klein, More direct evidence comes from a study by Dishion and his colleagues. Their research points to reinforcement processes as a reason why deviance increases when misbehaving youngsters get together.

Delinquent and nondelinquent boys brought a friend to the laboratory. Conversations were videotaped and coded to show positive and neutral responses by the partner. Among the delinquent pairs, misbehavior received approving responses—in contrast with the nondelinquent dyads, who ignored talk about deviance Dishion et al. In addition, reinforcement of deviant talk was associated with violent behavior, even after statistically controlling the boys ' histories of antisocial behavior and parental use of harsh, inconsistent, and coercive discipline Dishion et al.

The powerful influence of peers has probably not been adequately acknowledged in interventions designed to reduce delinquency and antisocial behavior. Regarding school-based interventions, among the least effective, and at times harmful, are those that aggregate deviant youth without adult supervision, such as in peer counseling and peer mediation Gottfredson et al.

Furthermore, high-risk youth are particularly likely to support and reinforce one another 's deviant behavior e. They argued that youth who are reinforced for deviancy through laughter or attention, for example, are more likely to actually engage in deviant behavior. It is evident that intervenors need to give serious attention to the composition of treatment groups, especially in school settings. It may be more fruitful to construct intervention groups so that low- and moderate-risk youth are included with their high-risk counterparts to minimize the possibility of deviancy training and harmful intervention effects.

Studies of gang participants suggest that, compared with offenders who are not gang members, gang offenders tend to be younger when they begin their criminal careers, are more likely to be violent in public places, and are more likely to use guns Maxson et al. Several studies have shown that gang membership is associated with high rates of criminal activities e. These and other studies e. The heightened criminality and violence of gang members seem not to be reducible to selection.

That is, gang members do tend to be more active criminals prior to joining a gang than are their nonjoining, even delinquent peers. During periods of gang participation, however, gang members are more criminally active and more frequently violent than they were either before joining or after leaving gangs. Furthermore, some evidence suggests that gang membership had the greatest effects on those who had not previously committed crimes Zhang et al. The literature on gang participation, however, does not go much beyond suggesting that there is a process that facilitates antisocial, often violent, behavior.

Norms and pressure to conform to deviant values have been suggested as mechanisms. How and why these are effective has received little attention. Delinquency is associated with poor school performance, truancy, and leaving school at a young age Elliott et al. To what extent do school policies contribute to these outcomes for high-risk youngsters? This section outlines what is known about the effects of some of the major school policies that have a particular impact on adolescent delinquents and those at risk for delinquency. The topics covered are grade retention, suspension, and expulsion as disciplinary techniques and academic tracking.

These are complex topics about which there is a large literature. This section does not attempt to summarize that literature, but rather to highlight issues that appear to affect juvenile criminality. Grade retention refers to the practice of not promoting students to the next grade level upon completion of the current grade at the end of the. Low academic achievement is the most frequent reason given by teachers who recommend retention for their students Jimerson et al. There is no precise national estimate of the number of youths who experience grade retention, but the practice was widespread in the s.

Contrary to the public perception that few students fail a grade Westbury, , it is estimated that approximately 15 to 19 percent of students experience grade retention. Despite the intuitive appeal of retention as a mechanism for improving student performance, the retention literature overwhelmingly concludes that it is not as effective as promotion.

Smith and Shepard summarize the effects of grade retention as follows:. The consistent conclusion of reviews is that children make progress during the year in which they repeat a grade, but not as much progress as similar children who were promoted. In controlled studies of the effect of nonpromotion on both achievement and personal adjustment, children who repeat a grade are worse off than comparable children who are promoted with their age-mates.

Contrary to popular belief, the average negative effect of retention on achievement is even greater than the negative effect on emotional adjustment and self-concept. Aside from the effectiveness issue, there are other negative consequences of retention. Retention increases the cost of educating a pupil Smith and Shepard, According to Smith and Shepard , alternatives to retention, such as tutoring and summer school, are both more effective and less costly.

Retention has negative effects on the emotional adjustment of retainees. For example, Yamamoto and Byrnes reported that next to blindness and the death of a parent, children rated the prospect of retention as the most stressful event they could suffer. There is a consistent relationship between retention and school dropout Roderick, ; Shepard and Smith, Dropouts are five times more likely to have repeated a grade than nondropouts, and students who repeat two grades have nearly a percent probability of dropping out.

