In this way, much of the work may observation. As Bywater believes, 1 Aristotle, though a systematic philosopher, was not systematic, as a modern writer would be, in attempting to harmonize all his utterances on related topics as they were taken up in differthe. The remarks of Cicero 4 indicate that, conversant as he was with Peripatetic writings, he was unacquainted with any good scientific treatment of the ludicrous as a means of purgation. Nor does the evidence of Proclus Diadochus help us more. In Book 2, chapter 4,. Dugas, Psychologie du Eire, Paris, , pp. C'est done a n'est point proprement objet de science.
Plato 1 associates these two with comedy in the Philebus. And Aristotle himself was thinking in terms of the Greek humoral medicine when he marked the cathartic effect of. Now it is obvious that, if you succeed in making an angry or envious man laugh with pleasure, he ceases for a time to be angry or envious. Thus anger tragedy. There, can be no doubt that comedy does have an influence of the. These and they are numberfancied or real disproportions become oppressive as we meditate less in daily life.
Take us both to witness a Plutus of Aristophanes, where the universal i nequalities o f wealth and poverty, the accidents of distribution, are still furtherexaggerated on the and exaggerate them. As the play advances, we begin to see the law of proportion in a clearAt the end we are free from the accumulated er light. Through the generalized representation ' the spectator loses what was before merely individual in his own experience. The principle of our expectations in various ways.
The function follow. In Problems According to the definition, comedy through pleasure and laughter effects a "catharsis of the said emotions. This end, once more, is the free play of In our highest faculties in the life of contemplation. These considerations, we must allow, are remote from the Poetics, where Aristotle is concerned with poetry in and for itself.
In this work he is not concerned with the end of private life, as he is in the Ethics, or with the end of public life, as he is in the Politics, but with the end of poetry and the ends of its several species. And thus the most unlucky gu ess of the epitomator in the Tractate.
Yet his connection of both pleasure and laughter with the end of Comedy '. Thus to revert to a familiar example he is elastic enough to praise Euripides for his unhappy denouements and yet, among the dramas of this author, to have the ;. If the type of comic action known to us through Menander and Terence was sometimes or often adopted by writers of the Middle Comedy, and ;. With the mention of Aristophanes we return to the dual effect noted by the epitomator, in a Tractate which doubtless has this poet steadily in view.
But for analytical purposes the two elements may also be ;. Yet it seems almost incredible that they should as a rule have overlooked the broad distinction, which pervades the play, between the old women in the orchestra and the young women on the stage. Indeed the latest editor, Professor Van Leeuwen, in his search after novelties, dignifies with the titles Tpau? A, Fpauj B, rpau; r First, Second, and Third Hags Lysistrata's comrades whose youth and beauty are the very qualities relied upon for bringing about a termination of the. Nor does Lysistrata herself fare much better. Notwithstanding the encomiums passed upon her personal attractiveness, notwithstanding the fact that Calonice, herself a young woman, addresses her as " child," almost all recent editors depart from the mss.
It is not wholly missing in the versions of the Birds by Frere and Rogers. But of Rogers as editor the critihe does not neglect the element of pleasure,' but he does overemphasize the element of the ridiculous in comparison with it. The defect is partly due to the loss, already noticed, of the music, the nature of which can but faintly be imagined from the words and metre and to the loss of almost everything in the way of spectacle. Some notion of the musical accompaniment Birds, with its choral odes. I believe it of the chorus of Frogs earlier in the play. Yet, ludicrous.
It is said that the Japanese take a special delight in the cries of insects, discriminating them with a very critical taste. The adjuncts of music, dancing, and costume tend to the same purpose. But it seems that the element of pleasure in which the laughter of the Old Comedy was incarnate had the function of embelhshing much that would otherwise be objectionable.
The Socrates of the Clouds, for example, a generalized representation in which the philosopher is more of a type than an individual, moved in an atmosphere of beautiful words and choral music. Of course we should make the usual allowance for the obscene in view of the origins of comedy in the phallic procession, and should not forget the different attitude of the pagan world to a realm of thought to which the modern author does not give free expression though here the age of Aristophanes differed less from the age of Shakespeare than the latter does from ours, and the taste of Athens was not so remote from that of Paris as the taste of Paris is from that of Boston.
But, when the usual allowance is made, we may, without holding a brief for what is gross in the Old Comedy, venture to assert that the element of beauty with which that grossness was combined made a difference in the total effect. Tractate, where the epitomator remarks of some previous writer on Aristotle or else of Aristotle himself. The combination of lower forms of the ludicrous gives rise to a catharsis '.
Reproduction and excretion are in nature and life united with beauty and comedy is an idealized representation of all the elements in. Herewith we reach the point where a modern discussion of laughter may possibly aid in reconstructing an Aristotelian theory. The explanation of the comic by Freud in the main is a theory of catharsis to a large extent the Freudian theory is concerned with the sexual and excretory functions of man, with the inhibition of desire, arid with its release in channels sometimes more, sometimes less, obscure or indirect.
Freud tends to ;. Freud himself cites Herbert Spencer on the psychological situation which discharges itself in laughter, and then quotes Alexander Bain on Laughter a relief from restraint,' and Dugas 2 to the effect that laughter ;. One can characterize the psychic process in the hearer, in the third person '. One might say that it is presented to him. It is found in persons, that is, in their movements, shapes, In the beginning it actions, and characteristic traits. Even animals and inanimate objects become comical as the result of a widely-used is. In Aristotelian terms, comedy proaudience a harmless discharge of emotions vides for the result as follows.
Comedy, like the Roman Catholic confessional, affords. The excerpts from Freud may be supplemented by the effective summary of Croce, who is sceptical, at the. While listening to a narrative, which, for example, should describe the magnificent and heroic purpose of a definite person, we anticipate in imagination the occurrence of an action both heroic and magnificent, and we prepare ourselves to receive it, by straining our psychic forces.
If, however, in a moment, instead of the magnificent and heroic action, which the premises and the tone of the narrative had led us to expect, by an unexpected change there occur a slight, mean, '. This is the pleasure of the comic, with its physiological equivalent, laughter. If the unpleasant fact that has occurred should painfully affect our interests, pleasure would not arise, laughter would be at once choked, the psychic energy would be strained and overstrained by other more serious perceptions.
If, on the other hand, such more serious perceptions do not arise, if the whole loss be limited to a slight deception of our foresight, then the supervening feeling of our psychic wealth. This, stated in a few words, is one of the most accurate modern definitions of the comic. It includes Plato's dictum in the K, Philebus, and Aristotle's jvhich is more explicit.
