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Lipids 46 Energy MetabolismOverview.
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Molecular models: membrane proteins. Protein Metabolism Translation I: initiation. Mutation and repair. Structure of cells. Mitochondria Blood clotting. Structure and functions. Transport systems. Structure and components. Functions and composition. Transport processes. Transport proteins. Ion channels. Membrane receptors. X ContentsLiver Hydrophilic hormones. Muscle metabolism I. Muscle metabolism II. Connective tissue Tumors.
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Chemistry 1IntroductionThis paperback atlas is intended for students The next part presents the reactionsof medicine and the biological sciences. It involved in the interconversion of theseprovides an introduction to biochemistry, compounds—the part of biochemistry that isbut with its modular structure it can also be commonly referred to as metabolismused as a reference book for more detailed pp. The section starts with a dis-information.
The color plates provide cussion of the enzymes and coenzymes, andknowledge in the field of biochemistry, ac- discusses the mechanisms of metabolic regu-companied by detailed information in the lation and the so-called energy metabolism. The degree of dif - After this, the central metabolic pathwaysculty of the subject-matter is indicated by are presented, once again arranged accordingsymbols in the text: to the class of metabolite pp.
This is followed on pp. A further extensive sec-eSome general rules used in the structure of tion is devoted to the biochemistry of individual tissues and organs pp. Keywords, definitions, explanations the digestive system, blood, liver, kidneys, muscles, connective and supportive tissues,mof unfamiliar concepts and chemical formulas and the brain.. The book starts Other topics include the biochemistry ofwith a few basics in biochemistry pp. These — , and growth and developmentinclude the periodic table of the elements, pp. These plates, which are not accom-portant classes of compounds.
Several basicwconcepts of physical chemistry are also essen-tial for an understanding of biochemicalwprocesses. Pages 16—33 therefore discuss thevarious forms of energy and their intercon- panied by explanatory text apart from a briefversion, reaction kinetics and catalysis, the introduction on p. The charts are mainlyThese basic concepts are followed by a sec- intended for reference, but they can also betion on the structure of the important biomo- used to review previously learned material.
This part of the book is The enzymes catalyzing the various reactionsarranged according to the different classes of are only indicated by their EC numbers. It discusses carbohydrates, lipids, names can be found in the systematically ar-amino acids, peptides and proteins, nucleoti- ranged and annotated enzyme list pp.
These are indicated by what isThere are 81 stable elements in nature. Fifteen known as the principal quantum numberof these are present in all living things, and a and by a letter—s, p, or d. The orbitals arefurther 8—10 are only found in particular or- filled one by one as the number of electronsganisms. The illustration shows the first half increases.
Each orbital can hold a maximum ofof the periodic table, containing all of the bio- two electrons, which must have oppositelylogically important elements. A shows the distributionphysical and chemical data, it also provides of the electrons among the orbitals for each ofinformation about the distribution of the ele- the elements.
For example, the six electrons ofments in the living world and their abun- carbon B1 occupy the 1s orbital, the 2s orbi-dance in the human body. The laws of atomic tal, and two 2p orbitals. A filled 1s orbital hasstructure underlying the periodic table are the same electron configuration as the noblediscussed in chemistry textbooks.
Below this, the numbers ofbodies are accounted for by just four ele- electrons in each of the other filled orbitals 2s and 2p in the case of carbon are shown on. For example, the electron shell of chlorine B2 consists of that of neonand nitrogen N. Hydrogen and oxygen are Ne and seven additional electrons in 3s andthe constituents of water, which alone makes 3p orbitals. Together the first series, electrons occupy the 4s orbital even though the 3d orbitals are still partlydwith carbon and nitrogen, hydrogen and oxy- empty.
Many reactions of the transition met-egen are also the major constituents of the als involve empty d orbitals—e. Many biomolecules alsocontain sulfur S or phosphorus P. It is only in the cases of hydrogenelements, which together represent only and helium that two electrons are alreadyabout 0. Thewhalogen chlorine Cl is also always ionized inthe cell.