Finally, there are issues of fairness and equity, in that males and ethnic minority children are more likely to be retained Jimerson et al. Unlike grade retention, which is a school policy primarily for young children in the early elementary grades who display academic problems,. Both suspension and expulsion are forms of school exclusion, with the latter being presumably reserved for the most serious offenses.

Supporters of suspension argue that, like any other disciplinary action, suspension reduces the likelihood of misbehavior for the period immediately after suspension and that it can serve as a deterrent to other potentially misbehaving students. Opponents of suspension view the consequences of this disciplinary action as far outweighing any potential benefits. Some of the consequences cited include loss of self-respect, increased chances of coming into contact with a delinquent subculture, the vicious cyclical effects of being unable to catch up with schoolwork, and the stigma associated with suspension once the target child returns to school Williams, Furthermore, most investigations of school suspensions have found that serious disciplinary problems are quite rarely the cause of suspension Cottle, ; Kaeser, ; McFadden et al.

The majority of suspensions in districts with high suspension rates are for behavior that is not threatening or serious. The probability of being suspended is unequal among students. Urban students have the highest suspension rates, suburban students have the second highest rates, and rural school students have the lowest rates Wu et al. Suspension rates also vary according to sex, race, socioeconomic background, and family characteristics. Male students in every kind of school and education level are about three times more likely to be suspended as females. Suspension rates also vary by race.

Statistics indicate that minority students are suspended disproportionately compared with their share in the population and their share of misbehavior, and these racial disparities have the greatest impact on black students; their rate of suspension is over twice that of other ethnic groups, including whites, Hispanics, and Asians Williams, Furthermore, black students are likely to receive more severe forms of suspension than other students, even for similar behaviors requiring disciplinary action.

In one study, for example, white students were more likely to receive in-school suspension than out-of-school suspension, whereas the reverse pattern was true for black students who had violated school rules McFadden et al. This inequality in treatment exists even when factors such as poverty, behavior and attitudes, academic performance, parental attention, and school governance are considered.

Students at the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum tend to be more frequently suspended. Many suspended students come from single-parent families in which the parent had less than a 10th grade education. Wu et al. Low-ability students are suspended more than expected, given the number of incidents of misbehavior attributed to them.

According to Wu et al.

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If a student's academic performance is below average, the probability of being suspended increases. And if a school places considerable emphasis on the academic ability of its students, the probability of suspension increases. Although there is not very much recent empirical research on the effects of school suspension, it appears to be especially detrimental to low-achieving students who may misbehave because they are doing poorly in school. Nor does suspension appear to reduce the behavior it is designed to punish. For example, McFadden et al. Less than 1 percent of disciplined youngsters were one-time offenders, 75 percent were cited for one to five subsequent events during the school year, and 25 percent engaged in more than five serious misbehaviors.

There appear to be clear biases in the use of suspension as a disciplinary action, with black students more likely to be the target of this bias. In the McFadden et al. However, it was the black students who were disproportionately more likely to receive the most severe sanctions, including corporal punishment and out-of-school suspension. Additionally, In sum, the literature reveals that school suspension is academically detrimental, does not contribute to a modification of misbehavior, and is disproportionately experienced by black males, among students who misbehave.

In recent years, expulsion has become a part of the debate on school discipline that has accompanied the rising concern about school violence, particularly that related to weapons possession and increasingly defiant, aggressive behavior by students in school. One result of this debate has been what Morrison et al. In California, for example, principals and superintendents are legally obligated to recommend expulsion from the school district for any.

Such a policy may be expected to increase expulsion given that school officials are required to recommend it in these cases. Characteristics of children who are expelled parallel those of children who are suspended from school. Students who are expelled tend to be in grades 8 through 12 Bain and MacPherson, ; Hayden and Ward, Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews.

1 Introduction

Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. A freaking love triangle in book 2?! WTF is wrong with these SF series?! Bye bye Spectras Arise, I'm so glad I never got around to reading you. More space operas. This one was gooooooood. Contract of Defiance by Tammy Salyer Four and a half stars.