The differentiation here given is that of quantitative determinations, to which limits cannot be assigned. They remain vague phrases, attaining to some meaning from their reference to this or that single comic fact. And who will ever determine logically the dividing line between the comic and the non-comic, between smiles and laughter, between smiling and gravity ; who will cut into clearly divided parts that ever- varying continuity into which life melts?
There are better theories of comedy, and worse. The analysis set forth by Croce is worth while, if only ful. His emphasis so far is like that of Aristotle. Meredith, however, describes the effect as if it were, or should be, chiefly intellectual rather than emotional, thus: To touch and kindle the mind through laughter. Writers from Aristophanes to. But the preference of Meredith reminds one of the supposed preference of Aristotle for comic ".
Moliere, own opinion through some of the speakers in La Critique de I'Ecole des Femmes, evidently thinks that for. Sans nous, tous les hommes Deviendraient malsains, Et c'est nous qui sommes Leurs grands medecins. Speech of Dorante, scene 7. See the Avertissement to Les Facheux. Veut-on qu'on rabatte Par des moyens doux, Les vapeurs de rate Qui vous minent tous?
Qu'on laisse Hippocrate, Et qu'on vienne a nous. Perhaps the genius of Moliere h as here, out of exand ohservatioh, as well as from a considerable knowledge of poetic theory, actuaJlyJiii-upon the Aristotelian notion of the comic catharsis, or something very near it.
However, in addition to the evidence in the Tractate perience. In the work now known as De Mysteriis, doubtfully attributed to Iamblichus. Again, therefore, they pursue after the causes of specific forms and of the beautiful, since from the mention of ugly things they perceive the ugly; and although they avoid the doing of deeds that are ugly, they manifest their knowledge thereof through the words, and transfer their longing to the opposite of the ugly.
These things afford still another argument, as follows. The forces of the human emotions in us, if entirely restrained, bestir themselves more vehemently while if stirred into action but gradually and within measure, they rejoice moderately and are satisfied and, thus purified, they become obedient, and are '. In the sacred ceremonies also, by certain spectacles and by hearing things that are ugly, we are released from the harm that would come from the deeds themselves.
Things of this sort, therefore, are introduced for the cure of our soul, and in order to moderate the evils adhering to the soul through generation, and also to loose and release it from its bonds. And on this account Heraclitus very properly terms them cures,' meaning that they will cure dreadful ailments, and render the soul free from the calamities incident to generation.
Proclus Diadochus a. As for the second problem this was his rejection an absurd rejection if it of tragedy and comedy be true that, through these, [the players] can measurably satisfy the emotions, and in thus satisfying them render good service to the cause of education by healing what is Be that as it may, although painful in those emotions.
Everything that tends to imitate all sorts of characters is most alien to the induction of youth into virtue since through its imitation it enters into the thoughts of the hearers, and also through its artful diversity becomes hurtful to them for, whatsoever be the things imitated, such must the one who is peculiarly sensitive to the imitation become. For virtue is simple, and very like to God himself, to whom we say the term unity is especially appropriate. So, then, the person who would become like to such a one must flee from the life that is opposed to simplicity, and therefore it will be necessary to purge him of all diversity and, if so, it will also be necessary for him when he is a youth, and when because of his youth he is impressible, to stand utterly aloof from all pursuits that drag him down into diversity.
Clearly, then, we should beware of both tragedy and comedy, since they imitate all sorts of characters, and assault the hearers with pleasure lest what is seductive in them drag into accord that in the soul which is easy to seduce, and thus fill up the life of the children with the evils which the imitation effects and lest, instead of the. Moreover, since these two kinds of poetry notably reach out toward that in the soul which is most exposed to the emotions comedy rousing in us the love of pleasure and drawing us into absurd bursts of laughter, tragedy fostering in us the love of grief and dragging us down to ignoble outbursts of tears, and each of them nourishing the emotional element in us, and so much the more as each accomplishes its special function therefore I, too, say that the statesman should devise excretions, as it were, of these emotions, yet not in such a way as to intensify the special passions connected with them, but on the contrary to curb these passions, and in a.
But since, after all, those forms of poetry, in addition to their diversity, lack measure in their appeals to these emotions, they are far from being useful for purgation; for purgations consist, not in excessive movements, but in contracted actions which have but a slight resemblance to those emotions of which they purge. Other hints of a theory respecting the one that may have originated with end of comedy are found in Aristotle or his immediate successors.
Tragedy differs from comedy in that tragedy has a story and a report of things [or. The peculiar characteristic of comedy is the mixture of laughter with gibes, while tragedy has sorrow The characteristic of the satyrand misfortunes. The inconsistency of Tzetzes need not detain us he put together his scraps of information in his own unThe last passage begins with a statement critical way. Cicero b. But he is familiar with certain his. Of course he is familiar, too, with the Aristotelian Rhetoric.
Indeed, being preoccupied with rhetorical theory and practice, he makes a distinction which we must not fail to observe, between what is suitable to forensic eloquence, and what to comedy proper. They are not to my present purpose, and if they were, I should not at all be ashamed to say that I did not know them for even they who pretend to account for them know nothing, of the matter.
But the place and, as it were, the province of the ridiculous for that is the next question lies within the limits of ugliness and a certain deformity for those expressions all. But, to come to the third point, it is evidently an orator's above all because it business to provoke a laugh Neither softens or unbends sorrow and severity. Hence it happens that the whole subject of the ridiculous lies in the moral vices of men who are neither beloved nor miserable, nor deserving to be dragged to punishment Deformity and bodily defects are for their crimes. But let likewise happy enough subjects for ridicule.
An orator must avoid both extremes he must not make his jests too abusive nor Ptoo buffoonish. There are two kinds of humor I one arising from the thing, the other from the diction. And we must take note also that not everything that is ludicrous is refined wit. What can be more ludicrous than a buffoon [sannid]?
His mouth, his face, his mimicry, his voice, in short his whole body, is laughter itself. I might call him witty, but then his wit is of that kind which I would recommend, not to an orator, but to a player. See the whole passage on the laughable, De Oratore 2. It is impossible to draw a sharp line between what he owes to Aristotle and what he has absorbed from Panaetius and other late authorities.
His restric-. His two sources of the ludicrous from things, and from the diction '. His final of comic characters reminds one of the sketches in Theophrastus and the personages of the New Comedy, but probably emanates also from literary critics. A well5. But he has nothing to give us on the effect of comedy in an Aristotelian sense.
In him we are no 1. For other chance hints in Aristotle himself the reader must turn to the Scattered Passages on Laughter at the. But as Cicero embraces both Platonic and Aristotelian doctrines, and mediates between them, I can lead up to the next topic Aristotle and Plato on Comedy by citing from him a few other passages.