All other elements important for lifeware present in such small quantities that theyare referred to as trace elements. A few nonmetals, such as iodine I andselenium Se , can also be classed as essentialtrace elements. The elec-tron configurations of the elements are there-fore also shown in Fig.
B explains thesymbols and abbreviations used. Chemistry 3A. Biologically important elements Group 16 17 18 1 2 13 14 15 1. Noble gasB. Carbon C 2. Chlorine Cl 3. This is why all of the atomsA. Thus, the four bonding electrons of thecarbon atom occupy 2s and 2p atomic orbitals Many molecules that have several double 1a. The 2s orbital is spherical in shape, while bonds are much less reactive than might bethe three 2p orbitals are shaped like dumb- expected.
The reason for this is that thebells arranged along the x, y, and z axes. It double bonds in these structures cannot bemight therefore be assumed that carbon localized unequivocally. Structuresof molecular orbital. However, this is not nor- with this property are referred to as reso-mally the case. The reason is an effect known nance hybrids, because it is impossible to de- scribe their actual bonding structure using.
Combination of the s standard formulas. One can either use what are known as resonance structures—i. When as in Fig. B to suggest the extent of the delo- calized orbitals. Details are discussed indthese overlap with the 1s orbitals of H atoms, chemistry textbooks. For this reason, carbon is capable of boxylate groups, as in formate; aliphatic hy-forming four bonds—i. Single bonds between nonmetal atoms as aromatic ring systems.
A second common type of orbital hybrid-wization involves the 2s orbital and only two ofthe three 2p orbitals 2a. This process istherefore referred to as sp2 hybridization. The remaining 2px orbital is ori-ented perpendicular to this plane. In contrast group includes the aliphatic carotenoids seeto their sp3 counterparts, sp2-hybridized p. Bondsof this type are called double bonds. Chemistry 5A. The length oflas can therefore be used to predict not only single bonds approximately corresponds tothe chemical reactivity of a molecule, but also the sum of what are known as the covalentits size and shape, and to some extent its radii of the atoms involved see inside frontconformation the spatial arrangement of cover.
Some data providing the basis shorter than single bonds. In sp3-hybridizedfor such predictions are summarized here atoms, the angle between the individualand on the facing page. In addition, L-dihy- bonds is approx. Depending on the position of the element in. The val-formulas A1 , atoms are represented as letter ues given in C2 are on a scale between 2 and 4. The higher the value, the more electronega- tive the atom. When two atoms with verydLines between two atomic symbols symbolize different electronegativities are bound toetwo bonding electrons see p.
The atoms involvedas those that occur in O and N atoms. Free then carry positive or negative partialelectrons are usually not represented explic- charges. Atomsware represented as colored balls for the colorcoding, see the inside front cover and bonds including multiple bonds as gray cylinders.
The hydrogen bond, a special type of nonco-Space-filling van der Waals models A3 are valent bond, is extremely important in bio-useful for illustrating the actual shape and chemistry. In this type of bond, hydrogensize of molecules. Their effective ex- hydrogen bond donors interact with freetent is determined by what is known as the electrons of acceptor atoms for example, O,van der Waals radius. This is calculated from N, or S. The bonding energies of hydrogenthe energetically most favorable distance be- bonds 10—40 kJ mol—1 are much lowertween atoms that are not chemically bonded than those of covalent bonds approx.
However, as hydrogen bonds can be very numerous in proteins and DNA, they play a key role in the stabilization of these molecules see pp. The impor- tance of hydrogen bonds for the properties of water is discussed on p. Chemistry 7A. Molecule illustrations B. Bond polarity1. Formula illustrationd.
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Ball- and-stick model Positive Neutral Negativew. Van der Waals modelwD. Hydrogen bonds 1. Partial charges in L-dopa wAcid Base 0. If isomers differ in the way in which theiratoms are bonded in the molecule, they are C. Other forms of isomer- ecule contains a chiral center or is chiral as aism are based on different arrangements of whole. Chirality from the Greek cheir, hand the substituents of bonds A, B or on the leads to the appearance of structures thatpresence of chiral centers in the molecule C.