They even decide who is human and who is not. Aly Erikson is on Obal 3 separated by her crew and being shot at with her brother David. In a selfless gesture her brother surrenders himself leaving Aly with time to run. Captain Eleanor Vitruzzi of the Sphynx has her own reasons for kidnapping Erikson. Erikson has information that the captain desperately needs and will do anything to attain it, even if it does mean dealing with the devil.

She knows what Aly was doing on Obal 3. Erikson and her brother David are part of a smuggling crew and while they were running a diversion the rest of the crew were stealing a holodisc containing plans for the Fortress, a space station. The Fortress is a biological warfare research lab. Prisoners are held there and experimented on like lab rats. To keep it secret the Fortress was designed to be mobile, getting the coordinates was of vital importance to Captain Vitruzzi and her crew. He wants to steal the bomb and hold it to ransom.

In Contract of Defiance you hit the ground running, thrust straight into the action and it never really lets up. Fast paced the plot keeps you reading chapter after chapter in order to find out what happens next. The character of Aly Erikson is intriguing as she struggles with the choices she made in the past that bring her to the point she is at now. But for me Captain Vitruzzi really steals the book and makes it about her. Her duality of compassionate doctor and hard hearted captain make her a very compelling character. Contract of Defiance is part science fiction, action, mystery and all round excellent story telling.

May 03, G. Thrilling Roller-Coaster Ride of Military Sci-Fi Adventure I am generally cautious about novels written in first-person, especially first-person present narratives - but Contract of Defiance executes on it brilliantly. It took only paragraphs for me to stop "noticing" the POV and start being "in" the story. One of the most difficult aspects of first-person narratives is conveying details about the larger world, but Salyer somehow manages to pull this off and make it look easy.

Aly Erikson is one o Thrilling Roller-Coaster Ride of Military Sci-Fi Adventure I am generally cautious about novels written in first-person, especially first-person present narratives - but Contract of Defiance executes on it brilliantly. Aly Erikson is one of the toughest characters I've ever read, male or female, all the more so because she's entirely unassuming about it. This is her life, these are her skills; she knows nothing else. Salyer's military background really shows in Aly's professionalism and military tactics and combat. But as compelling a character as Aly is, what truly intrigued me about this book was the larger story just in the background - a story of people fighting to not merely survive, but to live - live the lives they choose - under the thumb of a brutally oppressive regime.

I can't wait to read Books 2 and 3, because I can't wait to see these people rise up and fight for their freedom. Contract of Defiance is a thrilling, action-filled military sci-fi adventure. It's a story about loyalty, betrayal and impossible choices. But it's also a story about the human spirit. View 2 comments. David is captured by the Corps soldiers, Aly is kidnapped by a third party. This third party, Captain Vitruzzi and her crew, also wants the holodisc as it contains maps and coordinates for the Fortress, where some of their friends are kept prisoners.

This is where the admin develop weapons, and Rajcik is after one of them. This is also where Aly's brother is likely to be sent if the soldiers don't kill him immediately. This is a fast-paced, well written scifi novel, where Aly has to decide who she can trust, and who is more likely to help her free her brother. Aly Erikson and Eleanor Vitruzzi are two strong female characters, as stubborn as each other, whom the readers get to know and learn to appreciate throughout this novel.

They each have their reasons to turn their backs on the Admin. With 'Contract of Defiance' Tammy Salyer wrote an entertaining and captivating story with very likeable characters. There is great suspense throughout the book, intermingled with moments to relax with the characters while waiting for the next event to unfold. In fact you might want to stay awake and read on through the night. Unlikeable cardboard characters, unbelievable science in the fiction, and odd logic holes mark this as too much a flawed indie fanfic attempt at a book rather than a diamond in the rough.

Story: Aly is a kick butt female mercenary working with her brother when a job goes wrong. He is captured by the authorities and she ends up in an easy partnership with an odd smuggling crew. When faced with betrayals all around, all she can do is curse and kill - a lot - to try to get her brother back. The thing about science fiction is that it's an imaginary world - you can pretty much put anything into the story and then shrug it off as "that's the future" rather than have to defend it.