These all concern Aristophanes. The modern scholar who talks of 'Aristotle's condemnation of Old Comedy did will also inform us that the same condemnation not prevail generally among later theorists and critics,' 2 and will thus account for the unexpectedly favorable But we have seen attitude of Cicero to the elder poet. The Plutarchian Abstract of a Comparison between Aristophanes and Menander, giving the preference to Menander, is necessarily later than Aristotle, and, if it be earlier than Plutarch, yet comes from a new stream of thought that arose after critics had begun to work on the New Comedy.
The new stream obPoetics,. See Fiske who cites Hendrickson , p. There are, generally speaking, two sorts of jest: the one, coarse, rude, vicious, indecent the other, reWith this latter sort not fined, polite, clever, witty. Your letter, which he had a little before received, a letter in the Aristophanic he gave to me to read manner, highly delightful and highly serious, I declare 4 I was tremendously pleased with it. Quoted by Donatus De Comoedia, in Kaibel, p. Aristotle, Rhetoric 3. Cicero has even got a little of the Acharnians 2 His by heart, though not very accurately. The Old Comedy retains, almost alone, the pure grace of Attic diction, and the charm of a most eloquent freedom of language and though it is chiefly employed in attacking follies, yet it has great force in other departments for it is sublime, elegant, and graceful and I know not whether any poetry, next to Homer's whom it is always right to except, as he himself excepts Achilles , has either a greater resemblance to oratory, or is better adapted for forming orators.
The authors but Aristophanes, Eupolis, and of it are numerous Cratinus are the principal. Greek writers more nearly of his own time, but probably dealing with the subject of the laughable in connection with rhetoric rather than comedy. Of his debts to Latin writers, that to Cicero. Ouina relation between laughter and the emotions of anger and hate or envy like Aristotle, he remarks upon the pleasantries suited and unsuited.
Very different from this [the power of arousing compassion] is the talent which, by exciting laughter in the judge, dispels melancholy affections, diverting his mind from too intense application to the subject before it, recruiting at times its powers, and reviving it after disgust and fatigue. But the chief difficulty in respect to jesting comes '. At all events, although many have attempted an explanation, I think it has never been adequately explained whence laughter arises, which is excited not only by deed or word, but sometimes even by bodily touch.
Furthermore, laughter is not habitually produced by a single cause for not merely witty and agreeable utterances and actions are laughed at, but stupid, angry, and timid ones as well, and hence the ludicrous has no fixed origin, for risus is not remote from derisu. Thus, as Cicero says, the ridiculous has its seat in a certain deformity and ugliness,' and if these are made to appear in others the result is called raillery, while if they recoil upon the speakers it is called folly.
Though laughter seems like a trifle, and is something that may be aroused by buffoons, mimics, and often even by fools, yet it has a power perhaps more despotic than anything else, and one that is well-nigh irresistible for it bursts forth in people not seldom against their will, and forces expression not merely through voice and features, but shakes the whole body with its vigor.
And, as I have said, it often changes the tendency of the greatest affairs, as it very frequently dissipates hatred and anger [odium iramque]. Now as to this talent, whatever it is, I should not, of course, venture to say that it is wholly independent of art ; for it may to some extent be cultivated by observation, and rules concerning it have been put together by Greek and Latin writers both.
And yet ;. The first way of dividing this subject is the one that pertains to discourse as a whole, according as the laughable is found in things and words. But the application certainly is triple we try to raise a laugh at others, or at ourselves, or at affairs that are neutral.
What proceeds from others we either blame, or refute, or make light of, or rebut, or elude. As to what concerns ourselves, we remark on the laughable, and, to use a phrase from Cicero, utter subabsurda for the same things which, if they fell from us inadvertently, would be foolish are, when simulated, deemed amusing. The third class, as Cicero says, consists in cheated expectations, when things are said in one way and taken in another, and the like since neither person is concerned, I call such matters "neutral.
But it makes a difference where we indulge in jests. In social intercourse and daily talk less delicacy is '. To an orator, distorted features and the gestures it is our habit to laugh at in mimics are wholly unsuited. So with scurrilous jests from the comic stage; they are absolutely out of character in him. As for obscenity, he should avoid it not only.
I may say that laughter is educed either from the corporal peculiarities of him against whom we speak, or from his ethos, which is to be gathered from his acts and utterances, or from external circumstances relating to him. Unsuitable, first, are jokes arising from ambiguities and similarly, obscene jests such as are usually aimed at in Atellan comedy and again, such as are bandied about by individuals of the lowest class, when ambiguities are promptly turned into personal abuse.
Nor do ambiguous terms always only signify several things they may signify things of the most diverse sorts. This kind of jest is as poor as is the formation of names by adding, subtracting, or altering letters as, for example, turning the name Placidus into " Acidus," because the man had a sour disposition. Those jokes are more choice and pointed which draw their force from external circumstances. Here resemblance is of the utmost value, especially if it can be turned toward the worse and more trivial object. The ancients were given to this sort of pleasantry, calling Such Lentulus " Spinther " and Scipio " Serapion.
Such comparisons are laughter is now very common. Still more ingenious is the application of one thing to another because of a similarity between them, when we attribute to this case what commonly '. Are not many jokes made through the use of hyperbole? For example, Cicero says of a very tall man that " he had struck his head against the arch of Fabius.
As for irony, is it not, when employed very gravely,. The subject includes all figures of thought into which some authorBtavofa? There remains to be noticed the kind of joke that consists in a deceived expectation, or when words are meant to be taken in one way, and we take them in another and these are the happiest of all.
As for subabsurda, they consist in a pretence of folly, and would, if not pretended, be foolish. So far as I have learnt from others or discovered for myself, the foregoing are the most usual sources from which jests may be derived. The moral, utilitarian view of Cicero, Quintilian, and the Romans in general, has been ably set. But a sharp distinction must be made between the province of humor and that of invective. Cynic and Stoic philosophers,' who constantly traced their descent from the Old Comedy.
But perhaps it would be more correct to say that the Old Comedy was the precursor of the Socratic literature,' to the tone of '. In Horace, Satire 1. We may now consider more fully a topic on one side of Which we have touched before in a passing allusion to Plato and Aristophanes. Yet here, as there, we are not without some means of forming a judgment, and various important details are Aristotelian,. To summarize these fragments of the early philosophers, we may say that in general they illustrate '.
A theory of the laughable is not definitely formulated, but there are suggestions which later find an important place in the theory, such as the necessity of relaxation and laughter as a preparation for serious pursuits, avoidance of excess in laughter, condemnation of laughter directed at the unfortunate, necessity for the reformer to be free from serious faults himself. The philosophic attitude of laughter at the faults of mankind is illustrated in the character of Democritus, while in several of the fragments the typical reaction of the people toward the jester, evilspeaker, and reformer is shown.
