Transportation in a Climate-Constrained World. Keith Mcilroy. Energy Investing For Dummies. Nick Hodge. Energy Explained. Vikram Janardhan. Lighting the World. Jim Rogers. World Bank. Billion Dollar Green.
Tobin Smith. Progressive Management. Eric Spiegel. Driving the Future. Fred Krupp. Tobias Bischof-Niemz. Jane Hoffman. We Have to Change. Maria Ronay. Clean Energy Nation. When Trucks Stop Running. Clean Tech Nation. Ron Pernick. Natural Gas Future. Richard L.
Transport Beyond Oil. John L. Lights Out! Spencer Abraham.
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Apollo's Fire. Jay Inslee. Oil Panic and the Global Crisis. Steven M. Living Without Oil. Adjiedj Bakas. Designing Urban Transformation. Aseem Inam. Who Turned Out the Lights? Scott Bittle. Creeping Conformity. Richard Harris. Powering the Green Economy. Miguel Mendonca. Urban Retrofitting for Sustainability.
Tim Dixon. Berlin, Alexanderplatz. Gisa Weszkalnys. Crossing the Energy Divide. Robert U. The Fragmented Politics of Urban Preservation. Yue Zhang. Hermann-Josef Wagner. The Shock of Energy Transition.
Fouad Saad. Insurgencies: Essays in Planning Theory. John Friedmann.
Steering a New Course: Transportation, Energy, and the Environment - Deborah Gordon - Google книги
Reinventing Electric Utilities. Edward Smeloff. Renewable Energy in Europe. European Renewable Energy Council. Too High and Too Steep. WPA projects in the s, for example, included a strong road-building component; 10 times as much WPA money was spent on street and highway projects as on mass transit Foster Other transportation options simply did not have the resources to compete for the attention of policymakers or the hearts of citizens. Even in cities where close to half the people did not own cars, most public officials were more concerned with making car travel easier than with improving mass transit.
Planning commissions were dominated by commercial civic elites who were responsive to the needs of upper- and middle-class car owners rather than to mass-transit riders from the working class. They willingly allowed streetcar tracks to be ripped up, since cars were then left with more space and a smoother road, and street paving was simplified. The only cities that ended the s with strong mass-transit systems were those, like New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, where particular political circumstances had produced a tradition of public mass-transit subsidies starting in the s Flink In most places, financially troubled transit companies switched from streetcars to buses, which were less expensive to operate.
But the decision inadvertently hastened the decline of ridership since buses proved to be less attractive and ultimately had less presence on the urban scene than the rail-based transit system had. By World War II urban bus ridership was equal to that of streetcars, but by the mids, even though there were six times more bus riders, the number of riders for both modes of travel was declining rapidly Flink The establishment of the Interstate Highway System in not only solidified the overwhelming dominance of motor vehicles within the American transportation system but also symbolized the political power of motor-vehicle-related industries.
The new legislation increased the federal share of highway funding from the 60 percent set in the Federal Aid Highway Act to 90 percent and established a specially earmarked Federal Highway Trust Fund.
Transportation, Energy, and the Environment
By ensuring that taxes on cars, gasoline, lubricants, and auto parts would go into this fund, the highway lobby guaranteed an ongoing, expanding revenue base for highways. The highway lobby had convinced government leaders that money spent on highways is a public investment, whereas that spent on public transportation is a costly subsidy Yago Consequently, nearly all federal spending on land transportation went to highways.
With this money, the United States built the most extensive highway system in the world Dunn The Interstate Highway System sped the decline of passenger railroads. It became much more convenient and cheaper for families to drive distances of several hundred miles rather than take a train. At the same time, airplanes were robbing the railroads of long-distance travelers.
Even in a market where railroads should have been competitive—business trips of less than miles—the railroads were squeezed out by cars and airplanes. Airplanes became the preferred mode for business travel. Trains were perceived as unreliable, inconvenient, and old-fashioned Dunn Railroads remained the most important carriers of freight, but the interstate highways helped their competitors in the trucking industry.
Railroads already had declining profits and market share. Heavy industries like coal and steel, which depended on the rails, were either diminishing in importance or growing slowly, while service industries and producers of lightweight consumer goods who could best use trucks were growing. As industry and population moved away from older cities in the Northeast and Midwest, the trains saw profitable patterns of shipping disrupted. It was no longer possible to achieve the balanced two-way movement of commodities in which agricultural products from the South and West flowed to the industrial cities of the Northeast and the same boxcars returned carrying manufactured goods.
At the same time, the government regulatory system weakened the railroads' ability to compete by retaining cumbersome and costly regulations that stifled competition and dated from an era when there had been a realistic fear of the railroads' power Dunn The interstate highways had an especially profound impact on the shape of American cities. Motor vehicles had already prompted industry to spread out from the center city and workers to live farther from their workplaces.
The urban interstate highways accentuated these trends and also made comprehensive urban transportation planning more difficult. The government's highway planners believed their task was to build a highway system rather than an integrated transportation system, so they did not coordinate their highway plans with existing or possible future mass-transit systems.
Not only did this further disadvantage railroads and urban mass transit, but a tremendous opportunity was also lost to build a coordinated urban transportation system in which commuters and shippers could easily switch from one mode of transportation to another. Government highway planners were so focused on building an efficient system of moving motor vehicles that they were blind to the full impact of their roads on the cities they were supposedly serving.
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They constructed highways that bisected or destroyed neighborhoods, reduced the cities' housing stock, eliminated their parks, and damaged their appearance Flink By the late s, just when public approval of an automobile-based transportation system seemed absolute, critics began to mount a series of attacks. Problems caused by 60 years of automobiles were becoming more apparent. Community groups in several cities attacked specific highway plans as threats to the quality of urban life.
Steering a New Course: Transportation, Energy, and the Environment
International Transportation. Greenhouse Gases and Other Air Pollutants. Alternative Transportation Fuels. UltraFuelEfficient Vehicles. Innovative Transportation Strategies.