But that doesn't necessarily mean you should; e. What Salyer has done is create a world where she can have a tough as nails female character but then neglected to really establish the world in any believable way. She transported a modern military woman to the future, gave the character simplistic fabricated situations so she can prove she's tough, and then completely avoided actually creating the science in the fiction.

The milieu is as hollow as the main character. The nitpicking below could be shrugged off as "hey, it's my universe, I can do what I want with it. And therein lies the problem for me - everything is so manufactured or forced just to create plot points or prove a point. It's both underwritten and overwritten at the same time. The outline for the story is this: kick butt heroine, give her lots of baddies to kill, let her mouth off a lot to prove she's bad even though she's in a dangerous situation and that should make it worse but doesn't , have all characters instantly fall in love with her or want to be her friend because she's so tough, and give her something to do so she can maim or kill everything in sight we have to prove she's tough!

Would a girl born in space: a refer to distances in miles? We wouldn't measure how far we have flown from an airport in centimeters, right? Let's not get into things like saying to one's self that they are listening to a "Mid 21st century band called The Clash" Does anyone really think, "I think I'll go listen to a mid 17th century song by a bandleader called Beethoven? Plot issues include constantly being told that she's able to survive deserting the Admin army because their database was destroyed - yet she meets a character and he looks her up and gives her her military history in two minutes flat.

There just wasn't any attempt to build imaginative future into the future - it's all 20th century talk, lingo, tech. Really problematic for me is that this just wasn't fun to read. Firefly the TV series is a good example of making anachronisms work in a thoroughly conceived world. But this story wants to be Firefly so hard, it's difficult not to consider it more of a rip off than an homage. Friendly captain, trustworthy but serious co captain, quirky hippy pilot, mysterious young doctor with hidden motivations and a history of human experimentation The character of Aly felt far too much like a Mary Sue fanfic.

Everyone loves her - and even if they don't in the beginning, they start to soon after as they suddenly recognize her value in a firefight. For no particular reason I can fathom since she is rude, has tried to kill several who smile it off later! All Aly's actions are trying too hard to show either that she is a tough girl or that she cares about her brother - and so none of her actions seem realistic or natural e. The only thing missing was a romance with a Nathan Fillion type character I guess he'll come in future volumes. So - the book has a lot of 5 star reviews and I seem to be a lone dissenter.

So take what I've written in that perspective - you may like this a whole lot better than I did. There is a lot of action and Aly definitely gets to show she can kill and maim with the best of 'em. Reviewed from an e-copy provided by the publisher. Marvellous stuff. This is proper all-guns-blazing space opera in the vein of Firefly or Blake's 7 , or maybe even Stars Wars , though thankfully it doesn't have the mystic silliness of George Lucas' offerings.

The plot revolves around a bunch of renegades who all distrust one another but need to work together to pull off a rescue mission, all whilst trying to avoid another bunch of renegades led by a complete psycopath, not to mention 'the Admin' insert evil government trope here. The first-pers Marvellous stuff. The first-person present-tense narrative took some getting used to and in first person you know the hero will live through to the last page, which lessens the impact of some scenes and some of the internal musings of hero Aly were a little long-winded, but on the whole the action kept up a cracking pace, especially towards the end.

A little bit of humour might have been nice to counterbalance some rather dark scenes. Recommended for lovers of action-packed science fiction. I plan to read the sequels Oct 08, R. This was one of the most well written books I've read this year. I don't normally read sifi, but I must tell you, the writing in this novel should overcome any reticence to grab a copy of this great read and dig in. Salyer is a wizard with language and the depth and richness of her apparent knowledge simply makes this a riveting read. You want pure adventure? You want depth of character development and place?

You want to be entertained non-stop? There is not enough wonderful to say about this wr This was one of the most well written books I've read this year. There is not enough wonderful to say about this writer. Do yourself a favor. Get a copy of this novel.

‎Contract of Defiance on Apple Books

Grab a glass of wine and settle back for a wonderful ride. And if you're anything like me Just a great read and a wonderful voice. What a delight! Congratulations to Ms. Kind Regards, R. There's enough space-based science to keep geeks happy while the action ropes in those who love a wild ride.