The most frequent cause of chiral be- havior is the presence of an asymmetric CDouble bonds are not freely rotatable see atom—i. If double-bonded atoms have different stituents. Then there are two forms enan-substituents, there are two possible orienta- tiomers with different configurations. Usu- ally, the two enantiomers of a molecule are. In fumaric acid, an designated as L and D forms. Enantiomers have very similar chemical properties, but they rotate polarized light indIn its isomer maleic acid, which is not pro- opposite directions optical activity, seeeduced in metabolic processes, the carboxy pp.
The same applies to the enantiom- ers of lactic acid. The dextrorotatory L-lacticgroups lie on the same side of the bond cis acid occurs in animal muscle and blood, whileor Z position. Cis—trans isomers geometric the D form produced by microorganisms isisomers have different chemical and physical found in milk products, for example see p. The Fischer projection is often usedmproperties—e. They can only be intercon- cf. Inparticularly important. For example, double chiral substrates, they only accept one of thebonds in natural fatty acids see p. This makes the break-wdown of unsaturated fatty acids more compli-cated see p.
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Light-induced cis—trans iso-wmerization of retinal is of central importancein the visual cycle see p. Aconitate hydratase aconitase catalyzes the conver-B. Although citric acidMolecular forms that arise as a result of rota- is not chiral, aconitase only forms one of thetion around freely rotatable bonds are known four possible isomeric forms of isocitric acidas conformers.
Even small molecules can have 2R,3S-isocitric acid. The intermediate of thedifferent conformations in solution. In the reaction, the unsaturated tricarboxylic acidtwo conformations of succinic acid illustrated aconitate, only occurs in the cis form in theopposite, the atoms are arranged in a similar reaction.
The trans form of aconitate is foundway to fumaric acid and maleic acid. Both as a constituent of certain plants. Chemistry 9A. Conformers Not rotatable Fumaric acid Succinic acid Fp. The oxidation of hemiace- tals produces carboxylic acid esters. In fact, derivativesphosphorus P. The biochemically important of this type are formed by nucleophilic sub-oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur compounds can stitutions of activated intermediate com-be formally derived from their compounds pounds and the release of water see p. In Carboxylic acid esters R-O-CO-Rn arise frombiological systems, phosphorus is found al- carboxylic acids and alcohols.
This group in-most exclusively in derivatives of phosphoric cludes the fats, for example see p. Sim-acid, H3PO4. Thioesters play an ex-non-metal hydride are replaced formally with tremely important role in carboxylic acid me-another group, R—e. The best-known compound of this type is acetyl-coenzyme A see p. At least one of these three groups is fully dissociatedmfide H2S. Polar groups such as -OH and -NH2 under normal physiological conditions, while the other two can react with alcohols.
Phosphoric acid monoesters are found in carbohydrate metabolism, for exam-reactive than the hydrocarbon structures to ple see p. For example, the oxidation of a thiolwyields a disulfide R-S-S-R. In contrast,the oxidation of a secondary alcohol yields a Compounds of one acid with another areketone R-C O -R. A particularlyis characteristic of aldehydes and ketones. Phos-The addition of an amine to the carbonyl phoric anhydride bonds therefore play a cen-group of an aldehyde yields—after removal of tral role in the storage and release of chemicalwater—an aldimine not shown; see p.
Mixed anhy-Aldimines are intermediates in amino acid drides between carboxylic acids and phos-metabolism see p. Chemistry 11A. Many biomolecules are made up of smaller 2 The amino group of cysteamine isunits in a modular fashion, and they can be bound to the carboxy group of another bio-broken down into these units again. The con- genic amine via an acid amide bond -CO-struction of these molecules usually takes NH-. Conversely, their also be formed by breakdown of pyrimidinebreakdown functions in a hydrolytic fash- bases see p.
The 3 Another acid amide bond -CO-NH- page opposite illustrates this modular princi- creates the compound for the nextple using the example of an important coen- constituent, pantoinate. This compound con-zyme. In natu-A. Human metabo-Coenzyme A see also p. Bonding of the carboxy group of thecarboxylic acid with the thiol group of the 4 The hydroxy group at C-4 of pantoinatecoenzyme creates a thioester bond -S-CO-R; is bound to a phosphate residue by an ester bond. It can therefore be trans- The section of the molecule discussed so far represents a functional unit. In the cell, it isferred to other molecules in exergonic reac- produced from pantothenate.
