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Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Sort order. There are no discussion topics on this book yet. Philipp Alvares De Souza Soares. Trivia About Soziale Sicherung No trivia or quizzes yet. Welcome back. In , the payment amounts were euros per month for a child under age six and euros per month for a child between the ages of six and Marriage In Germany, the minimum marriage age is the age of majority, or age This minimum age also applies to same-sex partners who want to register their union.
Legal same-sex unions are relatively new in Germany. Since , same-sex couples have been permitted to register their partnership. However, same-sex couples in a registered union still do not have the same rights and obligations as legally married heterosexual couples. Currently, the main difference lies in the right to adopt, as same-sex partners are not allowed to jointly adopt a non-biological child.
Since mid, successive adoption has been permitted, which means that one partner is allowed to adopt the child that the other partner had previously adopted.
Since mid, same-sex couples in registered partnerships are subject to the same tax regulations as married couples i. Divorce No-fault divorce was first introduced in West Germany in In the former GDR, it was introduced as early as However, unilateral divorce was introduced in the two countries at the same time. Since then, spouses have had to be separated for at least one year before they can be divorced.
If one of them objects to the divorce, the spouses have to wait three years before being divorced.
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The version of the regulations regarding marriage and divorce in the Civil Law Code is, to a large extent, still valid. After divorcing, ex-spouses are in principle obliged to provide for themselves. This priority of self-responsibility was explicitly emphasised in the Alimony and Child Support Amendment Act of However, the economically weaker partner can claim alimony from the economically stronger ex-partner under certain conditions. For example, the residential parent of children under age three is not required to work, and may claim alimony for that reason.
The amount and duration of alimony depends on the income gap between the ex-partners, the duration of the marriage, the living standard during the marriage, and the division of labour that was practiced during the marriage. If this division of labour led to disadvantages for one of the spouses, the period of post-divorce support may be extended.
Generally, parents are granted joint legal custody of their children after divorce. Child support payments depend only on the age of the child and the income of the liable parent, but not of the eligible parent. Child support can be claimed until the child has finished professional education. This holds for all children, not just for those of divorced parents. Cohabitation and civil unions Unmarried cohabitation does not have any legal status in Germany. Opposite-sex couples cannot register their partnership as a civil union. The rights of cohabiting and married couples therefore differ in areas such as taxation, inheritance, health insurance, and adoption.
However, since the Child Affairs Reform of , the children of married and unmarried parents have been treated equally before the law. Skip to main content. You are here Home. Type Policy. Sort by Title ascending Title descending Country ascending Country descending. Family Policies: Germany Elterngeld und Elternzeit. Das Bundeselterngeld- und Elternzeitgesetz. Leitfaden zum Mutterschutz. Destatis a. Kindertagesbetreuung: Betreuungsquoten der Kinder unter 6 Jahren in Kindertagesbetreuung am Bei der Marktzulassung von Medikamenten ist eine systematische Bewertung im Vergleich zu therapeutischen Alternativen nicht vorgesehen.
Pharmakologische Vorteile z. Applikationsfrequenz, Darreichungsform, Galenik , innovative Eigenschaften z. Als geeigneter Komparator gilt theoretisch die beste bzw. Jedoch steht ein international konsentierter Standard bei vielen Bereichen des Verfahrens und bei methodischen Einzelaspekten aus. In this context it is of importance that patented and often expensive pharmaceuticals are only excluded from the reference pricing system if they offer a therapeutic improvement.
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The German health policy objective is to perform a differentiated assessment of pharmaceuticals in comparison to already available treatments but procedures and methods are still to be established. Which are these? This study thus analysed criteria, procedures, and methods of comparative drug assessment used by public institutions in other countries. Additionally a systematic literature search was performed: 27 databases for medical, economic, social, and natural sciences were searched for articles published by February Synonyms for the term "drug evaluation" in combination with names of the respective country were used as search terms.
After duplicates had been removed, publications were analysed for their relevance in a two step selection process, in accordance with pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Finally 85 articles were included in the study. The search was complemented by hand search in bibliographies and, in case of doubt, by email communication with the institutions.
All documents were analysed in a qualitative matter and according to an analytic framework that had been developed in advance. Currently licensing agencies i. In about half of the countries national drug review bodies act as advisors.
Family Policies: Germany (2014)
They make reimbursement or pricing recommendations to a national or regional government, a ministerial department or to a self-governance body in Austria, in Australia, in Canada reimbursement , in France reimbursement , in the Netherlands, in Switzerland, and in Norway. The remaining countries have established regulatory-type drug review bodies. Though accountable to health ministries, they function as the decision-maker responsible for listing or pricing of drugs in Canada pricing , in Finland, in France pricing , in New Zealand, in Sweden, and in the United Kingdom.
Information provided by the documents analysed on drug evaluation procedures and methods varied to a great extent among countries.
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Australia and Canada belong to the countries which published the most comprehensive and detailed guidelines. Procedures in these countries seem to be characterised by a high degree of transparency - at least in theory. It can be stated that pharmacoeconomic methoologies are described in more detail than procedures for the clinical review or for assessment of other drug evaluation aspects.
In all countries a drug's therapeutic benefit in comparison to treatment alternatives is leading the evaluation. However, in most cases they ranked as second line criteria for a drug's added value. The majority of countries perform a comparative pharmacoeconomic evaluation to analyse costs caused by a drug intervention in relation to its benefit preferably by cost utility analysis.
However, the question if a medicine is cost effective in comparison to treatment alternatives is answered in a political and societal context. A range of criteria are considered. They vary remarkably from country to country and include: availability of alternative therapies, social and ethic aspects like equity and solidarity, a drug's potential impact on public health, on organisations, and professionals, the community need and compliance with government-defined priorities, a medicine's estimated budget impact, and manufacturing research and development expenses.
In the case of therapeutic equivalence the drug is either not accepted for public reimbursement or it is subject to a reference pricing system e. In Australia and Canada equivalence is tolerated if a cost minimisation analysis demonstrates fewer costs. In Austria, in Australia, in Norway, and in the Netherlands drug evaluation is based on submissions by manufacturers.
These comprise a systematic literature search and analysis of clinical and economic studies, in parts including modelling. Institutions have published guidelines to outline the methodological requirements for manufacturers and reviewers which, however, vary in the level of detail. Since some details of the evaluation procedure are not made transparent it could not be clarified if these institutions additionally carry out a systematic research and analysis on their own.
Finally, in a third group of countries review bodies perform a systematic and comprehensive literature synthesis themselves and independently from manufacturers, including modelling. Assessment of unpublished evidence is explicitly included in Austria, in Australia, in Canada, in the Netherlands, in Sweden, and in the United Kingdom. However, commercial in confidence data is excluded in parts in Austria and in the United Kingdom.
Corresponding to the procedures' diversity, drug assessments last between a couple of weeks e.
Countries agree that randomised controlled head-to-head trials head-to-head RCT with a high degree of internal and external validity provide the most reliable and least biased evidence for a drug's relative treatment effects as do systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these RCT. Final outcome parameters reflecting the long-term treatment objective, i. For study designs relying on surrogate parameters a strong and scientifically accepted association between intermediate effect and final outcome is required.
Following the concept of community effectiveness , nine out of twelve drug review institutions explicitly favour RCT in a "natural" design, i. The countries' requirements for pharmacoeconomic evaluations are similar. However they include some methodological problems. The rationale is that CUA can be applied for comparison of different health interventions and thus can be used for priority setting.