And for another preliminary step we may use the summary of Miss Grant regarding the conceptions found in Plato himself. In the Philebus alone is there anything like. The type of writing which Plato chose for his medium of expression, the dialogue, is one that enables an author to approach the truth from various sides, and by gradual fraction of the Dialogue,.
The poetical quality of the Platonic Dialogues has been recognized by many writers, from Aristotle to Shelley. Diogenes Laertius 3. Cicero, Orator 20 Shelley, Defence of Poetry, ed. Dialogue It is the drama of the school as comedy is the drama of public life, and of private. On this head we have the testimony of Diogenes Laertius and Athenaeus, both '. Yet he was not the inventor of the type, for before him Alexamenus of Teos invented this type of argument. Aristotle in his work [? For Alexamenus, see Hirzel, Dev Dialog 1.
Epicharmus as well as Aristophanes. Accordingly, it is not by chance that Aristotle conwith the mimes of nects Socratic Conversations Sophron and Xenarchus. His seemingly casual reference implies no distaste for the popular farce. Rather, we might judge from it that he was well-disposed to the farcical side of Epicharmus and Aristophanes. The Stagirite's own jokes no doubt met the Aristotelian and Ciceronian standard of what befits a gentleman, 3 departing far enough from pointless obscenity and cruel invective as the wit of Aristophanes was in this respect on a level above that of his predecessor Cratinus, or of the Old Comedy in general yet the jokes of Aristotle are classed by Demetrius with those of Sophron '.
For Epicharmus' development of the mime, see Reich, Der Mimus, p. Such witticisms as "Whose teeth, could sooner be counted than her fingers " of an old woman differ in no way from gibes, nor are they far removed from buffoonery [ysXwTorcoiia;] 2. With their swift interchange and answer, they resemble both the plays of Epicharmus and the mimes of Sophron. Coming after the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, and the comedies of Aristophanes, who in his turn had learned both from the tragic poets and from Epicharmus and the mimes, the Dialogues of Plato, as the next great literary type struck out by the Greek genius, are generically comic.
The Symposium obviously may be so classed, and the Ion, if we can surely attribute this to Plato the Phaedrus more readily than the Protagoras, and yet the Protagoras, too. Even in the most serious of the Dialogues, as the Apology, there are tragic part of literature. Rhys Roberts, p. Hirzel, Der Dialog 1. In the Politics 2. Observing a like precision, and citing the speaker, we '.
In the Apology Plato makes Socrates say of the accusations issuing from an earlier stage in his career :. The hero then recounts the present charge against him " Socrates is an evil-doer, and a meddlesome person who searches into things under the earth and in heaven, and makes the worse appear the better reason and he '. And he adds It is just what you [persons in the audience] have yourselves seen in the comedy [the Clouds] of Aristophanes a man named Socrates there borne about [i.
However tense the situation, the reminiscence provokes a smile. Moreover, the Socrates of the Apology is here made to employ a rhetorical device familiar to and doubtless already familiar to rhetSo Aristotle recognizes the legitimate use in an argument of both ancient. In the succeeding quotations from Plato I continue to make use of the translation by Jowett,. Chares the saying of Plato [the comic poet] against Archibius that "the avowal of rascality has gained ground at Athens.
The 'Plato' of this passage has also been taken to mean the philosopher; see below, p. Rogers, Clouds, pp. Aristophanes and Ameipsias in the Apology and the Phaedo with the remarks on comedy in the Republic. In the Republic the discussion of poetry is incidental And this does not mean. Further, this State is not regarded as actually possible it is ideal, imaginary, at ;. Only one tragic poet, Aeschylus, no comic poet is so mentioned. It is imitative: the distinction is made between pure narrative, where the poet tells a straightforward story in his own words pure imitation,' where a dramatist, saying nothing himself, presents the entire action through the utterances of his characters and the mixed type, as in Homer, where some part of the story is given by the poet speaking for himself, and the rest by the characters.
Finally, it represents emotions, such as fear, of which the warlike Guardians should see and know as little as plays the gods as subject to lust,. Poetry is therefore false to the nature of the divine, untrue also in so far as it is imitative and unreal, and dangerous to the safety of the State. The Dialogue would therefore, as we have seen, be one of the books that should be denied admittance to the ideal State which it describes It also contains a choice collection of the passages from Homer that would not be admitted.
The Symposium would be excluded, both because it is imitative, and because of the naughty utterances in it by Aristophanes and Alcibiades. Nor would the other Platonic Dialogues fare better, in so far as the author is an imitative artist. Then personages of worth, even if only mortal men, must not be represented as overcome by laughter, and still 3 less must such a representation of the gods be allowed. But see Alfred Gudeman in Philologus 76 Some defence may or may not even then have Poetics. For even when two species of imitation are nearly allied, the same persons can not succeed in both, as, for example, the writers of tragedy and comedy.
The fourth is Then the man was perceived to be a fool who directs the shafts of his ridicule at any other sight but that of '. And does not the same hold also of the ridiculous? There are jests which you would be ashamed to make yourself, and yet when you hear them in comedy, or in prose, 4 you are greatly amused by them, and are not at all disgusted by their unseemliness.
The case of '. Republic 3. Republic 5. Jowett translates and yet on the comic stage, or indeed in private,' etc. And the same may be said of lust and anger and all the other affections, of desire and pain and pleasure, which are held to be inseparable from every action. In all of them poetry feeds and waters the passions in;. In the Laws of Plato we have a less imaginative representation of the State, and one that, while sufficiently ideal, is yet more nearly adapted than the Republic to men as they are. The Laws being more '. Dialogue recedes from the conclusions of Socrates His ideas may come nearer also to in the Republic.
The passages which '. And for this very reason he should learn them both, in order that he may not in ignorance do or say anything which is ridiculous and out of place. He should command slaves and hired strangers to imitate such things, but he should never take any serious interest in them himself, nor should any freeman or freewoman be discovered taking pains to learn them.
And there should always be some element of novelty in the imitation. Let these, then, be laid down, both in law and in our discourse, as the regulations of laughable amusements which are generally called comedy. The second passage is Do we admit into our State the comic writers who are so fond of making mankind ridiculous, if they attempt in a good-natured manner to turn the laugh against our citizens?
We forbid earnest. But we have still to say who are to be sanctioned or not to be sanctioned by the law in the employment of innocent humor. A comic poet, or maker of iambic or satirical lyric '. And if any one is disobedient, the judges shall either at once expel him from the country, or he shall pay a fine of three minae, which shall be dedicated to the god who presides over the contests.