There's a good bit of mystery in the plot line and I don't want to give away any of the major points, but this is one book that will keep you reading. That there is a strong female protagonist who still manages to be relatable and very human, helps solidify "Contract of Defianc "Contract of Defiance" will appeal to lovers of science fiction and those who typically shy away from the genre. That there is a strong female protagonist who still manages to be relatable and very human, helps solidify "Contract of Defiance" as a must-read sci-fi novel.

What a fun and enjoyable story. Lots of action and some real kick butt characters!!! I really love a book that keeps you involved and interested throughout the story and this one really lives up to that.


  • O Tigre Real (Portuguese Edition).
  • Science Fiction & Fantasy Author.
  • Life Notes: Thought Power.
  • This is a well-written book, clean, with fast-paced action that rarely stops for breath and great description that doesn't fear blood and gore. The military setting benefits from the author's military background and there are interesting science and medical details science fiction readers will appreciate.

    Told in the first person a point of view I don't usually like this one pulled me into the protagonist's mind. Aly Erikson is a hard-ass soldier-turned-criminal and a mixed up mess. When a job This is a well-written book, clean, with fast-paced action that rarely stops for breath and great description that doesn't fear blood and gore. When a job goes badly wrong and her brother David gets captured by the Admin, she wakes up in the medical facility on the wrong ship with a crew who has their own objectives.

    All Aly cares about is finding her own crew so she can rescue David. The story that follows slowly reveals the political set up in this part of the universe providing a wide space opera backdrop for the rest of the series. Aly Erikson's development is great and distinctive for the amount of conflict she inspires. She's impatient, aggressive, and just so slow to work out who to trust with her loyalty.

    A romantic angle is understated and although I would have enjoyed more emphasis on this, the plot develops the relationship well. I loved how Aly got so many backs up, and connected with so many others. She had to prove herself, demonstrate her true motivations by her actions and the choices she made. This girl has intelligence, guts, and grit. Overall, the characterization is well drawn and balanced, baddies as well as goodies, and everyone has their own peculiarity. The main antagonist is just plain scary.

    Contract of Defiance is a great read, brimming with military strategy and tactics, masses of conflict and pistol-drawn battles, and a new galactic way of living to discover that caters for the privileged while suppressing the communities existing on its fringes. Exciting, riveting stuff. I can highly recommend this book.

    Disclaimer I received a copy of this book in exchange for an honest review. I also purchased a copy. Jul 22, E. I can't remember exactly how I stumbled across this book and the rest of the Spectras Arise trilogy, but I thought to myself "If the story is half as good as the cover art, I'm in. That tripped me up a little and I spent a little time being confused because I couldn't remember what I'd already read, but the plot is structured in a way that it wasn't hard to get back up to speed I can't remember exactly how I stumbled across this book and the rest of the Spectras Arise trilogy, but I thought to myself "If the story is half as good as the cover art, I'm in.

    That tripped me up a little and I spent a little time being confused because I couldn't remember what I'd already read, but the plot is structured in a way that it wasn't hard to get back up to speed. We receive reminders and new glimpses into the characters' background information throughout the story, and motivation to learn more kept me hooked.

    One of my favorite things about sci fi stories is that every author has their own idea of what the future or the alternate-universe equivalent will be like. Contract of Defiance's setting reminded me a lot of Firefly ; rich, upscale worlds are controlled by the Admin, and the outer planets are home to settlers - farmers, miners, smugglers - who are fighting to get by.

    The cast of protagonists also reminded me of Serenity's crew. They're a likable bunch of characters who each have unique qualities but still mesh perfectly. It actually took me awhile to warm up to them, but that may just be because it took the main character awhile to warm up to them Aly Erikson is the epitome of a strong female character. She's literally strong, a badass hardened soldier who always has a gun at her side, but she's also strong in the sense that she's well-written. We catch glimpses of her humanity as she devotes all her energy toward finding her brother.

    She doesn't want to care, but she knows she does care, and that makes for a really interesting character. I've already downloaded the next two books and can't wait to see what becomes of Aly, Vitruzzi, Strahan, and the rest of the Sphynx's crew! If you're looking for a fast-paced, action-packed story with awesome sci-fi tech, strong female characters, and an intriguing plot, this book is for you.