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The chapter explores diasporic Sikh identity through the character of Sukhvinder who though dyslexic is stifled by her mother and harassed by her classmate Fats through slanderous remarks targeting her Sikh identity. Though Sukhvinder resorts to self-torture after undergoing racism, she emerges victorious like a brave Sikh by her self-determination and emerges a heroine by helping everybody in Britain.
The chapter applies Teun A. The chapter concludes that though British Sikh diaspora undergoes racialism leading to identity crisis, Sikhs finally find resolution through Sikh identity model Sukhvinder who, treading the footsteps of Sikh heroes like Bhai Kanhayia, becomes a heroin by risking her life to save Robbie and by helping all in the novel.
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Sikhs in Southeast Asia: Negotiating an Identity
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Sikh Sacred Music: Identity, Aesthetics, and Historical Change
Psychology sellers 39, items Shop. Education sellers 62, items Shop. Politics sellers 43, items Shop. Mystery sellers , items Shop. Natural History sellers 31, items Shop. Humor sellers 22, items Shop. Gardening sellers 22, items Shop. Business sellers 57, items Shop. Archaeology sellers 21, items Shop. Law sellers 19, items Shop. Nature sellers 23, items Shop. Economics sellers 45, items Shop. During the anti-Sikh riots following Indira Gandhi's assassination by two of her Sikh bodyguards, some 2, Sikhs were killed in the capital alone, and 50, to 60, Sikhs fled the city, taking refuge in temporary camps set up around Delhi or returning to Punjab Minority Rights Group , ; Lokayan Bulletin , 40; Amrik Singh , Although some violent incidents involving Sikhs in Delhi have been reported, the situation in the capital has calmed down since the riots Wallace 17 Sept.
Another source indicates that in , however, Bombay had a population of no more than , Sikhs Amrik Singh , Sikhs are concentrated in several neighbourhoods, with Koliwada as the largest Sikh community in the city Reuters 3 Nov. Other significant Sikh enclaves are found in Sion and North Dadar. As elsewhere in India, they tend to concentrate in certain occupations: they own automobile or auto parts shops, drive trucks and taxis, work in restaurants, or are carpenters or handymen.
Very few are unemployed Ibid. Sikh communities in Calcutta and other cities in West Bengal are reported to be sizeable. Although Sikhs claim to have been present in the region since the time of Guru Nanak, founder of the Sikh religion, a number of Sikhs from the Punjab also migrated there at the time of the British Colonial Empire.
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The Sikh population of West Bengal increased in due to the influx of refugees from West Punjab, which is now a part of Pakistan Eliade , The Bengali capital has a population of approximately 50, Sikhs, according to a estimate Reuters 2 Nov. Most of them are concentrated in the Kalighat and Bhawanipur districts in the south-central part of the city, where there are at least two gurdwaras Sikh temples , as well as in the north of Calcutta not far from the airport, where truck and bus operations are located O'Connell 18 Sept. Gurdwaras , Sikh community schools and welfare organizations now operate in Calcutta, and the Journal of Sikh Studies , a long established, broad-spectrum journal, is also published there Eliade , Very little has been published on Sikhs residing in other cities and states in India.
The numerous reports on the riots, however, as well as more recent articles, reveal the presence of Sikhs in virtually all regions of the country. In the state of Jammu and Kashmir, often referred to simply as Kashmir, there is a 25,strong Sikh community, and in Rajasthan the Sikh population, mostly concentrated at the border with Punjab, made up 1. According to a top civil servant in Uttar Pradesh, the Sikh militant struggle for the independent state of Khalistan "is fast emerging as an interstate phenomenon" AP 20 Oct.
Sikh militants are currently shifting some of their bases of operations outside Punjab due to increased police control in their home state AP 16 Jan. Police have also increased crack-downs on militants in neighbouring states in order to prevent the development of further Sikh militant activities Pittson 8 Sept. Uttar Pradesh was hard hit by the anti-Sikh riots, and most major cities in the state were placed under curfew at the time in order to prevent further violence AP 3 Nov.
The security situation there led the government of Uttar Pradesh to launch an "anti-terrorist drive" in November AP 17 Nov. Sikh militants are reportedly becoming "more audacious and ruthless" in their activities. Militants frequently kidnap for ransom and spread terror in Uttar Pradesh villages, causing people to flee the region Gazette 22 Aug.
Refworld | Sikhs Outside Punjab
Following the killing of 29 Terai villagers, allegedly by Sikh militants, in early August , members of the Uttar Pradesh legislature asked that troops be sent into the region in order to curb the militants India Abroad 21 Aug. Elsewhere in Uttar Pradesh, both police and militants have been responsible for human rights violations. In October of , extremists planted a bomb in a crowd during a Hindu festival in Ruderpur, killing 55 people. A second bomb exploded half an hour later in a hospital where the wounded from the first attack were being brought Le Monde 19 Oct.
One month later, militants shot nine Hindu civilians near Rampur "in revenge for the death of a fellow rebel" AP 17 Nov. There have also been reports of violations by police. A major incident occurred in Pilibhit on 13 July when ten Sikh pilgrims were taken into custody and shot dead by police, who later stated that the Sikhs had died in an "encounter" Asia Watch 29 Sept.