Those only who have received permission shall be 1. The decision of this matter shall be left to the superintendent of the general education of the young, and whatever he may license the writer shall be allowed to produce, and whatever he rejects let not the poet himself exhibit, or ever teach anybody else, slave or freeman, under the penalty of being dishonored, and held disobedient to the laws. In both Dialogues, as in the Politics, the treatment of ;. Let us turn to allusions of another sort. The Symposium as a whole is a comedy and the comic myth which Plato as an imitative artist puts into the mouth of the Aristophanes of this Dialogue deserves the same ;.
In the Theaetetus Socrates shows high regard for Epicharmus, ranking him in comedy with Homer in epic poetry, at the summit in their respective provinces 1 2. Must I then say with Epicharmus, Gorgias he asks " Two men spoke before, but now one shall be '. Aristotle evinces his respect by citing Epicharmus twice. Theaetetus ; Jowett 4. Gorgias ; Jowett 2. A chance-allusion to the comic poets is likewise to be noted in the Phaedrus, where the youthful orator humorously accuses Socrates of resorting to a familiar expedient of the stage quoque as in a farce.
Indeed, it needs only to be mentioned. We can notice two allu-. There are those who think that Socrates' references to the Clouds in the Apology and the Phaedo demonstrate the antagonism of Plato to that drama. What, then, shall we say regarding Plato's use of a line from the Clouds in the Symposium? Here he makes sions to. Plato, the comic poet, frg. The chief thing he [Aristodemus] remembered was SSocrates compelling the other two to acknowledge that '. At length we come to the pregnant remarks on comedy in the Philebus.
I have just mentioned envy; would you not call that a pain of the soul? And yet the envious man finds something in the misfortunes of his neighbors at which he is pleased? And ignorance, and what is '. The ridiculous is, in short, the specific name which is used to describe the vicious form of a certain habit and of vice in general it is that kind which is most at variance with the inscription at Delphi, Are there not three ways in which ignorance of self may be shown?
In the first place, about money; the ignorant may fancy himself richer than he is. And still more often he will. And yet surely by far the greatest number err about the goods of the mind they imagine themselves to be much better men than they are. All who are silly enough to entertain this lying conceit of themselves may, of course, be divided, like the rest of mankind, into two classes one having is taller. Those of them who are weak and unable to revenge themselves, when they are laughed at, may be truly called. Ignorance in the powerful is hateful and horrible, because hurtful to others both in reality and in fiction ; but.
Is not envy an unrighteous pleasure, and also an unrighteous pain? There is nothing envious or wrong in rejoicing at the misfortunes of enemies? But to feel joy instead of sorrow at the sight of our friends' misfortunes is not that wrong? And do we not acknowledge tnis ignorance oftheirs to be a misfortune? And why do you suppose me to have pointed out to you the admixture which takes place in comedy? Why but to convince you that there was no difficulty in showing the mixed nature of fear and love and tion, envy,.
These extracts from the Dialogues of his master provide a general background for the entire thought of. Having already indicated a few points of similarity and difference between them, I shall confine myself to a few additional remarks. The main similarity between Aristotle and the chief. Aristotle likewise, no doubt, would subscribe to the notion, generally held among the ancients, 3 that in order to be a good poet a man must be good himself and this, in spite of what he says regarding the origin of poetry, to the effect that the forerunners of the comic poets were not on the same moral plane as the forerunners of the tragic.
I find no better place than at the end of these extracts from Plato to insert the maxim attributed to Socrates by Stobaeus Anthologium 3. Aristophanes, Frogs , ; Strabo 1. The ironical person [6 lipwv], on the contrary, diswhile the claims or disparages what he possesses intermediate person, who is a sort of " plain-dealer," is he admits the fact truthful both in lif e and in speech of his possessions, he neither exaggerates nor disparages them.
A person who pretends to greater things than he possesses, if he has no ulterior object in doing so, seems to be a person of low character, as otherwise he would not take pleasure in a falsehood but he looks more like a fool than a knave. Supposing he has an object, if the object be glory or honor, the pretentious person, like the boaster, is not highly censurable but if it be money, or the means of getting money, his conduct is more discreditable.
It is not a particular faculty, but a habit of choice, which constitutes the '. Thus it is that boastful people, if their object is reputation, pretend to such qualities as win praise or congratulation, but if their object is gain, they pretend to such qualities as may be beneficial to their neighbors, and can not be proved not to exist for example, to skill in prophesying or medicine.
Ironical people, on the other hand, in depreciating themselves, show a more refined character, for it seems that their object is not to make gain but to avoid pomposity. Rechnung mit ausgewiesener MwSt. Sprache: Deutsch Gewicht in Gramm: More information about this seller Contact this seller 9.
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Minimal wear. Seller Inventory GRP Condition: UsedAcceptable. Quarto, Illustrated. Condition: New. Seller Inventory M Published by Dumont About this Item: Dumont, Softcover catalog, pages; in German; very good condition; cean and crisp; no internal marks. Foreign shipping may be extra. Seller Inventory AnKeDu April als Anna Diekmann in Chemnitz; Mir scheint, das ist einer der zahllosen Reize jener Art von Kommunikation, die wir Kunst nennen.
Wenn sie echt ist. Published by Zurigo, Edizione a cura della Galleria, It is in these varied activities of the man that we see his true importance as the great German pioneer in America. In the early annals of Germantown Pastorius has left last- ing testimonials to his indispensable services as a burgher. The first five years of its existence the German settlement had no cor- porate form, but grew on as a more or less close community. In these years Pastorius was the virtual official factotum, as he man- aged the affairs both of the German Company and the Cref elders.
The first year was one of great privation and not a little suffering. Provisions were scarce and had to be brought some- times all the way from the Swedish settlement in Upland. The colony met with an unexpected economic hindrance at the very outset. It was made up largely of weavers who knew but little of tilling the soil. Their products were in little demand, because 4 Francis Daniel Pastorius the newcomers had brought with them a good supply of wear- ing apparel. This is seen from the slight sales at the fair held Nov.
Pastorius as early as November, , writes the German Company that they shall send over a quantity of grape cuttings and all sorts of field and garden seeds. In addition to the lack of money and market for the products of the loom, came the great need of skilled craftsmen and husbandmen, the first to fell the forest and build houses, the second to till the soil. Pastorius wrote home to the Company that workmen and peasants were most needed of all classes of colonists.
As he looked out from the settlement, whichever way he went, it was "a way into the primeval forest. What wonder he wished for a dozen strong Tyrolese to lay low the thick oak trees! Francis Daniel Pastorius 5 Although Pastorius faltered during these first years, he was an unfailing factor in the life of Germantown.