The moleculetions. This fact plays an important role in lipid also occurs in a protein-bound form as 4n-metabolism in particular see pp. In coenzyme A,mwell as in two reactions of the tricarboxylic however, it is bound to 3n,5n-adenosine di-. As discussed on p. This is also occurs in other nucleoside phosphates. By contrast, 6 and 7 are ester bonds again. Instored in such a group. These bonds, andthe fragments that arise when they are hydro-lyzed, will be discussed here in sequence. Chemistry 13A. The elimination of water from the alcohol 2, dehydration is also catalyzed byChemical reactions are processes in which an acid and passes via the same intermediateelectrons or groups of atoms are taken up as the addition reaction.
Illustratedhere are the most important types of reaction D. A reaction in which one functional group seeElectron shifts are indicated by red arrows. Depending on the process involved, aA.
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Nucleophilic substitu-are transferred from one molecule the reduc- tions start with the addition of one moleculeing agent to another the oxidizing agent. The reducing agent is oxidizedacid with an alcohol 2 are shown here as an example of the SN2 mechanism. Both reac-during the reaction, and the oxidizing agent is tions are made easier by the marked polarityreduced. In the form of ester hydrolysis shown here, a proton is removed Fig. A shows the oxidation of an alcohol from a water molecule by the catalytic effect of the base B.
The resulting strongly nucleo-dinto an aldehyde 1 and the reduction of philic OH— ion attacks the positively chargedethe aldehyde to alcohol 2. Thisbook is an authorized and updatedtranslation of the 3rd German edition published and copyrighted by Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany. Title of the German edition: Taschenatlas der Biochemie. Importantnote: Medicineisan ever-changing science undergoing continual development.
Research and clinical experience are continually expanding our knowledge, in particular our knowledge of proper treatment and drug therapy. Insofar as this book mentions any dosage or application, readers may rest assured thatthe authors, editors, and publishers have made every effort to ensure that such references are in accordance with the state of knowledge at the time of production of the book. Nevertheless, this does not involve, imply, or express anyguarantee or responsibility on the part of the publishers in respect to any dosage instructions and forms of applications stated in the book.
Such examination is particularly important with drugs that are either rarely used or have been newly released on the market.
The authors and publishers request every user to report to the publishers any discrepancies or inaccuracies noticed. If errors in thiswork arefound afterpublication, errata will be posted at w. Some of the product names, patents, and registered designs referred to in this book are in fact registered trademarks or proprietary names even though specific reference to this fact is not always made in the text.
Therefore, the appearance of a name without designation as proprietary is not to be construed as a representation by the publisher that it is in the public domain. Thisbook, including allparts thereof, is legally protected by copyright. This applies in particular to photostat reproduction, copying, mimeographing, preparation of microfilms, and electronic data processing and storage. He then took his doctorate in the discipline of chemistry at the University of Marburg, under the supervision of biochemist Peter Karlson.
In Marburg, he began to study the biochemistry of insects and other invertebrates. He took his postdoctoral degree in in the field of human medicine, and was appointed Honorary Professor in His field of study today is biochemical endocrinology. His other interests include educational methods in biochemistry. He is currently Dean of Studies in the Department of Medicine in Marburg; he is married to an art teacher.
Since , he has also worked in the Department of Medicine at the University of Marburg. He took his doctorate under the supervision of Friedhelm Schneider, and his postdoctoral degree in was in the Department of Chemistry. HehasbeenanHonorary Professor since His research group is concerned with the structure and function of enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism. He is married to a biologist and has two children. He has received several awards for book illustration and design. He is married and has three children. Biochemistry is a dynamic, rapidly growing field, and the goal of this color atlas is to illustrate this fact visually.
The precise boundaries between biochemistry and related fields,s ucha s cellb iology,a natomy,p hysiology, genetics, and pharmacology, are dif cu lt to define and, in many cases, arbitrary. This overlap is not coincidental.