The situation in Uttar Pradesh increasingly resembles that in Punjab, with more than people killed in the last few months India Abroad 21 Aug. After the anti-Sikh riots of , hundreds of Sikhs from both Haryana and Himachal Pradesh fled to Punjab where, despite the uncertain security conditions, they believed that they were somewhat more protected Reuters 2 Nov. In , the government of Rajiv Gandhi and the main Sikh political party reached an agreement that granted many demands by Sikh activists, among them the transfer of the city of Chandigarh to the exclusive jurisdiction of Punjab and the appointment of a special tribunal to rule on water disputes between Punjab and neighboring states.
At the time, an article in the Los Angeles Times noted that the agreement faced potential criticism from officials in Haryana and Rajasthan who had, in the past, opposed concessions for Sikhs. According to Press Trust, quoted in the same article, security was tightened in Punjab, Haryana and the union territory of Chandigarh and Delhi to stop "terrorists" from "vitiat[ing] the atmosphere of good will" 25 July Violent incidents took place in the Haryana towns of Ambala and Yamunanagar during the s, as well as at other locations in Haryana the press articles do not specify exactly where Xinhua 19 June ; Los Angeles Times 11 July In November , indiscriminate shooting by Sikh militants in a Haryana-Punjab border town claimed a number of victims, many of them Sikh civilians AP 10 Nov.
According to a professor specializing in Sikh issues, major Sikh gurdwaras were fortified in the Indian capital after , in preparation for further rioting O'Connell 18 Sept. Attacks against Sikhs did occur after , most notably in when vandals ransacked a Sikh gurdwara in Delhi and destroyed the Sikh holy book, the Granth Sahib The Independent 15 Nov. Earlier, in , security was tightened during Independence Day celebrations to prevent attacks by Sikh extremists, who the police feared may have hidden among the capital's large Sikh population UPI 15 Aug.
During the national elections, many Sikhs in Delhi were worried about "the backlash from Punjab violence," as security forces were stopping cars in the capital to intercept militants from Punjab operating in Delhi The Toronto Star 24 June In August of this year, counter-insurgency officers raided suspected Sikh militant hideouts a few days before Independence Day celebrations, and several people were detained for questioning AFP 13 Aug. There are reports about militant Sikhs in Delhi involved in violent incidents, including bombings, gun battles and political assassinations.
In April , for example, a bomb in the city's main market killed three people and wounded fifteen others. Police blamed Sikh militants, claiming they were trying to disrupt upcoming elections AP 26 Apr. Earlier this year, security for government officials was stepped up when the chairperson of the Indian Administrative Service was assassinated by a militant group India Abroad 22 May In August, AFP reported on a gun battle between Sikh militants and secruity men in which at least two people were killed 13 Aug.
The article does state that Bombay and three other towns in Maharashtra were placed under curfew during the November riots. Some further rioting has occurred since then. For example, a strike called by Hindus in Bombay and Chikli in July to protest against Sikh violence in Punjab led to numerous attacks by Hindus on transportation workers, many of whom are Sikhs AP 3 July However, there are no reports to indicate that the Sikh community as a whole is at risk. Sikh militants have a "substantial presence" in Bombay and reportedly target the city to extort money from wealthy businessmen AFP 5 Mar.
Shoot-outs between Sikh militants and police have increased in recent years. As a consequence, the city police have asked for wider powers and better equipment in order to curb the rise of Sikh terrorism in the city AP 5 Mar. During the riots, many Sikhs in both Calcutta and Bombay reportedly went into hiding for several days out of fear of Hindu mobs Reuters 2 Nov.
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Gun battles between police and Sikh militants hiding in the jungles on the Bengal-Bihar border were reported in January Reuters 11 Jan. Despite the arrests, an article of April reported that Calcutta had so far "remained virtually free of the violence among Hindus, Moslems and Sikhs" The Washington Post 19 Apr. Later, in August, Sikh militants described as "hard-core terrorists" were killed in an encounter with police All India Radio 4 Aug.
While Sikh-related violence was mostly concentrated in Punjab during the last few years, the number of incidents involving Sikh militants is now increasing in other areas, even in places far as West Bengal The Gazette 22 Aug. After a Sikh was killed in July , allegedly by Muslim militants, demonstrators of both faiths marched through the streets of Baramulla 30 miles northwest of Srinagar and accused the military of perpetrating the killing in order to further divide the two communities UPI 14 July In , anti-Sikh riots took place mostly in northern India, but several riots also occurred in regions where the number of Sikhs is quite small, such as Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and even Tripura and Assam.
Hindus have staged protests against the killing of members of their faith by Sikh militants. In Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh, Sikh militants are reportedly responsible for many killings, although details and precise dates are unavailable AP 10 Nov. In order to assess the general treatment of Sikhs outside Punjab, one should consider the violations of human rights perpetrated by both militants and the police. The expansion of militant activities has significantly influenced the condition of Sikhs outside Punjab, as has the active police pursuit of Sikh militants outside their home state.
The Terrorist and Disruptive Activities Act , first enacted in , is applicable throughout India and permits the administrative detention without formal charge or trial of "persons suspected of being militants or militant sympathizers" Asia Watch 29 Sept.