His close personal association with William Penn drew forth the constant concern of the Governor for the little German colony. It was doubtless the friendship and aid of Penn which held the Germans together in this trying period of the new settlement. The following verses of Pastorius show his- state of mind : "Twas he [Thomas Lloyd] and William Penn, that caused me to stay In this, then uncouth land and howling wilderness, Wherein I saw that I but little should possess.
- Arts'n'Stuff: Anna Sommer and Fumetto-Festival Luzern!
- Kobe Blue: Danger in the Land of Safety?
- As Seen Through My Eyes!
And if I could return home to my father's house. Perhaps great riches and preferments might espouse, etc. Pastorius mentions this fact in his chapter "On the Religions of the Province," without telling us what the character of the worship was. Beschriebung, p. Sichere Nachricht, p. Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. The president at the time the charter was granted was "Herman Isaacs Optegraaf" op de Graeff. It is now the property of the Histor- ical Society of Pennsylvania.
The minutes are kept partly in German and partly in Dutch and cover the period from to In the record we can trace the several activities in which Pastorius served his countrymen in Germantown. As has al- ready been seen, Pastorius was named by the Charter as the first Bailif of Germantown.
The following references to him are found in the minutes of the Court Book : On the first day of the tenth month, , a so-called "new election" was held at which Pastorius was chosen Bailif. Abraham op d. Jacob Isacks Jjan Duden 4. Original in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Raths-Buch, page inserted out of order. On the 23d of the 12th month, , Pastorius made an accounting to the General Court and Paul Wulff and Jan Liicken were appointed to ex- amine and audit it.
The 7th of the ist month it was ordered that the appraised estate of Gisbertje Williams be sold at public auction in the presence of Dirck op de Graeff [Bailif], F. Daniel Pastorius should request the Governor for the confirmation of the Charter of Germantown, as friends in Philadelphia deem that advisable.
Daniel Pastorii und Anthonij Loofs umb I uhr vcrkaufft und ausgehoht werden. Dito kauffte die General Court vor Fr. Daniel Pastorius bey dem Gour umb Confirmation unseres Charters soil anhalten. Francis Daniel Pastorius g The occasion of this appointment is given by him in a letter to his father, dated June i, This was the first time a tax of any kind was levied for military or other purposes. Gov- ernor Fletcher confirmed the Germantown Charter anew and con- stituted Pastorius a Justice of the Peace or Irenarcha, in the County of Philadelphia, as the newly appointed Justice pedanti- cally termed himself.
Daniel Pastorius were ordered to make an inventory of the estate left by Herman Trapmann. I, Pastorius was again elected Clerk and made Collector of Rents. Daniel Pastorius, 4 shillings and for extra clerical ser- vice, 18 d. Deme wir zu Ersetzung der Reise-Kosten den sten Pfenning, scmcl pro semper consentiret.
Paul Castner Kast- ner was chosen in WulfT's place and Pastorius was directed by the General Court to keep a record of all marriages, births and deaths in the German Township in a special book, for which service he was to receive the usual fees, so long as the Court find reason for appointing another in his place. Cron, an Anthonij Loof 6. Schilling, an Fr. Daniel Pastorius 4 schill. Daniel Pastorius und Peter Schuemacher Junr verordnet einen Stock umb die iibelthaters darin zu setzen, zu bestellen.
Frantz Daniel Pastorius nochmals abgefertigt, zu Philada. Todesfall, die in der Germantown- ship vorfallen in ein absonderl. It is interesting to note here that Loof's minutes are kept in Dutch and illiterate German, wdiich is in striking contrast with Pastorius' smoothe German style.
In the minutes of Jan. At the following session of the Court of Record Pastor- ius was appointed to represent Heifert Papen, who could not at- tend because of the confinement of his wife. In the minutes of Loof we have the important item that the General Court directed Pastorius to copy all the ""Den December entschuldigte sich Paul Castner in der damahligen gen. Court, dasz Er gewissens halben das Raths- und Gerichtschreibers Amt nicht bedienen konne. Wurde darauff von der genn Court einmiitigl.
Gerichtsschreiber dienen solle vor 4 lb. Unterzeich- nete Arnold Cassel u. Daniel Pastorius. Die Geburten, Verheurathungen und Todesfall sollen nach Verordnung der ersten in diesem Jahr gehaltenen Session in Englischer Sprach eingeschrieben werden. Dito wurde beschlossen, dasz jahrl den I3ten u. This was probably due to the fact that the minutes kept by Wulff and Loof presented a very motley, not to say almost illegible, appearance in the Raths-Buch, as some specimens of Loof's minutes given here in the footnotes will show.
The minutes now appear in Pastorius' handwriting. On the 8th of December Pastorius was again made Collector of Rents, and directed by the Court to examine the accounts of Lenert Arets, the previous Collector. The next and last item of relating to Pastorius states that Jacob Delaplaine was elected Recorder and Clerk in Pastorius' place, as the latter intended to move to Philadelphia in the next few days.
During the years he was teaching in the Friends' School in Philadelphia. At the same session Daniel Falkner was elected Bailif. Pastorus geordert sey alle biszhero Record sauber vndt rein in English abzuschrei- ben. Dito geordert Mannen. Daniel [Pastorius] soil gede rcqucsten an behorige Ort einliefern, u.
The petition was recognized as one of great importance for tlie future policy of the colony and, after being dis- cussed at length, was deferred till another Council day for full consideration of. Colonial Records, II, Tower and Gate, Sommerhausen. At the session of Dec. The minutes of the session of May 9, , show that Justus Falkner and Pastorius were delegated to confer with Edward Farmer concerning the cost of the Road to Phila- delphia.
At the session of the 5th of the nth month it was ordered that the clerk bring in all the books and documents relating to the Corporation of Germantown at the next General Court. When the question of a change in the method of keeping the records of the Court of Record came up Oct. Peter Schu- macher Junr Auffseher darvon seyn, u. Schul soil zwey Jahr wah- ren. The minutes of Dec. At the session of the 22nd of the 2nd month, , these three men handed over the revised rent accounts in one book in folio to the Court showing the receipts and disbursements to Dec.
On the 12th of Sep- tember it was ordered that Pastorius should copy the records in Paul Wulff's hand neatly in English. Er dazu versucht und gestellt worden, sauber und rein in Englisch einschreiben solle. Although the Raths-Buch breaks off here, this record of the brief span of fifteen years is sufficient to show the significant part which Pastorius took in the affairs of Germantown and to make evident the fact that he was not only the agent of the German Company, but even after he was succeeded by Daniel Falkner, Johannes Kelpius and Johann Jawert he was regarded as the leading man, who could bring things to pass.
There are numerous entries in the minutes showing that he acted as attorney for many of the citizens as well as for the German Company before the Court of Record. It was but natural that Pastorius, who had studied at the best German universities of his time and acquired the best the age had to offer, should be found at the head of the educational enterprises of the Province of Penn. Jede Einwohner u. Besitzer oder Eigener einiges lands in der Gremantownship sollen taxiren nach dem Werth ihres real und personal Vermogens, und sothanig ihr Assessment r,el cnst denen Nahmen derjenenj Mans pt-rsoncn, so ihre Nahrung in gedr Township gewinnen, an nechste Court of Record einbringen.
This I had to do because W. This was of the nature of a Pay School. At the meeting of the Provincial Council, Feb. Wiewohl ich Frantz Daniel Pastorius an statt Aret Klinckens zum Rentmeister erwehlt worden, habe ich doch von ihm weder der Ge- meinde Rent- od Rechnungs Buch, noch einig pfenning gedr Gemeind an- gehend, empfangen, so dasz dessfalls gantz klar bin, u. The only form of it, which seems to be extant, is a very inaccurate manuscript copy found in the Historical Society of Penn- sylvania. Colonial Records, I, Some records remain to tell us of the kind of school Pastorius taught in Philadelphia and of the manner and method of his teaching.
Present : Wm. Penn, Propor. Holmes, Wm. Ilaigue, Lasse Cock, Wm. Both letters are dated April 12th, , and here printed in the quaint style and orthography of the time. Phineas Pemberton. The I2th mo. Dear Friend Phineas! Though thy two little ones never were spoken to for coming too late, yet they seeing others corrected for that fault, are as it seems afraid; which argueth their good disposition, and that the very shadow of the rod will do more with them, than the spur wth.
J am glad to hear by the sd. No more at pres- ent but ye cordial salutation from thy sincere friend F. Pastor- ius. Another glimpse into the schoolroom of Pastorius is to be gained from an experience of Israel Pemberton, one of the pupils, dating from the same year and showing that what Pastor- ius had written in the letter given in full about the use of the rod, took another turn three months later : Introdiictory remarks of Israel Pemberton to his copy of the original letter.
There is no doubt that "another" in the letter refers to Pastorius. It is likewise to be supposed that the stripes inflicted "The original MS. Pennsylvania Magazine, xxviii, Outer Wall with Square Tower. Nevertheless the punishment must have been severe, or the otherwise rule-loving father would not have taken his son out of school. Judging from the contents of the let- ter and the severity of the punishment we may suppose the "dif- ference" between Israel and his schoolmate took the form of an outright fisticuff.
It is also interesting to see the character of the more vigorous discipline based on the old doctrine, "Spare the rod and spoil the child," of the German school and schoolmaster reflected in Israel's description: "Rough answers," "without hav- ing the liberty to speak one word in my own defence. We learn also incidentally that Pastorius taught Latin in this school and that too in this case to a boy of thirteen years. Ye 22th day of ye 5th mo. Israel Pcmhcrton's Letter to Richard Johns.
Tho they have not felt so much of it as my self. Mother Js in health Margret and Hannah were much pleased wth thy notice of them wiching they were Big annuf to write to prissilla. A copy of a letter which J received from Richard Johns the 12th day of the 6th month His children went to school in Philadel- phia, presumably to the school in which their father taught.
This we learn quite incidentally from a letter written by them to their grandfather Melchior Adam Pastorius in Windsheim and dated Philadelphia, Mar. In this letter we learn that the school was kept eight hours every day except Saturday afternoon and Sunday , and between the lines we read a sign of relief at the thought of this "last day of the week," when there was no school in the afternoon.
Pennsylvania Magazine, xxviii, no. Beschreibung, p. It seems more than likely that Pastorius was the originator of the proposal to open a school in Germantown, which was ap- proved by the General Court Dec. This school was opened on the nth of Jan. Tlie voluntary con- tributors gave from 2 to 10 shillings a year. Those who paid tuition gave from 4 to 6 shillings a week. The names of the patrons who sent children to the school the first year were : '" An important source for Pastorius' activity as teacher of the School in Germantown was his Cash-Book, which was consulted some years ago by both O.
Seidensticker and S. Pennypacker, but seems to have disap- peared since that time. The present writer will be very grateful for any information as to the Cash-Book. Old Fountain and Woman with a Watertank. Schoolmaster Gutmann and his son on the right. Aret Klincken, Reinert Tysen, Tiines Kunders, Wilhelm Strepers, Paul Kastner, Renier Hermans, Abraham op de Graeff, It will be seen from this list that very few of the original voluntary subscribers sent children to the school the first year, the most of them contributing evidently to encourage the undertak- ing. In connection with this day school there was also an even- ing school for those who could not attend during the day.
Walter Simons, Heinrich Kassel, Howel James, Peter Keurlis, James Delaplaine, Richard Huggin, Anthony Klincken, It would seem strange that a community like that of Ger- mantown, with a highly educated man like Pastorius at the head, should not have had a school before , nineteen years after the settlement of the town.
It seems more likely that the instruction of children was given in the meeting even from the earliest assembling in private houses till the building of the church in It is quite likely that the opening of the Germantown school was directly stimulated by the renewed effort to improve the Friends' School in Philadelphia, where Pastorius had just finished an engagement as teacher in the Friends' School.
For there is no longer any question that Pas- torius taught for the Friends and not in a private school of his own in Philadelphia as was considered possible by Professor Sei- densticker. Bruner papers loaned me by Mr. Abram Bruner of Roanoke, Va. Bruner's death. Francis Daniel Pastorius 27 There seems little reason for supposing that the language of in- struction was German, although teacher and pupil alike no doubt often spoke German, as most of the pupils were from German families.
But the fact that the General Court as early as had ordered the minutes of the Raths-Buch to be copied in English by Pastorius is evidence that they already recognized the neces- sity of using the official language of the Province in business in- tercourse and it is hardly likely that they would have taken an opposite policy by establishing a strictly German school, especially as the pupils, who spoke German at home, needed a knowledge of English above all else.
The other works of Pastorius of a pedagogical character but with German sub-titles are of a more advanced character and scarcely designed for use in the school. It is not unlikely that Pastorius taught some of the subjects of his other English books in the school, as for example The Young Country Clerk, The Good Order and Discipline of the Church of Christ, particularly to the more advanced boys of the school. It is not stated how long Pastorius taught the Germantown school, but it seems likely that he continued the school as long as he was able to teach, at least till Although Pastorius was educated in the humanities and deeply read in the scholastic literature, his contact with the reali- "Cf.
Pruner c. Lingua Latina or Grammatical Rudiments. Collection of English Rhymes, Alphabetically Arranged. Vademecum or the Christian Scholar's Pocket Book. He even goes so far as to regret the great outlay, which his father had made for his now somewhat useless preparation for life. As early as in a letter to his father, he set forth this changed attitude in significant detail — a point of view far ahead of his time and anticipating the educational revolution of the nineteenth century.
The German part of the letter in question is given here in English translation with the Latin passages unchanged as they appear in the original : "As for other matters this colony still increases daily in popu- lation and human wickedness, nevertheless I hope the condition of things will never become so inhuman as in those European uni- versities, at which one must learn for the most part nothing but dediscenda. Others passed the precious time with nothing but useless ques- tions and indagationibus, an vera sit ilia Jnscriptio scpulchralis in Monte Fiascone: Propter Verbum est est Dominus meus mortuus est.
Others look for the ablative case in the Greek declensions, but for what purpose they need it, they themselves do not know. Indeed nowadays the students are beginning to drink one in every ten of their number to death, and to send him into the Hell- ish realm of Satan, which is in very truth greatly to be lamented, and it were to be sought of God, that the eyes of professors as well as students might be opened, so that they might know how vain it is to boast of the light of the Gospel and yet remain in such abominable works of darkness.
Such lofty haughty spirits wish after- ward to live in great state; for this they need large sums of money, which they try to obtain to the harm of their neighbor, in order that their wives and children may be able to strut around a la mode. In opposition to this the humble people taught of God say with Antonius : Non data non ciipio, and think it right with Palingenius, contentum vivere parvo, cum quihus concordat S.
Paulus Hebr. He expressed this in strong language, in reflecting upon his early education : "I myself would give several hundred rix dollars, if I had de- voted the precious time, spent in learning Sperling's Physic, Meta- physic and other unnecessary sophistical argumentations and dispu- tations, to engineering and printing, which would now be more serviceable to me, and more useful and interesting to me and my fellow Christian than all such physic and metaphysic and all Aris- totelean Elencki and Syllogismi, by means of which no savage or unchristian man can be brought to God, much less a piece of bread be earned.
As early as the 7th of the 3d month, , some sixty High and Low Germans of Germantown declared their allegiance to King Wil- liam and Queen Mary, and fidelity to the Proprietor of the Prov- ince. All seems to have gone on smoothly in the German Town- ship until , when the conduct of the affairs of the German or Frankfurt Company assumed a more serious aspect and the civil rights of the Germans were felt to be insecure.
Accord- ingly a petition was laid before the Colonial Council asking for Cf. Beschrcibimg, pp. Opening of the Bechstein Library, Addresses, p. Francis Daniel Pastorius 31 the prayer of the said Petition leave is given to the sd. Colonial Records, II, ff. To be Continued. By Professor B. Make a snout snoot. Make done. Make good. Apologize for. Hoover, p. Make one's self home. Go home usually at once. Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsyhiania 33 Make out. I do not need it. Make ready. Prepare one's self by changing clothes or otherwise. C— Obsolete.
Make shut. Make to. Make ugly. Result badly. Ethical dative, with put. So used in Scotland. Glove; hand covering with fingers. The meanings are interchanged; so in Ger. Hand- schuh is used colloquially in both senses. Here the confu- sion perhaps arises from the Pa. Also henshing is used for both gloves and mittens. C— Obs. Mondays, etc. The days of the week used in plural when but one day is referred to. Mondogs, etc. Possibly a loose use of Ger. A marble, any kind except a commy. Molasses candy. Grub in decayed wood. The word is used indifferently in meanings i and 2, but I have not found it in meaning given in Century.
Local, U. New land. A clearing. No ; nothing. C— Coll. An emphatic negative. Used at end of interrogative sentence. The words ain't, ain't not, ain't so, are used in the same way. Not much worth. Worth little. Pa, Ger. Cross ; provoked. Ger amol; Ger. Grumbine says, used after a request or invitation ; but it is often used in other ways, as in second example above.
C— Local Pa. The form ornelse is also found. Query : fr. Paddy, an Irishman, hence one ready with his fists. Not in Home. Probably onamatopoetic. Ger huvi. To throw. Perfect tense used for preterite. The pret- erite tense occurs only in a very few verbs. See Learned, p. Eating between meals.
Part of the way. Poke, n. A dish like fried mush, made by boiHng buckwheat flour and corn meal with the juice of fried meat, and some- times scraps of pork. When cold this is cut into slices and fried.
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Query: Ger. The word scrapple is often used for this dish. To heal by conjuration. Also used as noun and adj. Hoover gives a description of the method of powwow- ing. This is frequent. The construction is, of course, German, the preposition being treated as part of a separable verb and placed last. The order in Pa. Future tense. In Pa. Learned gives a future form p. Puff, n. Baby carriage. Put, n. Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 41 Rig. Horse and carriage. Right smart. Thank you. Used only by and to children. Same as ponhaws, q. German origin.
To itch. Second Christmas. Day after Christmas. The day after Christmas is also kept as a holiday, and is a great day for visiting. The expression "Second Day New Year" is also found. Next to the last. Possessing proper self-esteem, consideration. Set a plate. Put it out on Christmas eve for gifts ; corre- sponding exactly to hang up a stocking. Haldeman, Pennsylvania Dutch, p. Short in one's mind. The form short-minded also occurs. Snip, n. Young person ; used contemptuously.
Snits snits. Dried fruit, usually apples. When used of other fruit, the name is given, as "peach snits. Schnits, dried fruit, usually pears; Pa. Sots sots. Piccalilli or chow-chow. Noun from adjective. Words to be spelled. Usually in past tense.
Standing full. Full of upright objects. In example i the trees might still be there though cut down ; example 2 means that the hall was full of people who were standing; it would not be used of a crowded house when the people were seated. Stick the light on. Enkindle; light. Used at end of sentence to denote customary action. The word is used of the future with no reference to the past at times. Low sled, drawn by one or two horses. Stove hearth. Ufa blat; Ger. C— In Pa. Tangled, dishevelled; usually of hair. The same, used without article. Query ; fr. Fat of pork.
C— Ger. Splash; sprinkle. Taste after. Taste of. School slang. Used by telegraph operators on Pa. Provincialisms of Southeastern Pennsylvania 47 Tell good-by. Bid good-by. Thank one's self to. The cold. A cold. So used colloquially in Cork, Ireland, fr. The DAY. Through other. The form "through another" is also found. XVL In glossary "through other" is defined "confusedly, all together. In York Corp. The Judgment Day, 1. Tin cup. Ger hlech Ger. The word would never be used of a pot and of a pan, only in combination, as pie-tin, cake-tin. Said to be colloquial in Scotland, fr. At home. Drain, culvert.
Under through. Underneath, with idea of motion. Tut tilt. Small paper bag. Badly, severely. See Make ugly. McClellan was getting thrashed ugly at Richmond. Under the weather.